apa style research paper

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2. Writing Three Different Research Reports2/30 3. 3/30 Agenda What is Research? Basic idea of three types of research Pattern of Research Paper according to APA Style Seven Parts of Research Report oPage setup oWordings oDos and Don'ts Contrast of Format: Where needed (Between Qualitative ,Quantitative and Mixed Research) 4. ORGANIZED Structure or method in going about doing research. Planned procedure, focused & limited to specific scope. SYSTEMATIC Set of procedures and steps which you will follow to get the most accurate results. FINDING ANSWERS Answer to a hypothesis or question, research is successful when we find answers. Sometimes the answer is no, but it is still an answer. QUESTIONS Research is focused on relevant, useful, and important questions. Without a question, research has no focus, drive, or purpose. An ORGANIZED and SYSTEMATIC way of FINDING ANSWERS to QUESTIONS. What is Research? 4/30 5. Qualitative Exploring and understanding the meaning, individuals or groups associated with a social or human problem. Quantitative Testing objective theories by examining the relationship among variables Mixed An approach to inquiry that combines or associates both qualitative and quantitative forms 5/30 6. Whereas Qualitative Research Methods Answer Questions Like: Quantitative Research Methods Answer Questions Like: What is it like? How does it happen? What do the community members think? How do they view this issue? How much? How often? What are the norms or averages? What is the cause/effect? If I manipulate or control item A, such as will it cause item B Are there differences among groups Is there a relationship among the concepts being studied, Usually the research questions are sufficiently broad and nondirectional to allow the researcher a good amount of exploration. Thus, qualitative research questions do not use words such as "effect, influence, impact, determine, cause, and relate" (Keyton, 2011, p. 67). (1) (1) Keyton, J. (2011). Communication research: Asking questions, finding answers (3rd Ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. 6/30 7. Mixed Research There are some reasons to conduct a mixed research: The insufficient argument either quantitative or qualitative may be insufficient by itself Multiple angles argument quantitative and qualitative approaches provide different pictures The more-evidence-the-better argument combined quantitative and qualitative provides more evidence Community of practice argument mixed methods may be the preferred approach within a scholarly community Eager-to-learn argument it is the latest methodology Its intuitive argument it mirrors real life 7/30 8. HOW METHODS CAN BE MIXED Types of mixing Comments Two types of research question. One fitting a quantitative approach and the other qualitative. The manner in which the research questions are developed. Preplanned (quantitative) versus participatory/emergent (qualitative). Two types of sampling procedure. Probability versus purposive. Two types of data collection procedures. Surveys (quantitative) versus focus groups (qualitative). Two types of data analysis. Numerical versus textual (or visual). Two types of data analysis. Statistical versus thematic. Two types of conclusions. Objective versus subjective interpretations. 8/30 9. Two Major Dimensions MMR Designs 1. Time order (i.e., concurrent versus sequential) 2. Paradigm emphasis (i.e., equal status versus dominant status). QUAL and qual both stand for qualitative research. QUAN and quan both stand for quantitative research. Capital letters denote priority or increased weight. Lowercase letters denote lower priority or weight. A plus sign (+) indicated the concurrent collection of data. An arrow () represents a sequential collection of data. 9/30 10. Title Page Abstract Introduction MethodResults Discussion References 10/30 11. Title Page Your paper title should summarize the main topic of the paper in about 10 to 12 words. 1. Avoid unnecessary words. A study of Interests of Student in Distance Education System Investigating Relationship between Humanities and NTS Score 2. Keep first word of title specially relevant or important 3. Avoid cute or catchy titles Education is being Vanished through GTM Magic of Audio Visual Aids in Education. 11/30 12. Title Page 12/30 13. Title Page Abstract Introduction MethodResults Discussion References 13/30 14. Abstract 1. one- sentence statement of problem or research question. 2. A brief description of the subjects or participants ( identifying how many and any relevant characteristics). 3. A brief description of the research method and procedures. 4. A report of the results . 5. A statement about the conclusions or implications. 14/30 The abstract should describe key focus of qualitative study, its key methodological features, and most important findings. Comprehensive summary which is about 120 words. For a manuscript submitted for review, typed on a separate page. 15. Abstract 15/30 16. Title Page Abstract Introduction MethodResults Discussion References 16/30 17. Introduction (Including literature review) This section is not labeled and contains: 1. A general introduction to the topic of the paper and why this problem is important and deserves new research. 2. Do not provide detailed descriptions. 3. Specific goal, hypothesis, or question that research study states. 4. Briefly describe the research strategy . 5. Explain how the research strategy provides the information necessary to address your hypothesis or research question. 6. The relevant literature; only the articles that are directly relevant to your research question. 7. The literature review should not be an article- by- article description of one study after another. 17/30 18. 8. Instead, the articles should be presented in an integrated manner. 18/30 Introduction (Including literature review) 10. In Quantitative state the problem or purpose of your study, and clearly define the relevant variables. 9. Qualitative research questions should be stated in open-ended and general forms, such as researcher hopes to "discover," "explore a process," "explain or understand, " or "describe the experiences." 19. Title Page Abstract Introduction MethodResults Discussion References 19/30 20. In Qualitative Research: Tell Participants Apparatus or Materials or Instruments and Procedure. In Quantitative Research: Tell how, where, with whom, why the study was designed and conducted, how the data were collected and analyzed, and what procedures were carried out to ensure the validity of the arguments and conclusions made in the report. In Mixed Research: Use a mixture or combination of methods that has complementary strengths and nonoverlapping weaknesses. 20/30 Method 21. Method This section does not start on a separate and contains: A- Subjects or participants (list, number, characteristics and their selection) B- Procedures 1. The settings and locations 2. Operational definitions 3. Ethical standards met and safety- monitoring procedures 4. Groups or conditions 5. Individuals in each condition 6. Instructions given to participants 7. Any experimental manipulation or intervention 8. Research design and Statistical analysis 21/30 22. C- Instruments , equipments, tools (Validity & Reliability) Validity & Reliability Validity: appropriateness of a measure Does it measure what it is supposed to measure? Reliability: how much randomness is in a measure? Will repetition of measurement bring the same result? Method Take Variable of a case Measure it with indicator Acquire the index 22/30 Variable: Indicator: Index: General features that may differ from one case to the next. Instrument to measure variable. A single number calculated from different indicators 23. Title Page Abstract Introduction MethodResults Discussion References 23/30 24. Results Does not start on a separate page and contains: Statement of the primary outcome of the study Follow it by the basic descriptive statistics (usually means and standard deviations) Then by inferential statistics ( usually the results of hypothesis tests) Finally the measures of effect size. Provides a complete and unbiased reporting of the findings ( just the facts, with no discussion of the findings) 24/30 25. Results 25/30 26. Title Page Abstract Introduction MethodResults Discussion References 26/30 27. Discussion In the discussion section, you offer interpretation, evaluation, and discussion of the implications of your findings. 1. Discussion section should be mirror image of introduction. a. Moved from general to specific b. Using items from literature to focus on a specific hypothesis. c. Begin with a specific hypothesis ( your outcome) and relate it back to the existing literature. 2. Reach beyond the actual results to conclude 3. Consider their implication for future research and applications. 27/30 28. Title Page Abstract Introduction MethodResults Discussion References 28/30 29. 29/30 References Center the word References at top of page and double-space all entries 30. Thanks 30/30