appendicular skeleton

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Our Lesson in Zoology 200 Appendicular Skeletons by: Mr. Claver Digamon

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  • 1. APPENDICULAR SKELETON ENDOSKELETON OF VERTEBRATES

2. The Appendicular Skeleton

  • Theappendicular skeletonincludes:
    • Pectoral girdle
    • Pelvic girdle
    • Upper extremities
    • Lower extremities
  • Theappendicular skeletonfunctions primarily to facilitate movement

3. Fig. 9.4 4. Tetrapod Limb

  • Typical 4 limbs
  • Primarily a modification of the Rhipidistian fin

wings paddles Lost 2 Lost 4 Modified elements 5.

  • Recall:V p= V g+ V e+ V gxe
  • V = variation
  • p = phenotypic
  • g = genotypic
  • e = environmental

Morphology (anatomy) Behavior & Performance Resource use (ecology) Fitness 6. Three main components

  • With respect to the pectoral and pelvic girdles:
    • Serially homologous
    • Propodium (= stylopodium) upper arm, upper leg
    • Epipodium (= zeugopodium) forearm, shin
    • Autopodium manus or pes (digits, and wrist and palm, or ankle and sole

7.

  • Mesopodium
  • Metapodium
  • Phalanges

8. 9. Fig. 9.12 10. 11. 12. Focus 9.2 13. Pectoral (Shoulder) Girdle

  • Thepectoral orshoulder girdleattaches the bones of the upper limbs to the axial skeleton
  • Consists ofscapula&clavicle
  • Claviclearticulates withsternum( sternoclavicular joint )
  • Claviclearticulates withscapula( acromioclavicular joint )
  • Scapulaheld in place by muscle only
  • Upper limb attached topectoral girdleat shoulder ( glenohumeral joint )

14. Clavicle (Collarbone)

  • S-shaped bone with two curves
  • Extends fromsternumtoscapulaabove 1st rib
  • Sternal & acromial extremities
  • One of the most commonly fractured bones in the human body
  • Fracture site is junction of curves
  • Ligaments attached toclaviclestabilize its position.
  • Shoulder separationis sprain of theacromioclavicular ligament

15. Anterior Surface of Scapula

  • Articulates with theclavicleand thehumerus
  • Subscapular fossafilled with muscle
  • Coracoid processfor muscle attachment

16. Posterior Surface of Scapula

  • Triangular flat bone found in upper back region
  • Scapular spineends asacromion process
  • Glenoid cavityforms shoulder joint with head ofhumerus
  • Supraspinous&infraspinous fossafor muscular attachments

17. Upper Extremity

  • Upper extremity consists of 30 bones
    • Humeruswithin the arm
    • Ulna&radiuswithin the forearm
    • Carpalbones within the wrist
    • Metacarpalbones within the palm
    • Phalangesin the fingers
  • Joints
    • Shoulder( glenohumeral ),elbow ,wrist ,metacarpophalangeal ,interphalangeal
    • Shoulder dislocationis separation of thehumerusfrom theglenoid cavityof thescapula

18. Shoulder Dislocation

  • Head of humerus slips out of glenoid cavity
  • Closed reduction is term for slipping humerus back into place without surgery
  • Severe or frequent dislocations may require surgical ligament repair

19. Humerus: Proximal End

  • Largest and longest bone of upper extremity, part of shoulder joint, articulates withscapula
  • Head
  • Greater&lesser tubercles
  • for muscle attachments
  • Intertubercular
  • sulcusorbicipital
  • groove
  • Shaftorbody

20. Humerus: Distal End

  • Forms elbow joint withulnaandradius
  • Capitulum
    • articulates with head ofradius
  • Trochlea
    • articulation withulna
  • Olecranon fossa
    • posterior depression forolecranon processofulna
  • Medial&lateral epicondyles
    • attachment of forearm muscles

21. Ulna & Radius: Proximal End

  • Ulna(on little finger side)
    • Trochlear notcharticulates with humerus&radial notchwithradius
    • Olecranon processforms point of elbow
  • Radius(on thumb side)
    • Head articulates withcapitulumofhumerus&radial notchofulna
    • Tuberosityfor muscle attachment

22. Ulna & Radius: Proximal End

  • Radius(on thumb side)
    • Headarticulates withcapitulumofhumerus&radial notchofulna
    • Tuberosityfor muscle attachment
    • Ulnar notcharticulates with ulna

23. Elbow Joint

  • Articulation ofhumeruswithulnaandradius
  • Ulnaarticulates withtrochleaofhumerus
  • Radiusarticulates withcapitulumofhumerus
  • Interosseousmembrane betweenulna&radiusprovides site for muscle attachment

24. Ulna and Radius: Distal End

  • Ulna
    • Styloid processprovides attachment forulnar collateral ligament
    • Head separated from wrist joint byfibrocartilage disc
  • Radius
    • Forms wrist joint withscaphoid ,lunate&triquetrum
    • Formsdistal radioulnar jointwith head ofulna

25. 8 Carpal Bones (Wrist)

  • Proximal row - lateral to medial
    • Scaphoid : boat shaped
    • Lunate : moon shaped
    • Triquetrum : 3 corners
    • Pisiform : pea shaped
  • Distal row - lateral to medial
    • Trapezium : four sided
    • Trapezoid : four sided
    • Capitate : large head
    • Hamate : hooked process

S caredL oversT ryP ositionsT hatT heyC antH andle 26. Metacarpals and Phalanges

  • Metacarpals
    • 5 total: #1 proximal to thumb
    • base ,shaft ,head
    • knuckles ( metacarpophalangealjoints)
  • Phalanges (Digits)
    • 14 total: each is calledphalanx
    • proximal ,middle ,distalon each finger, except thumb
    • base ,shaft ,head

27. Pelvic Girdle and Hip Bones

  • Pelvic girdle= two hip bones united atpubic symphysis
    • articulate posteriorly withsacrumatsacroiliac joints
  • Each hip bone ( os coxa ) =ilium ,pubis , andischium
    • fuse after birth atacetabulum
  • Bony pelvis = 2 hip bones,sacrumandcoccyx

28. Ilium

  • Iliac crestandiliac spinesfor muscle attachment
  • Iliac fossafor muscle attachment
  • Gluteal linesindicating muscle attachment
  • Sacroiliac jointatauricular surface&iliac tuberosity
  • Greatersciatic notchforsciatic nerve

29. Ischium and Pubis

  • Ischium
    • Ischial spine&tuberosity
    • Lesser sciatic notch
    • Ramus
  • Pubis
    • Body
    • Superior&inferior ramus
    • Pubic symphysisis pad offibrocartilagebetween 2pubic bones

30. Female PelvisMale Pelvis

  • Many differences between the two
  • In particular,pubic archin males is usually less than 90, whereas in females it is usually greater than 90

31. Lower Extremity

  • Each lower limb = 30 bones
    • femurandpatellawithin the thigh
    • tibia&fibulawithin the leg
    • tarsalbones in the foot
    • metatarsalswithin the forefoot
    • phalangesin the toes
  • Joints
    • hip, knee, ankle
    • proximal&distal tibiofibular
    • metatarsophalangeal

32. Femur

  • Thefemuror thighbone is the largest, heaviest, and strongest bone of the body
  • It articulates with thehip boneand thetibia
    • Headarticulates