Apa style referencing by sohail ahmed

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<ul><li> 1. The APA style of referencingSohail Ahmed</li></ul><p> 2. The APA style of referencing Consists of two elements: 1. in-text citations, giving author, year andsometimes page number in the body of thepaper2. a reference list at the end of the paper,providing complete details for each in-textcitation.Complied by: SOHAIL AHMED2 M.A English Literature 3. PART 1: In-text citationsFormatting QuotationsWhen quoting, introduce the quotation with a signal phrase. Make sureto include the authors name, the year of publication, the page number,but keep the citation briefdo not repeat the information.Caruth (1996) states that a traumatic response frequently entails adelayed, uncontrolled repetitive appearance of hallucinationsand other intrusive phenomena (p.11).A traumatic response frequently entails a delayed, uncontrolledrepetitive appearance of hallucinations and other intrusivephenomena (Caruth, 1996, p.11). Complied by: SOHAIL AHMED3M.A English Literature 4. In-text Citations:Formatting a Summary or ParaphraseProvide the authors last name and the year ofpublication in parenthesis after a summary or aparaphrase.Though feminist studies focus solely on womens experiences,they err by collectively perpetuating the masculine-centeredimpressions (Fussell, 1975). Complied by: SOHAIL AHMED 4M.A English Literature 5. In-text citations One authorWhen you refer to a single author, includethe authors family name and year ofpublication using one of the forms shownhere.Clay (2003) argues that having a planned approach to writing essayscan be of great benefit.orEssay writing can be made much more manageable if a plannedapproach is taken (Clay, 2003). Complied by: SOHAIL AHMED5M.A English Literature 6. In-text citations Multiple authorsFor two authors, include the family namesof both authors and the year as required.According to Antonakos and Kazanis (2003) there are advantages tokeeping design and research methods simple. use and when family names are outside parenthesesThere are advantages to keeping design and research methods simple(Antonakos &amp; Kazanis, 2003).use &amp; when family names are inside parentheses(bracket) Complied by: SOHAIL AHMED6M.A English Literature 7. In-text citations Multiple authorsIn the case of three, four or five authors,cite all authors the first time, then insubsequent citations of this work use thefamily name of the first-listed author pluset al. and the year as required.Always list the authors in the order theyappear in the publication.Complied by: SOHAIL AHMED 7 M.A English Literature 8. In-text citations Multiple authorsWhen citing a work with three to five authors, identify all authors inthe signal phrase or in parenthesis.(Harklau, Siegal, and Losey, 1999)In subsequent (Already given above) citations, only use the firstauthors last name followed by "et al." in the signal phrase or inparentheses.(Harklau et al., 1993) Complied by: SOHAIL AHMED 8M.A English Literature 9. In-text Citations: A Work with Six and More AuthorsWhen citing a work with six and more authors, identify the firstauthors name followed by et al. Smith et al. (2006) maintained that.(Smith et al., 2006)Complied by: SOHAIL AHMED9 M.A English Literature 10. In-text Citations:A Work of Unknown AuthorWhen citing a work of unknown author, use the sources full title inthe signal phrase and cite the first word of the title followed by theyear of publication in parenthesis. Put titles of articles and chapters inquotation marks; italicize titles of books and reports.According to Indiana Joins FederalAccountability System (2008), Or, (Indiana, 2008)Complied by: SOHAIL AHMED10 M.A English Literature 11. In-text Citations: OrganizationWhen citing an organization, mention the organization the first timewhen you cite the source in the signal phrase or the parentheticalcitation.The data collected by the Food and DrugAdministration (2008) confirmed thatIf the organization has a well-known abbreviation, include theabbreviation in brackets the first time the source is cited and then useonly the abbreviation in later citations.Food and Drug Administration (FDA)confirmed FDAs experts tested Complied by: SOHAIL AHMED 11M.A English Literature 12. In-text Citations: The same last name/the same authorWhen citing authors with the same last names, use first initials with thelast names.(B. Kachru, 2005; Y. Kachru, 2008)When citing two or more works by the same author published in thesame year, use lower-case letters (a, b, c) with the year of publicationto order the references.Smiths (1998a) study of adolescent immigrants Complied by: SOHAIL AHMED 12M.A English Literature 13. In-text Citations:Personal communicationWhen citing interviews, letters, e-mails, etc., include thecommunicators name, the fact that it was personal communication,and the date of the communication. Do not include personalcommunication in the reference list.Sohail. A also claimed that many of his studentshad difficulties with APA style (personal communication, October3, 2011).Or,(S. Stella, personal communication, January 4,2011). Complied by: SOHAIL AHMED 13M.A English Literature 14. In-text Citations: Electronic sourcesWhen citing an electronic document, whenever possible, cite it in theauthor-date style. If electronic source lacks page numbers, locate andidentify paragraph number/paragraph heading. According to Smith (1997), ... (Mind over Matter section, para. 6).Complied by: SOHAIL AHMED14 M.A English Literature 15. In-text Citations: Electronic sourcesMany online articles are pdf files, i.e. copies of print documents, sothey usually indicate page numbers. Use these page numbers when youcite information from such sources.Some articles are not pdf files and do not have page numbers. In thesecases use paragraph numbers, if these are provided. Smith (2003, para. 3) claimsIf paragraph numbers are not provided and the document includesheadings, use these headings and count the number of paragraphs. Smith (2003, Conclusion section, para.3) claimsComplied by: SOHAIL AHMED 15 M.A English Literature 16. In-text Citations: No year of publication providedIf there no year is given for a source, usen.d. (which stands for no date) after theauthors name.In a detailed analysis, Ahmed(n.d.) argues Complied by: SOHAIL AHMED16 M.A English Literature 17. PART 2: Reference list An important purpose of the reference list is to enable readers to locate sources. Therefore details must be correct and complete. Each in-text citation and the related reference list entry should be identical in spelling and year. Complied by: SOHAIL AHMED 17M.A English Literature 18. Reference listIn compiling your APA reference list, you should: list references on a new page with a centred heading titledReferences include books, journal articles, online sources etc. in one alphabeticallisting order entries alphabetically by family name of author/s list works with no author under the first significant word of the title indent second and subsequent lines of each entry (57 spaces) use double spacing. Complied by: SOHAIL AHMED18M.A English Literature 19. Reference list BooksBook titles are italicized.The city and state in which the publisher is located are included, using United States postal codes to abbreviate states. However, the state (and/or country) is omitted for major cities and for university presses that include the name of the state. If more than one location is listed, the first is used.Basic Format for Books In ItalicAuthor, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter alsofor subtitle. Location: Publisher. Complied by: SOHAIL AHMED19M.A English Literature 20. Reference listBooks No authorWorld development report. (1989). New York: Oxford University Press. One authorPerloff, R. M. (1995). The dynamics of persuasion. Hillsdale, NJ: rlbaum. Complied by: SOHAIL AHMED20M.A English Literature 21. Reference listOrganization as Author: American Psychological Association. (2003).Unknown Author:Merriam-Websters collegiate dictionary (10th ed.).(1993).Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster. Complied by: SOHAIL AHMED 21M.A English Literature 22. Reference list BooksTwo authors:Separated by &amp; Author, A., &amp; Author, B. (year). Title of book. City: Publisher.Crawford, P., Brown, B., &amp; Nolan, P. (1998). Communicating care: The language ofnursing. Cheltenham: Stanley Thornes. Complied by: SOHAIL AHMED 22M.A English Literature 23. Reference list BooksThree to Seven Authors:List by last names and initials; commas separate authornames, while the last author name is preceded again byampersand(&amp;).Kernis, M. H., Cornell, D. P., Sun, C. R., Berry, A., Harlow, T., &amp; Bach, J. S. (1993).Communicating care: The language of nursing. Cheltenham: Stanley Thornes. Complied by: SOHAIL AHMED23M.A English Literature 24. Reference listBooks More Than Seven Authors:Provide the family names and initials of the first six authorsfollowed by three ellipsis points and the last authors familyname and initial.Author, A., Author, B., Author, C., Author, D., Author, E., Author, F., Author, M. (year). Details of the work as appropriate to its form.Miller, F. H., Choi, M. J., Angeli, L. L., Harland, A. A., Stamos, J. A.,Thomas, S. T., . . . Rubin, L. H. (2009). Communication. London: LondonPublishers. Complied by: SOHAIL AHMED24M.A English Literature 25. Reference listBooksBook other than first edition:Abbott, C. (1982). Colorado: A history of the Centennial State (Rev. ed.). Boulder:Colorado Associated University Press. Other abbreviations include: 1st ed., 2nd ed, etc. Complied by: SOHAIL AHMED25M.A English Literature 26. Reference listBooksArticle or chapter in an edited book :Author, A., &amp; Author, B. (year). Title of chapter. In C. Editor &amp; D. Editor(Eds.), Title of book (pp. xxxx). City: Publisher. Page NumbersCapitalize only the first letter of the first word of an article or chaptertitle, and any proper nouns.Naidoo, B. (2000). Evaluating the use of public health risk factor simulation models. InM. Thorogood &amp; Y. Coombes (Eds.), Evaluating health promotion: Practice andmethods (pp. 99109). Oxford: Oxford University Press.For multiple editors, use abbreviation, Eds. Complied by: SOHAIL AHMED26M.A English Literature 27. Reference listBooksBook, online:Author, A., &amp; Author, B. (year). Title of book. [details about theformat if available]. doi or Retrieved from web address. Munsterberg, H. (1916). The photoplay: A psychological study. Retrievedfrom http://www.gutenberg.org/files/15383/15383-8.txtComplied by: SOHAIL AHMED 27 M.A English Literature 28. Reference list Journal articleAuthor, A., &amp; Author, B. (year). Title of article. Title ofJournal, volume number (issue number), page numbers.The issue number should be indicated only if each issue of a journalbegins on page 1.Capitalize only the first letter of the first word of an article title andsubtitle, and any proper nouns.Capitalize the first letter of every main word in the journal title.Include a digital object identifier (DOI) if provided.Complied by: SOHAIL AHMED28 M.A English Literature 29. Reference list Journal articleArticle in Journal Paginated by Volume:Journals that are paginated by volume begin with page one in issueone, and continue numbering issue two where issue one ended, etc.Harlow, H. F. (1983). Fundamentals for preparing psychology journal articles.Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 55, 893-896.Article in Journal Paginated by Issue:Scruton, R. (1996). The eclipse of listening. The New Criterion, 15(30), 5-13.Complied by: SOHAIL AHMED 29 M.A English Literature 30. Reference list Journal article, onlineAuthor, A. (year). Title of article. Title of Journal, volumenumber (issue number), page numbers. doi or Retrieved fromweb address.If a digital object identifier (DOI) is provided then it should be given; if noDOI is available then the home page web address of the journal, oruniform resource locator (URL), should be given. Date of retrieval is notrequired.Ekwall, A., Gerdtz, M., &amp; Manias, E. (2008). The influence of patient acuity onsatisfaction with emergency care: perspectives of family, friends and carers. Journal ofClinical Nursing,17,800809. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2702.2007.02052.xMidford, R. (2005). Australia and alcohol: Living down the legend. Addiction,100,891896. Retrieved from http://www.addictionjournal.org Complied by: SOHAIL AHMED30M.A English Literature 31. Reference listNewspaper article Author, A. (year, month day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper, p. x.Wroe, D. (2004, June 24). Canberra enlists GPs in war on smoking. The Age, p. 3. Newspaper article, no author:Title of article. (year, month day). Title of Newspaper, p. x.Embryo study nod, OK say IVF couples. (2004, May 31). Herald Sun, p.10. Complied by: SOHAIL AHMED31M.A English Literature 32. Reference list Newspaper article, onlineAuthor, A. (year, month day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper.Retrieved from home page web address Nader, C. (2009, June 19). Mental health issues soar among children. The Age. Retrieved from http://www.theage.com.auLetter to the Editor: Moller, G. (2002, August). Ripples versus rumbles [Letter to the editor]. Scientific American, 287(2), 12.Complied by: SOHAIL AHMED 32 M.A English Literature 33. Reference list Document, onlineAuthor, A. (year). Title of document. Retrieved from web addressRetrieval date is given if it is believed the information could change over time.Northern Territory Department of Justice. (2007). Step forward:Getting help about sexual violence. Retrievedfromttp://www.nt.gov.au/justice/documents/stepforward.pdf Complied by: SOHAIL AHMED33M.A English Literature 34. Reference list Web pageWeb pageAuthor, A. (year). Title of page. Retrieved month, day, year fromweb address.The title of a web page is not italicized. Diabetes Australia. (2010). Gestational diabetes. Retrieved July 22, 2010 fromhttp://www.diabetesaustralia.com.au/Understanding-Diabetes/What-is- Diabetes/Gestational-Diabetes-/ Complied by: SOHAIL AHMED34M.A English Literature 35. Reference listOnline Encyclopedias and DictionariesOften encyclopedias and dictionaries do not provide bylines (authorsnames). When no byline is present, move the entry name to the front ofthe citation. Provide publication dates if present or specify (n.d.) if nodate is present in the entry.Feminism. (n.d.). In Encyclopdia Britannica online. Retrieved fromhttp://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/724633/feminism Complied by: SOHAIL AHMED35M.A English Literature 36. Reference listAudiovisual materialsPersons primarily responsible for the item are named; their roles areidentified in parentheses after their names. The medium, placed in brackets, is supplied after the title. Mediadesignations include [Audio recording], [CD] (for music CD), and[Motion picture] for both film and videotape.VideotapeWeir, P. B. (Producer), &amp; Harrison, B. F. (Director). (1992). Levels ofconsciousness [Motion Picture].Boston: Filmways.Audio cassett...</p>