apa citation style
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DESCRIPTIONAPA Citation Style. What is APA Style?. APA is the American Psychological Association APA style is used by researchers in: Health Sciences (nursing, medical assisting, etc.) Social Sciences ( psychology , criminal justice, etc.) Public Relations Business And More - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
APA Citation Style
APA Citation Style
What is APA Style?APA is the American Psychological Association
APA style is used by researchers in:Business EducationHealth Sciences (nursing, medical assisting, etc.) Public RelationsSocial Sciences (psychology, criminal justice, etc.)And More
APA guidelines help you to:Avoid plagiarism Cite your sources effectivelyOrganize your writingPresent yourself professionally in your work
Why Cite Your References?The purpose of a reference list is to help readers find the sources you used. Therefore, the reference list should be as accurate and complete as possible.ReferencesDocument research. Data must be correct, complete and consistent.Punctuation and element order are vital.Accuracy helps establish your credibility.
http://pixabay.com/en/darts-dart-game-bull-s-eye-target-155726/References continuedEach entry on a reference list contains elements required for unique identification, including, at a minimum, author, title, date, & publication information.When in doubt, provide more information rather than less. For example, volume, issue, edition, document number, etc.
1827References continuedTo cite a source type not mentioned in the Citing References: APA Style guide http://www.uww.edu/documents/library/apacite.pdf, refer to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association 6th ed.
If the Manual has no specific guidance for your source type, follow the format of the example that is most similar to it. For clarification, try the APA Style Blog: http://blog.apastyle.org/
Basic Paper GuidelinesDouble-spaced.1 margins on all sides.12-point Times New Roman font.Two spaces after a period at the end of a sentence, but one space after commas, semicolons, colons, and initials. Do not add spaces to DOIs or URLs.Unsure? Check the Manual for clarification, more detail, and sample papers.
Begin on a new page at the end of your paper.Title is centered.Title is: References (one tab) hanging indentation.Double space (same as with paper text).Entries arranged alphabetically by author last name. If no author is listed, alphabetize using the first citation element.List works by the same author in chronological order.
Do you know how to double-space and do hanging indentation the easy way?
Additional References Page GuidelinesAPA, MLA or Turabian?Berndt, Thomas Jefferson. Friendship Quality and Social Development. Current Directions in Psychological Science 11, no. 1 (2002): 7-10.Berndt, Thomas Jefferson. Friendship Quality and Social Development. Current Directions in Psychological Science 11.1 (2002) : 7-10. Print.Berndt, T. J. (2002). Friendship quality and social development. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11(1), 7-10.APABasics of the Reference PageWhat do you need to include?
Author namePublication dateSource titleWhere you found it
1827AuthorsAuthors name should appear as Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. Example:Salinger, J. D.
If theres no author put the title of the work before the publication date. Example: Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary. (1993). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.
Authors (cont)Multiple authors? Use the & symbol.Two authors:Geisel, T. S., & Lewis, S.
Three to seven authors:Salinger, J. D., Geisel, T. S., & Lewis, S. , &
More than seven authors:Dickens, C., Salinger, J. D., Dickinson, E., Geisel, T. S., Lewis, S., Stoker, B.,...Stowe, H. B.This is different from the in-text citation rule for the same source (Dickens et al.)
Titles in ReferencesNotes on formatting:Italicize titles of whole works (books, journals, CDs, etc.).Do not italicize or use quotation marks on titles of parts of works (chapters, articles, songs, etc.).Only capitalize the first word and proper nouns.EXCEPTION: Journal titles are capitalized normally, i.e. in title case.Book: Hard times.Journal: Dickens QuarterlyArticle in Journal: Green cheese. Canadian Architect.BooksMoore, L. L., Maye, C., & Collins, E. L. (2011). Advertising and public relations law. New York, NY: Routledge.Author Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial., Author Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial., & Author Last Name, First Initial. Middle initial. (Publication year). Book title. Publication City, State Abbreviation: Publisher.
DOI or URL?With online periodical sources, APA requires inclusion of one of two pieces of information.DOI: A digital object identifier is assigned to a specific article and can usually be found on the first page of that article. It may also be in the articles record in the database/webpage where the article was found. Example: doi:10.1016/j.maturitas.2011.05.011URL: If there is no DOI, use the uniform resource locator for the periodical homepage, NOT the article webpage, database webpage, or article in the database. You can usually do an Internet search for the title of the journal plus the publisher name (if known) to find the journal homepage.Some databases, like those from EBSCOhost, provide this information or a link to the publisher. Example: http://www.journals.elsevier.com/maturitas/
JOURNAL ARTICLE: two to seven authors; no DOI; paginated by issue; printLight, M. A., & Light, I. H. (2008). The geographic expansion of Mexican immigration in the United States and its implications for local law enforcement. Law Enforcement Executive Forum Journal, 8(1), 73-82.Author Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial., & Author Last Name, First Initial. Middle initial. (Publication year). Article title. Journal Title, volume number(issue number), first page-last page.JOURNAL ARTICLE: two to seven authors; no DOI; paginated by issue; web and/or library databaseSillick, T. J., & Schutte, N. S. (2006). Emotional intelligence and self-esteem mediate between perceived early parental love and adult happiness. E-Journal of Applied Psychology, 2(2), 38-48. Retrieved from http://ojs.lib.swin.edu.au/index.php/ejapAuthor Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial., & Author Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (Publication year). Article title. Journal Title, volume number(issue number), first page-last page. Retrieved from journals homepage URLJOURNAL ARTICLE: two to seven authors; DOI; paginated by volume; print, web, or library databaseHerbst-Damm, K. L., & Kulik, J. A. (2005). Volunteer support, marital status, and the survival times of terminally ill patients. Health Psychology, 24, 225-229. doi:10.1037/0278-6184.108.40.206Author Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial., & Author Last Name, First Initial. Middle initial. (Publication year). Article title. Journal Title, volume number, first page-last page. doi:digital object identifier
Basics of In-Text CitationsWhat do you need to include?Authors last namePublication datePage number (required if quoting, encouraged when paraphrasing)
Put all of this information in parentheses, or within the text of your paper. Examples: The moon is made of green cheese (Dolinger, 2009, p. 99).Dolinger (2009) said, The moon is made of green cheese (p. 99).FormattingMultiple authorsFor one or two authors, always list both names connected by the & symbol when in parentheses, or and when not. Examples:(Geisel & Lewis)Geisel and Lewis
For 3-5 authors, list all the first time you cite the source. After that, use the first authors name, followed by et al. Example: Salinger, Geisel, and Lewis found that Salinger et al. stated that
With 6 or more, just use the first authors name, followed by et al. Example: Dickens et al. argued
No author availableUse a shortened title in parentheses (start with the first word). Example: National Library Week is in April (Library Event Rocks, 2009)Article title is: Library Event Rocks Whitewater in October
Formatting Titles for In-text CitationsWhole works should be italicizedBooksJournalsCDs
Parts of works should be in quotation marksChaptersJournal articlesSong titles
Parenthetical Citation with AuthorsSillick, T. J., & Schutte, N. S. (2006). Emotional intelligence and self-esteem mediate between perceived early parental love and adult happiness. E-Journal of Applied Psychology, 2(2), 38-48. Retrieved from http://ojs.lib.swin.edu.au/index.php/ejap/ article/view/71 /100(Sillick & Schutte, 2006, p. 40)
Parenthetical Citation without Author or Page NumberSlingshot fun [Video file]. (2007, January 29). Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CCmZYce0J2E(Slingshot fun, 2007)
ReferencesPublication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). (2010). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.What are Your Questions?http://pixabay.com/p-63916/?no_redirect