ap psychology chapter 2 study guide (w/ answers)

Download AP Psychology Chapter 2 Study Guide (w/ Answers)

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A study guide of Chapter 2 of AP Psychology with concepts and practice problems with answers

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Myers

Myers PRIVATE

Psychology 6/e

Test Bank II

CHAPTER 2Neuroscience and Behavior

Learning Objectives 1.Explain why psychologists are concerned with human biology.

Neural Communication (pp. 48-54) 2.Describe the structure of a neuron, and explain how neural impulses are generated.

3.Describe how nerve cells communicate, and discuss the impact of neurotransmitters and drugs on human behavior.

The Nervous System (pp. 54-57) 4.Identify the major divisions of the nervous system and describe their functions, noting the three types of neurons that transmit information through the system.

5.Contrast the simplicity of the neural pathways involved in reflexes with the complexity of neural networks.

The Brain (pp. 58-80) 6.Identify and describe several techniques for studying the brain.

7.Describe the functions of the brainstem, thalamus, cerebellum, and limbic system.

8.Identify the four lobes of the cerebral cortex, and describe the sensory and motor functions of the cortex.

9.Discuss the importance of the association areas, and describe how damage to several different cortical areas can impair language functioning.

10.Discuss the capacity of the brain to reorganize following injury or illness.

11.Describe research on the split brain, and discuss what it reveals regarding normal brain functioning.

12.Discuss the relationships among brain organization, right- and left-handedness, and physical health.

The Endocrine System (pp. 80-81)13.Describe the nature and functions of the endocrine system and its interaction with the nervous system.

Introduction, p. 47

Medium, Factual/Definitional, Objective 1, Ans: c

1.Aristotle believed that the mind was most intimately connected with the:

a.head.

b.stomach.

c.heart.

d.liver.

Introduction, p. 47

Medium, Factual/Definitional, Objective 1, Ans: e

2.The nineteenthcentury theory that bumps on the skull reveal a persons abilities and traits is called:our

a.evolutionary psychology.

b.behavior genetics.

c.molecular biology.

d.biological psychology.

e.phrenology.

Introduction, p. 47

Medium, Factual/Definitional, Objective 1, Ans: d

3.Who first suggested that different regions of the brain control different aspects of behavior?

a.Aristotle

b.Hippocrates

c.John Locke

d.Franz Gall

Introduction, p. 48

Medium, Conceptual, Objective 1, Ans: b

4.Professor Samuels conducts research on the relationship between the limbic system and sexual motivation. Her research interests best represent the psychological specialty known as:

a.clinical psychology.

b.biological psychology.

c.psychoanalysis.

d.psychiatry.

e.behavior genetics.

Neurons, p. 48

Easy, Factual/Definitional, Objective 2, Ans: a

5.The cells that serve as the basic building blocks of the bodys information processing system are called:

a.neurons.

b.neurotransmitters.

c.vesicles.

d.glial cells.

Neurons, p. 48

Easy, Factual/Definitional, Objective 2, Ans: d

6.The branching extensions of nerve cells that receive incoming signals from sensory receptors or from other neurons are called the:

a.axons.

b.synapses.

c.cell bodies.

d.dendrites.

e.neurotransmitters.

Neurons, p. 48

Easy, Factual/Definitional, Objective 2, Ans: d

7.The part of a neuron that transmits neural messages to other neurons or to muscles or glands is called the:

a.dendrite.

b.synapse.

c.association area.

d.axon.

e.cell body.

Neurons, p. 48

Medium, Factual/Definitional, Objective 2, Ans: a

8.Which part of a neuron is often encased by the myelin sheath?

a.axon

b.glial cell

c.cell body

d.dendrite

Neurons, p. 48

Difficult, Conceptual, Objective 2, Ans: b

9.Signal reception is to ________ as signal transmission is to ________.

a.interneuron; neural network

b.dendrite; axon

c.neurotransmitter; hormone

d.sympathetic nervous system; parasympathetic nervous system

Neurons, p. 48

Easy, Factual/Definitional, Objective 2, Ans: d

10.The myelin sheath helps to increase the ________ of neural impulses.

a.frequency

b.intensity

c.threshold

d.speed

Neurons, p. 48

Medium, Factual/Definitional, Objective 2, Ans: d

11.The slowdown of neural communication in multiple sclerosis involves a degeneration of the:

a.dendrites.

b.blood cells.

c.corpus callosum.

d.myelin sheath.

e.pituitary gland.

Neurons, p. 49

Easy, Factual/Definitional, Objective 2, Ans: a

12.An action potential refers to a:

a.neural impulse.

b.synaptic gap.

c.neurotransmitter.

d.reflex.

Neurons, p. 49

Medium, Factual/Definitional, Objective 2, Ans: c

13.The movement of positively charged ions across the membrane of a neuron produces a(n):

a.neural network.

b.synapse.

c.action potential.

d.myelin sheath.

e.interneuron.

Neurons, p. 49

Medium, Factual/Definitional, Objective 2, Ans: c

14.The resting potential of a neuron refers to:

a.a brief electrical charge that travels down the axon.

b.the storage of neurotransmitter molecules within synaptic vesicles.

c.the electrical imbalance between the inside and outside of the neural membrane.

d.a capacity to reabsorb neurotransmitter molecules released into the synaptic gap.

Neurons, p. 49

Medium, Factual/Definitional, Objective 2, Ans: b15.The selective permeability of a neural membrane creates a(n):

a.myelin sheath.

b.resting potential.

c.neural network.

d.association area.

e.lesion.

Neurons, p. 50

Easy, Factual/Definitional, Objective 2, Ans: d

16.A neural impulse is generated only when excitatory minus inhibitory signals exceed a certain:

a.action potential.

b.synaptic gap.

c.computed tomography.

d.threshold.

Neurons, p. 50

Medium, Factual/Definitional, Objective 2, Ans: d

17.An allornone response pattern is characteristic of the:

a.activation of either the sympathetic or the parasympathetic system.

b.release of endorphins into the central nervous system.

c.release of hormones into the bloodstream.

d.initiation of neural impulses.

e.inheritance of behavioral predispositions.

How neurons communicate, p. 50

Easy, Factual/Definitional, Objective 3, Ans: c

18.The spatial junctions where impulses are chemically transmitted from one neuron to another are called:

a.neurotransmitters.

b.interneurons.

d.dendrites.

e.thresholds.

How neurons communicate, p. 50

Easy, Factual/Definitional, Objective 3, Ans: b

19.Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers that travel across the:

a.cell body.

b.synaptic gap.

c.axon.

d.myelin sheath.

e.threshold.

How neurons communicate, p. 50

Medium, Factual/Definitional, Objective 3, Ans: a

20.Neurotransmitters influence the flow of ________ into receiving neurons.

a.ions

b.glial cells

c.molecules

d.hormones

How neurons communicate, p. 50

Medium, Factual/Definitional, Objective 3, Ans: a

21.Neurotransmitter receptor sites are located on the:

a.dendrites.

b.myelin sheath.

c.cell body.

d.axon.

How neurons communicate, p. 50

Difficult, Factual/Definitional, Objective 3, Ans: b

22.Research on neurotransmitters indicates that:

a.a single synapse generally uses several dozen neurotransmitters.

b.neurotransmitters can inhibit neural impulse transmission.

c.less than a dozen neurotransmitters are involved in all neural transmission.

d.the release of endorphins causes paralysis of the muscles.

How neurotransmitters influence us, p. 51

Difficult, Factual/Definitional, Objective 3, Ans: c23.Prozac is an antidepressant drug that increases the level of the neurotransmitter:

a.GABA.

b.ACh.

c.serotonin.

d.dopamine.

How neurotransmitters influence us, p. 52

Easy, Factual/Definitional, Objective 3, Ans: d

24.Acetylcholine is a(n):

a.receptor.

b.neurotransmitter.

c.endorphin.

d.hormone.

How neurotransmitters influence us, pp. 52, 81

Medium, Conceptual, Objective 3, Ans: d

25.Epinephrine is to hormone as ________ is to neurotransmitter.

a.curare

b.botulin

c.estrogen

d.ACh

How neurotransmitters influence us, p. 52

Medium, Factual/Definitional, Objective 3, Ans: c

26.When the release of ACh is blocked by botulin, the result is:

a.depression.

b.aggression.

c.paralysis.

d.schizophrenia.

e.euphoria.

How neurotransmitters influence us, p. 52

Medium, Factual/Definitional, Objective 3, Ans: a

27.The venom of the black widow spider causes violent muscle contractions by accelerating the release of:

a.acetylcholine.

b.serotonin.

c.endorphins.

d.epinephrine.

How neurotransmitters influence us, p. 52

Easy, Factual/Definitional, Objective 3, Ans: b

28.Endorphins are most directly involved in t