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ANTI~APARTHEID NEWSNewspaperoftheAnti-A~eidMovement. Price5p. Décember 1971.ýl X2
*Ant-Apartheid News. December 1971-Janury 1972. Page 2ACTION -NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONALBritainAG M.THE ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING of the Ani Apartheid Movement took place on November 7,against a background of growing repression in Southern Africa, and increasing British collaboration withthe racialist regimes there. It was held a few days after the death of Ahmed Timol at the hands of the SouthAfrican political police, andone of the most important resolutions passed renewed the call for the release ofall political prisoners, and instructed the National Committee to campaign nationally and internationally onthis basis over the coming year.The impnding sell-out to the Smith regime also weighed heavily on the minds of the 150 delegates. Asettlement with the white minority would further strengthen their repressive rule, and intensify theconfrontation with the "African majority struggling for their legitimate right of selfdetermination". In theevent of a sell-out. the Executive and National Committee were instructed to campaign relentlessly againstrenewed diplomatic, military, economic and cultural links with white Rhodesia.There was an increased emphasis on the need for AAM to maintain and expand its work within the tradeunion movement, building on the 1971 TUC resolution. It was decided that trade union' would beapproached to hold sessions at their educatinal schools on the effects of apartheid on South Africanworkers. It was resolved that links should be severed between the British TUC and the Trade UnionCouncil of South Africa (TUCSA), which collabor. ates with apartheid. Another resolution described thegrowing links between Britain and NATO, on the one hand, and South Africa and Portugal on the other. Itwas pointed out that Britain was supporting Portugal in her African wars, through British member. ship ofNATO.Another resoution called for the rejectionof the policy of dialogue with the Vorster government, and direct support for the liberation movement TheSouth African attack on Zambia was specifically con. demned.Support was reaffirmed for the struggle of the people of Mocambique, Angola and Guine led byFRELIMO, MPLA andPAIGC. Congratulations were extended in particular to FRELIMO, on beginning guerrilln operations in thesouth of Tete province. It was decided to campaign agaimt Portugal's use of herbicides on food-crops in theliberated areas of Angola, against British involvementL in Cabots Bassa and Kunene. and increase AAMsupport for projects which are raising money and material aid for the liberation movements.Certain firms were singled out for particular attention in 'campaigns against invest. mert in Southern Africa.They were Barclays Bank, ICI, RTZ, GKN, United Transport, Shaell and British Petroleum. (Memorandaon most of these firms are available from AAM, 89. Charlotte St., London W.I.)CP CongressA TELEGRAM was sent to Sir AlecDouglas-Home rejecting any sell-out on Rhodesia, by the Communist Party's annual Congress onNovember 16. Congress urged him to open negotiations with the leaders of the African'people.Essop Pahad, the African National Congress's fraternal delegate to the Congress, told delegates that. it wasthe duty of British progressives to redeem what their ruling ca had done. He said: "An importent extensionof our revolutionary struggle is moral and material support of the people of your country."The Congress sent a message to the ANC pledging itself to develop further the campaign to winunderstanding in Britain for the struggle of the African people. The message said: "Vorster, Smith and thePortugese colonists are only able to carry on their repressivev- regimes because of the economic, politicaland military help they receive from the imperialist powers and from NATO."
Mid-HertsMID-HERTS Anti-Racialism Group intends to carry on its campaign against the passing of theImmigration Bilt with a public meeting and possibly a march in Watford.The meeting is planned for Watford Trades Hall on Monday, January 24 and the march the followingSaturday.The group has adopted a South African political prisoner-Father Cosmas Desmond, the Franciscan priestplaced under house arrest after writing, "The Discarded People"-and wants to hear from other people interested in a campaign for his release. Steps will shortly be takento buy shares in companies with South African interests so that members will be able to demonstrateagainst these interests ist the companies' shareholder' meetings.Support is also to be given to the campaign to free Angela Davis. Further information from Roger Currell,71 Blythway, Walwyn Garden City. Tel. (day) St. Albans 63207. Next meeting December 16 at 1 GranvilleRoad, St. Albans, Herts.BirminghamBIRMINGHAM branch held a meeting at the Students' Union on November 1 to protest against theimpending Rhodesian sell-out in Rhodesia-and a picket and demonstration at the City Centre the followingday.Speaker at the meeting was Mr. Guy Clutton-Brock and fron the 100 people present, the branch gained tennew members.The demonstration mustered 40 people. It coincided with the evening rush-hour-and also with thedemonstration in London. Under the slogan "No Sell-Out", the pickets marched round the statue of QueenVictoria in the city centre.SouthamptonTHE NEW Southampton branch of AAM held its inaugural meeting on October 18 and it was decided mostaction should be' concentrated on the Rhodesian issue.The executive committee includes Pete Allen, the university representative-and it has been decided that heshould start a separate AAM group at the university, which could co-operate with the town group whennecessary.Meetings and demonstrations have already been arranged-5,000 leaflets on Rhodesia have already beenproduced and distributed in the town centre, resulting in publicity in the local press.Mid-SussexBRIGHTON CO-OPERATIVE SOCIETY has passed a resolution stating that it will not buy or sell SouthAfrican goods, after the issue was raised by members of the MidSussex Anti-Apartheid Group. Theresolution was carried by 81 to 50 votes and members of the Mid-Sussex group are now working to make-sure it is implemented. The Group has also sent a message to Sir Alec Dougha-Home deploring movestowards a settlement with the Smith regime and members supported a motion deploring any settlementwhich was passed unanimously by the Mid-Sussex Constituency Labour Party.The Group is planning to sep up its policy of supplying speakers to local organisations add is alsoorganising a fund-raising jumble sale.Contact: Connie Mager, Secretary MidSussex AA Group, 27 Balcombe Road, Haywards Heath, Sussex.CamdenCAMDEN COUNCIL has decided towithdraw £150,000 worth of investments in ompinies with substantial interests in South Africa. Thedecision was taken by the council's Superannuation Fund Investment Panel aid then passed unanimously bythe Finance and General Purposes Committee on November 1. After these procedings, Labour AldermanRoger Jowell asked the Borough Treasurer which bank the Council used. He replied that they usedBarclays"becauie it is far and away the most efficient"--and the St. Pancras North Labour Party has nowcalled on the Camden Council to withdraw its account.DurhamA BRANCH of AAM has been restarted at Durham University and has already carried out many activities,including a demonstration against the trial of the Dean of Johannesburg.This meeting on November 2 was addres-sed by both the Bishop and the Dean of Durham and about 150 people were present. On October 31 theUnion debated the motion "This house would sever all economic and sporting ties with South Africa",Which was proposed by Peter Hain and Mike Terry and passed by 144 to 101. The branch is also
campaigning to get the University and the Union to withdraw from any financial investments in companieslinked with South Africa-and to transfer bank accounts from Barclays to Lloyds.,NuffieldIN 1963 Nuffield College, Oxford made an undertaking to buy no further South African shares; butbetween 1969 and 1971 the college invested about £100,000 in De Beers shares and £160,000 in theSchiesinger Organisation.Nuffield Junior Common Room Committee has unanimously passed a motion condemning the governingbody for purhasing "a substantial number" of South African shar es in the past two years, and has called onthe college to state poblitly its resolve not to invest further in South Africa. The charges against the collegewere admitted by the Warden of Nuffield, Mr. D. N. Chester, who confirmed that the college had held "acomparatively small number" of South African shares during the period 1963-1971-bt claimed that hiscollege now owned no South African shares at all.SalfordTHERE IS now an active branch of the Anti-Apartheid Movement at Salford University. Anyone wishingto get in touch should do so through Chris Ralph or Steve Crane, Davey Hall of Residence, University ofSalford, Oaklands Road, M7 OPX (Phone 061-792 1709).UCRTHE CASE of the 13 students at University College of Rhodesia who had their grants withdrawn becauseof their political activities, has been taken up by the Students' Union at London University.It has already been agreed in principle that London University must honor its commitments to those of the13 who are studying for London degrees. There were originally 25 grants withdrawn' by the Rhodesianauthorities, but 12 of the students had their grants -restored after writing conciliatory letters."The remaining students have been told, by the College principal that they may continue their studies ifthey can raise sufficient funds, which they or their families are dot in a position to do," said LondonStudents' Union president Philip Clarke in his letter to the Principal of London University, Sir DouglasLogan.In it he asked for a meeting between students' representatives and staff to discuss what action could betaken.UNA youthMEMBERS OF the United Nations Association Youth held an all-night vigil in Downing Streeton November 6-7, in protest' against the impending sell-out to Smith. The vigil was part of an on-goingcampaign on, Rhodesia.UNA youth are also involved in collecting money to build a 30-bed hospital in the liberated territory ofAngola, for the Medical Assistance Services of MPLA, the Angolan liberation movement. The project hasbeen provided by War on Want.Coloured RugbyA SEGREGATED Coloured rugby team is due to arrive in England to play a series of matches in thesecond week of November. As ANTI-APARTHEID NEWS goes to press, there seems to be such strongopposition to the tour from inside South Africa, especially from the Coloured community, that it may becancelled.If the Coloured team does com there are plans to demonstrate at its matches. More information: AAM, 89Charlotte Street, London W.I. Tel: 01-580 5311.PolaroidFIGURES RELEASED by the Polaroid Corporation for the third quarter of this year indicate that thecorporation lost over £4 million during the period in question.The losses were due to the campaign run by the Polaroid Revolutionary Workers Movement, one of whoserepresentatives, Caroline Hunter, addressed the Anti-Apartheid Movement's rally in the Roundhouse inJuly.The National Union of Students and the Anti-Apartheid Movement are taking up the campaign againstPolaroid in this country. The company supplies the identity system 'for South Africa's pass laws.Schools kitABOUT THIRTY SCHOOLS and colleges will be invoved in a pilot project on teaching about SouthernAfrica duing the spring lerm, 1972. Schools and colleges representing virtually all arms of secondary andfurther education, as well as teacher training, have aready agreed to participate in the scheme.The pilot project is the first operational phase of the Southern Africa Education Project, for which a groupof teachers has produced an extensive set of notes and audio-visual aids, covering all the territories inSouthern Africa.
Teachers and others'who require more details about the project should write to "Southern Africa EducationProject", 89, Charlotte Street, London W.I.Student ActionANTI-APARTHEID MOVEMENT andthe National Union of Students are holding the second meeting of the network of student activists onSouthetn Africa. The meeting will be held on Saturday, December 4, at 11.00 nm. in the Panel Room,University College, 15 Gordon Street, London, W.C.L. Students who are, or intend to become, active inopposition to racialism in Southern Africa, should make an effort to attend.FranceSACTUand CGTTHE FRENCH CGT (Confeeration ou Travail) stated that it was strongly opposed to the Frenchgovernment's policy of supplying arms to South Africa after talks with a delegation from SACrU (SouthAfrican Congress of Trade Unions) at the end of October. The COT said that it opposed all ecosomic and -conmercial links between France and South Africa.In a joint statement issued after the talks the COT and SACTU said that they welcomed the proposal for aninternational trade union conference against racism, racial discrimination and apartheid, which had beenagreed to by the World Federation of Trade Unions. The statement wild: "The visit which SACrU has madeto France at the invitation of the CGT has made possible better information of these questions, and willcontribute to the development of French working class actions against racism and apartheid in SouthAfrica."The SACTU delegation was made up of John Gaetewe, SACTU's London Representative, and JamesPhillips, a member of SACTU's External Conimittee, and the COT delegation was led by Louis Saillant,General Secretary of the COT.ANC60th AnniversaryJANUARY 8, 1972 will be the sixtieth anniversary of the fdunding of the African National Congress inSouth Africa. The ANC has asked all organisations which support its struggle to mark the anniversary bycalling for the fight for people inside South Africa to organise freely, and espe. cially by condemning themurder of de tainem by the South African security police, by demanding an end to detention without trialand the release of all poitical prisoners.
Anti.Apartheid News. December 1971-4a=sy 1972. Page 3Britain sells out to Smith.THE AGREEMENT between Sir Alec Douglas-Home and Ian Smith will mean that the Rhodesian regimewill be legitimised, in the eyes of the British government, and will be free to continue denying ordinaryhuman rights to the African majority. Even in the dim and distant future, it is by no means certain thatAfricasis will be able to attain a majority of the seats in the House of Assembly. And universal franchise,with each vote carrying equal weight, is excluded in perpetuity.Sir Alec claims that the settlement is totally consistent with the five principles. In itself, of course, that is noguarantee against a sell-out. NIBMAR (No'Indepelndence Before Majority Rule) is the only principlewhich would be accepted by the great majority of Africans within the country, and by world opinion. Buteven in terms of the five prinicples, Sir Alec has sold out.The first of the principles states that there'shall be unimpeded progress towards majority rule. It issignificant that the settlement makes no mention of the crucial words "majority rule". But this is not just anomission of words which are likely to offend the susceptibilities of Smith and his supporters. The normalmeaning of the phrase is universal franchise, with each vote carrying equal weight. Under the agreement,such a situation will never come about in Rhodesia, even after the attainment of "parity", or an equalnumber of African and white seats.The section of.the settlement relating to the constitution accepts the 1969 Republican constitution as itsbasis. In the House of Assembly, there will be 50 white seats, and 16 African seats, as at present. Thepresent arrangement whereby half the African seats are filled by direct vold on a qualified franchise, andthe other half are indirectly elected by tribal colleges, will also continue in force. As under the Republicanconstitution, African seats will increase two-by-two, until parity is reached.The increase will in future take place as the number of voters registered on a new African "higher roll"increases--two more seats being added each time the
another six per cent of the whites enfranchised. Under the 1969 constitution, the same procedure was tohave been adopted, only it would have been geared to African income tax contributions.Estimates as to when "parity" will be reached vary from 25 to 60 years.One year after the holding of the general election at which parity is reached a referendum will be heldamong all African voters. They are then supposed to vote on whether the indirect election for half theAfrican seats should be abolished, and replaced by direct election, still on a qualified franchise.If the African voters favour the abolition of the indirect election, an election is to be held within a furtheryear to give effect to their intention.Once these rituals have been completed, an "independent" Commission is to be appointed by the Rhodesiangovernment. It will ascertain whether "the people of Rhodesia" favour the creation of ten Common Rollseats in the House of Assembly. If the Commission so decide$. then those ten seats will be filled by anelection by the voters registered on both the white roll and the African higher roll.The effect of these complex arrangements is that the great majority of Rhodesia's population will remainwithout political rights.- They have no hope of attaining the high qualification necessary to attain the vote,while the white retain control of the apparatus of government, the 'economy,. and the educational system.The Smith regime will continue to rely on the support of the chiefs, whom they hire and fire, through thestrategem of ensuring that half the African MPs are nominated by "tribal electoral Colleges". 'Unimpedeprogress to majority rule" has been "ftchedThe seiond of the five principles stated that there should be gunrantees against retrogressive amendment ofthe constitution.The agreement naively accents the word of the Rhodesian regime that they will not amend the entrenchedclauses of the constitution for three years. After that, they will be able to do so provided that they can get amajority of the total African membership in the House of Assembly to agree.This might not be as difficult as it appears at first sight, bearing in mind that half the African members areindirectly elected by the tribal colleges, and can be manioulated as the chiefs have been.in effect a blueprint 'for indefinite settler rule, it is hard to see what retrogressive amendments theRhodesian Front will find necessary.The third of the five principles lays down that there should be an immediate improvement in the politicalstatus of the Africans. The only gesture which has been made in this direction is the promise of aDeclaration of Rights, "affording protection to the fundamental rights and freedoms of the individual".No details were available at the time of writing, but it appears that it will have no applicability to thegrossly discriminatory. and undemocratic legislation which is already on the Rhodesian statute book.The fourth principle states that there shall be progress towards ending racial discrimination. The Rhodesianregime has stated that it will set up a commission to examine the question, the membership to be agreedwith the British government. They have agreed to put the findings of the Commission into law, "subjectonly to considerations that any government would be obliged to regard as of an overriding character". Thesettlement does not state who will interpret this escape clause.Sir Alec has stated specifically in Parliament that the Land Tenure Act will not be repealed. This Act,passed in 1969, is clearly discriminatory in that it divides the land 5q110 between the African 96 per centand the white four per cent of the population.Even" more significantly, the Act provides the complete framework for the administrative imposition ofapartheid in Rhodesia. It states that the interest of each race, as determined by the regime, shall beparamount in its own area. Neither race may own or occupy land in the area of the other race, except byosicial permit. All activities and associations between whites and Africans are therefore dependent onofficial permission.Perhaps the most dishonest aspect of the sellout is the way in which the fifth principle has been interpreted.The fifth principle states that the British government would need to be satisfied that the terms wereacceptable to the people of Rhodesia as a whole. The obvious way in which to test this would be by areferendum in which all the population could vote, after political leaders had been freed from gaol andrestriction, and given a full opportunity to campaign against the pro-But Sir Alec has announced that th test will be conducted by a Commission consisting of Lord Pearce, theformer judge, Lord Harlech, the chairman of Welsh commercial television, and Sir Maurice Dorman,former GovernorGeneral of Malta. A fourth member will probably be appointed later.In order to give the semblance of respectability to the consultation the White Paper lays down that "beforeand during the test of acceptability normal politicalactivities will be permitted to the satisfaction of theCommission". But there is an escape clause in so far as such activities must be conducted in a "peaceful and
democratic manner". The Rhodesian regime will, of course, be the judge of what is peaceful anddemocratic.During the period of the test, radio and television time will be made available to the parties represented inthe House of Assembly, thus excluding the African nationalists, who have made clear their opposition tothe settlement, from access to the media.Sir Alec admitted in the House of Commons that he had not pressed for the release of Joshua Nkomo,leader of the Zimbabwe African People's Union, who has been in restriction for six years.The Tories have made much of the money which Britain will grant over the next ten years for Africaneducation and economic development. The structures into which the money is to be put will remain underwhite control, and this means that the grants will in practice be a sqbsidy for the continuation of minorityrule.We must do everything possible to show that the British people do not acquiesce in the betrayal ofRhodesia's African majority.The only safeguard for the African people is the one which they themselves accept-NIBMAR.Sanctions cannot -be lifted unilaterally by the British government. They were passed by a mandatoryresolution of the United Nations Security Council, and must be maintained as long as minority rule inRhodesia continues.The resumption of "normal relations" with the Smith regime must be prevented. Any attempt to promotetrade with. investment in, or emigration to Rhodesia, should be met with vigorous counteraction.
Anti-Apartheid News. December 1971-January 1971. Page 4The Rhodesian maority are not silent.WHILE SIR ALEC DOUGLAS-HOME and Lord Goodman talk to their white counterparts in Rhodesia,(and to some black opponents of the regime, so that they can say they have spoken to "the Africans"),resistance continues inside the country.It is mistakenly believed in this country by many liberals'and leftwingerts well as the right, that Africanshave been silent, have been doing nothing, and that this, at least, inaicates passive tolerance of the regime.In actual fact. African resistance have taken both the form of peaceful demonstration, and the slow build-upto armed struggle.An unprecedented series of protests by students at the University College of Rhodesia, at teachers' trainingcolleges, and at African secondary schools throughout ,the country was sparked off by the announcement inJune this year, of pay rises for African teachers which were far less than those for European teachers. Theseprotests soon became generafised, particularly because of the presence of Lord Goodman and the Britishnegotiating team in the country. There is evidence of co-ordination from the University by both letter andpersonal visits.The Rhodega-Herald mentioned thirteen schools or teachers' colleges by name. and there were probablymore involved which it did not know about. The first, school protest was held in Plunmtree when onehundred and twenty-four African children from Tegwani School marched to the centre of the town.Amongst the placards carried by the students were ones with the words "Stop Working for these whitepigs", "Rhodesia is a police state", and "People's liberation, a free Zimhabwe or death".This was followed the next day by a protest of students from the Gwelo Teachers' Training College, whowalked eight miles to the centre of the town. Some very serious disturbances took place at St. IghatiusCollege, Chishawasha (near Salisbury). Some pupils were arrested under the Law and Order (Maintenance)Act. although most were later released. The pupils decided to walk to Salisbury to protest, bet were turnedbaek after eleven miles when the police threatened to prosecute them for conducting an illegaldemonstration. They refused the offer, of transport, and walked home.The next day the police came hack again and arrested two more pupils. While they were searching lockersand desks, their police Land-rover was turned over. The reinforcements who arrived minutes later, weremet with a shower of stones. The children were then assembled on the lawn, and nineteen boys arrested fortheir, part in the demonstration.The 6ther demonstrations, including two involving the University, followed, very similar patterns, withchildren often: walking considerable distances. Some-, times they managed to get into the towns and beseen, but sometimes they were stopped before they got there. They were uniformly orderly and peaceful. Insome cases, all the students in the demonstration were charged (as in the case of the 188 university studentson ist July). In other cases, only a few were taken as examples (as, for example, the nine stu-: dents fromthe United College in Bulawayo).
- Tne intensity of feelings in these demonstrations is indicated in the following comment by a pupil at St.Ignatius College to 'World in Action': "There is a degree of tolerance in a chained animal.- . . You may pester it for the first time, you may do it for as many times as you like. But a time will comewhen the big chain will soap, and the big animal will remove its tail from between its hind legs, andit willstart . .. barkiig, an-then from harking it will bite."The students are now paying the penal-(although some had them re-instated, and the others have been given financial assistance from othersources). Many school children have been expelled from their schools. A number of students from Gwelo,Teachers' College have been suspended for the rest of the year, and are being allowed hack only oncondition that they retake a year at their own expense. The African Education Department is takingprecautions for the future by threatening to refuse the right to sit exats to children who take part in suchdemonstrations.Another form of political interest is the circulation of political pamphlets. Amon ".Shonge (a cook at thenow hanned Cold .Comfort Farm), was found guilty of making a subservice statement in a Shona pamphletcalled "The Story of Weya". In it he called for "resistance to land laws"Another, pamphlet was circslating in 'the Bulawayo area in June and July of this year. It is worth printing infull:ZIMBABWE shall be free--but when?For how long are we going to be fourth-class citizens in our country?Our land has been stolen by an illegal racist, reginme Even the ruins of Zimhabwe itself are now part of aEUROPEAN NATIONAL PARK! We are not. allowed to compete for employment on merit, have thelower-paid jobs reserved for us, and for most there is no work of any kind. Over 90% of our Primaryschools were run by the Churches, but because of the unjust increase in fees they have been forced to handthem over to unwanted Councils and inexperienced local committees. Our older childen cannot fin-'Secondary school places and are forced to roam the streets; a waste of our country's resources and a crimeagainst humanity. Our leaders are dying in prison and those who have had the.courage to speak and act the truth have been detained without trial, deported, or terronsed in the mountainsofinyanga.How will this unjust situation bechanged?By a few of us infiltrating across theZambezi?By half-hearted United Nations Sanctions?By the British b3overnment which sellsarms to South Africa?Or are we waiting for some other' Messiah" to come and deliver us?YOU ARE THAT "MESSIAH". Together we have the power. to free ourselves. The sacrifice and sufferingwill be great, but it is this very sacrifice andsuffering which will make us not only,worthy of our freedom but capable of maintaining it. OUR LABOUR IS OUR POWER. The wholeeconomy depends upon our co-operation. If we were prepared to withdraw our labour, we could freeourselves and bring in ajust society.I'am prepared to free Zimbabwe, AREYOU?STRIKE FOR FREEDOM!A White observer from Rhodesiacommented recently that he thought that Africans Were becoming less frightened of informers. In busesgoing to the townships, they were prepared to say what they thought in a way that they wouldnot have done in 1970.Other incidents have been reported refleeting this refusal to accept European rule. An African was chargedin July under the Law and Order (Maintenance) Act for releasing 700,000 gallons of waterin Selukwe.In 'September. a European woke up to,
find that the fir hedge round his house had been set on. fire in two places, andhad nearly set his house on fire.ctnemas were emptied because of a phone cal saying- that bombs were present in them. At the beginning ofOctober. the Jameson Hotel had the same treatment. Lardner-Burke has complained of these kind of phone-calls on previous occasions.African resistance has taken more planned and violent forms as well. When Lord Goodman was inSalisbury in July. the Rhodesian police were horrified to discover that the Zimbabwe African NationalUnion (ZANU) had successfully infiltrated a very large cache of arms in-the- middle of Salisbury. The cache in' chded 31 rifles and machine guns, 85 grenades, large quantities ofammunition and-explosives. This had been brought in by drivers orgainsed by Denys Mainwana, who wasthe store foreman at Stuttaford's Van-hire, and had care of the regular delivery from Lusaka. They werestored at Stuttaford's under a false name, and were apparently found by accident. Tse distribution appears tohave -been managed by Betserai Madziverce, who was an- accountant at the Bible Society in Salisbury. Hesucceded in getting a part of the load distributed to branches of ZANU before the cache was discovered.The other member of the team was,Joseph Taderere, a lecturer in Chemistry at the University, who managed to escape rbef0re he wasconvicted. Mangwana got twenty years and Madzivere got seven years for their parts in the plotIn a trial ofan African accused of persuading a number of African school boys to undergo guerrilla training, Mr."Jutice" -Jarvis- said "The person Tecruited today is the terrorist of tomorrow."Those concerned came from a group of schools, including St. Ignatius, Chishawasha. and Mount St.Mary's, Wadza. A master and eight children were arrested and charged Wit illel undergoingescorted to a guerrilla camp. There they were given political instruction, and were taught the me of armsand explosives.As far as can be gathered from the trial reports in the Rhodesia Herald, Martin Mwale organised a series ofdiscussion groups of pupils at his school in 1971 with ten to fifteen boys joining in. Mwale encouraged thebys togo for training by saying it was desirable that people should be trained as freedom fighters.Another man, Aaron Gondo, was responsile for making contact with the school, and he had met a group-ofboys early in 1970 to answer their questions on a range of topics, including current political affairs. Duringthe meeting. Gondo mentioned it was possible to go for military training. (Jut Dube also had a similar job,and recrutited at least 46 boys.) 'One African, in a statement, said that he was involved because "I was highly critical of the Government andsaw no hope for the black man except through violent revolution". The full story came out because of the"confessions" made by the people involved.For example, Aaron Gondo claimed that he had to do "exercises" before being questioned. He .had to standfor a long time with his arms raised holding an iron bar He then had to squat with his hands above his head,and finally he had to stand leaning against the wall with his fingers only. He then was forced to move backtill ha fell. The Counsel for the State admitted that "aggressive" questioning had been used, and claimedthat the confession had been obtained so long afterwards (two and a half weeks), that any "unrdueinfluence" would have worn-off.The Judge agreed, and Gondo got twelve years.The police probably first got wind of the recruiting by means of their informer system-but it was some timeafter the recruiting and training was in operation.The cases discussed above are the unsuccessful ones. The successful cases we will not know about till longafter. ,Sir AI and Lord Goodman will do well to consider the unexploded bomb that 'Rhodesia comprises.Africans are not apathetic, and they are going to get their freedom. It is regrettable hut inevitable that it willbe with the barrel of a gun.A Rhndim wnldier keepis Watch on the ZaMbesi
Anti-Apartheid News. December 1971-Jaary 1972. Page 5Why the Portuguese cant win thewarin Guine.AMILCAR CABRAL, SecretaryGeneral of PAIGC (African Party for the Independence of Guink and theCape Verdes), toured Britain at the end of October and described the origins and progress of the s:ugleagainst Portuguese colonialism in Guin6 and the prospects, for victory. The following is taken from pressconferences, lectures and interviews which he gave during hi visit.
How did you launch armed struggle in Guini?We first attacked two camps and concentr4ted our forces-against the main Portuguese posiions-they werein the south and along the borders. Then they moved towards the interior, but we am. bushed and mined theroads. After six months the Minister of Defence announced that we controlled 15 per cent of Guin6; thiswas the best possible propaganda for us. because up to then we were unknown.Now, we ave expelled the Portuguese from more than 40 camps; they used to have 14 camps along theborder with independent Guint-now they have only one.We now control all the roads except for some in the western and centre-eastern regions; they cannot passand they do not try. What they do try to do is to asphalt the roads to prevent us from mining them. But it istoo late to asphalt them: we have good bazookas to destroy them with, and we have developed, over theyears, ways of attacking boats on the rivers.What are the specific characterilcs of Guini that you have to cope with?Guin6 is a flat country divided into two main areas: there is a coastal area with swamps and rivers, and inthe interior there are savannahs. with trees and some rivers. We have no mountains, althongh our peoplerefer to the hills in the southeast as "mountains".Another key characteristic is that Guinh is very small, about the size of Switzerland. We began with thepolitical struggle, with the mobilisation and organisation of our people; this stage took three years. Withoutour people the armed struggle would not be possible. IOur struggle is also based on the proverb of our people that "to cook rice you must place it inside the pot,not outside". We were determined to avoid any kind of deviation of the fight into neighbouring countries.This is very important because the tendency in cases like ours is to take advantage of the facilities outsidethe country to fight from outside inwards. Though the Portuguese have concentrated their forces on theborder, we have moved from the interior towards the borders.Another key principle is that as we have a very small popuation we must keep our losses to the minimum.We know of no other liberation struggle where the losses have been so low.Why does Portugal carry on in Guini?The Portuguese admit that they cannot win this war. General Spinola admittedthat. Even with their policy of giving' some concessions to some of our people sending Muslims to Mecca,sending Catholics to Fatima,. letting Africans be erved first in the market place--even. with this politicswhich we call "politics of blood and smile" they are being defeated. Caetano visited Guind last year for sixhours and met the Portuguese Chief of General Staff. He asked "Is it possible to reconquer the lostterritory?" He was told that this was impossible, principally because the people in our libersted areas haveexperienced independence This new consciousness of our people is a major weapon in our struggle. So whydoes Portugal continue fighting? Because every Portuguese soldier who dies in Guin6 is in reality fightingfor Angola and Mozambique.What is your attitude towards negotia. tions with the Portuguese?We are not warriors. We are not men who make war, because we like making war. We are freedomfighters. Our fight is to achieve the total liberation of our country and we would like to achieve this endthrough negotiations-but we cannot accept the continuation of Portugal's role as a coloniser. We havefought for nine years-but we have fought for peace and peace means nothing without freedom. We are verysure of the situation in our country. We have liberated more than two thirds of it and we control that evenadministratively. We are now able to attack Bissau, the capital, and Bafata, the second town-and we havethe means to destroy these towns. If it became necessary to use force to free the towns tomorrow that iswhat we would do But we do not want to take such action. We would prefer to solve the problem withoutfurther destruction. But that depends on the Portuguese.What is the situation on the Cape Verde Islands?South Africa has helped Portugal reinforce the Islands' defences so that they now form an important basenot only for Portugal's colonial wars, but also for South Africa itself. On the island of Sal where there is animportant South African military base they have enlarged the airport and are using it as an internationallanding stage which brings useful revenue to the Portuguese. Portugal and South Africa are therefore bothinterested in keeping the Cape Verde Islands under their rule.But we consider the two territoriesGuind and the Cape Verde Islands-as one people, one country. Take mefor example. I was born in Bafata. but my grandmother was taken from Guino as a slave to the CapeVerdes. On Cape Verde the opposition to the Portuguese is growing. It is difficult to fight on an island, butnot impossible. The important thing' is to have a sound political base. Our party already has a strongorganisation in the towns of the Islands, and over the last three years organisation .has started in the
countryside. At the moment this is a period of political preparation,- with a certain number of militarycadres already trined.Ainlear Cabral in London at the end of October.Now that you are concentrating on building a liberated State how will you change from structure forguerrilla war to structures for popular participation?In my country guerrilla struggle from the beginning meant, mass participation. Without that there wouldhave been no possibility of fighting an armed struggle. Maybe a few people in Latin America couldconduct guerrilla struggle under different circumstances but in our conditions it was possible only withmass parti. cipation.We can speak of guerrilla structures only in the first year of the struggle-and even then not strictlyspeaking. We began with political organisation. We are first and foremost a party leading the people toliberation. We moved from the organisation of the party to the guerrilla, and not the other way about. Evenwhen our guerrilla forces were more or less autonomous in the beginning of the fight they were still onlythe fighting instrument of the Party, Since our 1964 conference of the Party we have established parallelsections of the Party for political work and to run the regular or the guerrilla forces. We have createdorganisations for national reconstruction in the liberated areas.So we have no great problem now in.moving from so-called structures of guerrilla war to mass participation. We are organised in the villages asa party. The South is -led by the National Committee for the Liberated Regions of the South; there is asimilar organisation for the ones in the north.Ours is in fact a mini-government. In the liberated areas we have all the elements of a State. Now theproblem is to move from the liberated to the nonliberated areas, to enlarge our state, but it is not a problemto pass from guerrilla to new structures.How will you reduce the dangers of the leadership being detached from the led?That is a real problem, a constant problem, a constant fight. But we base our struggle on the masses andeach day the participation of the masses in the decisions taken by the Party grows. In the liberated areas weare now preparing for elections to local assemblies and our first national assembly. We think this willreinforce the sovereignty of our people and enlarge the democratic basis for our actions. Until now alldecisions about our actions and 'our lifW were taken by the organs of the Party but after the elections theproblems of the regions will be decided by the regional assemblies. Naturally the problems of the armedstruggle are another thing, to be decided by the Council of War. We hope the presence of the masses willprevent their detachment from the leadership. But we have to be very vigilant We can reduce the dangeronly by continually increasing the participation of the people and their control over the movement.In th building of a new society what will be the guiding lines of economic organisation?The guiding line' will be no more exploitation. We have had enough exploitation by the traditional chiefs,by other strata of our society, by the colonial power.And we will not make the mistake of confusing exploitation with the colour of one's skin. We will have nomore exploitation whether by foreigners or. nationals. We must be realistic about the circumstances of ourcountry. We are an agricultural country but a backward one. Our task is a technical revolution inagriculture. We do not need agrarian reform like some societies in Europe or even Algeria. This is becausethere is no private ownership of land, and our country was not made a colony of settlers. So we have noproblems of ownership of land, but we need a revolution in production.We think the best structure will be cooperatives, and co-operatives will be the basic economic organitationin agriculture and also in other sectors of the economy.IN A TELEGRAM to the Committee for Freedom in Mozambique, Angola and Guing, Amilcar Cabral hasappealed to all progressive forces in Britain to act tO prevent Portugal from using chemical weaponsagainst crops in the liberated areas of Guin. The Portuguese are already using herbicides and deflants inAngola and recently it has been reported that they are planning to use them in Guini.
Aatl.Apartheld Newf December 1971-January 1972. Page 6Ahmed Timol, 20th detaineAHMED TIMOL, who died after allegedly jumping from a tenth-floorwisdow at Johannesburg's notorious Vorster Square police HO, was detained on October 22.He had been in detention six days and was being interrogated by the Security Branch when he died.Ahmed was a teacher who was respected throughout the community for his dedication to his work and forthe tremendous effort and sacrifices he made for his students and friends in every aspect of their lives.
From a very young age he involved himself actively in community affairs. lHe was always in the forefrontfightl eagainst the injustices perpetrated Iby the apartheid system..Throughout his short life he worked for the ideal of a non-racial South Africa. based on the equality of allthe people that lived in it.Prevented by the system from advancing his studies and learning new educational techniques, Ahmed cameto Britain in 1967. He taught inSlough and attended evening classes.Those that had the opportunity of meeting him for the first time or of renewing old acquaintances, wereimpressed by his dedication and his abhorrence of injustice, whether it was in the UK or in South Africa.He was a member of the National Union of Teachers and took an active interest in its activities. In his lastIyear in the UK he worked amosg the immigrant community in Slough.The demands of his agg parents and the strong urge to be with the oppressed peoples of South Africa, ledhim, home in 1969. He immediately became involved with the problems of his students and hiscommui%?ithin two years of his return heis dead-killed because the vicious system of apartheid cannot tolerate anyone demanding basic humanrights.Ahmed was only 30 years old. He paid the ultimate penalty for his beliefs. but the work he did will not beforeotten: and the snirit of whatAhmed stood for will never die in South Africa.Once again the regime has taken the life of an individual, whose death is a loss, not only to his family andfriends, but to the future non-racial South Africa. No community, letalone South Africa. can afford to losesuch men.At the moment an unknown numher of people are being detained; many have been subjected to torture;' andevery day new names are added to the lists of people that have vanished without trace. ,The greatest tribute we could pay to Ahmed would be resolutely to contione our struggle against theapartheid system. We must build a mas.sive movement of solidarity with those detained and the millions ofoppressed South Africans.Our words must be transformed into action and we must give concrete material and other aid to the forcesthat are fighting the South African regime. It is this that will help ensure that Ahmed did not die in vain.AHMED TIMOL was the twentieth South Afriahnltoilt in detention since detention without trial was feat1iii in South Africa in 1963.* Mthayeni Cuthsela, an elderly had beesaolat detTranskeian, was detained on Dec- months.ember 21, 1970 for questioning in * James Tgitya,
16, 1969, the same night that he to detain ind~fnitielAt was detained. He was said to and in solitary eonflhave committed suicide, suspected to 'erroriias* Caleb Mayekiso, a trade union information tabotftsleader, died in his cell 18 days Court can intermuenal after his detention on March 10, the right ofAacessAc 1969. The police said his death person exceptathi Min was due to natural causes, orgovernmnedo tcib* James Lenkoe was said to have official capacity. tcommitted suicide by hanging One other Routh Alon March 10. 1969, five days Dependence -s,after he had been detained. Four and Rehabilitetis=mopatholists said that a wound on sed earlier thi,,yait his too could have been caused for indefinite:adeteatistby an electric burn. under conditidiszinsils* Solomon Modipane died three down in the tl'erelgdays after his arrest on February The South 0dfrieal 25, 1969. The police said that admitted thautlictsur heslipped on a piece of soap. Ing the Secutt y, ;JlW a Nicodumus Kgoathe died in Feb- people indefimitel ytrunty, 1969 after having been to use any mepg.etdhin detention since November 7, information bt da1968. A doctor said at the in- Vorster, whodwasvtht quest that he had various injuries Justice, said:n"t It'niwhich he thought were the result thing to see ashuniat of an assault and a post-mortem I have seen it.. Ishowed he died of bronchial these powers 4austtk pneumonia. The police said that bility for them," n hehad fallen while he was taking 'The SecurtWklllpt a ahower, of interrogatohel ledo* J. B. Tubakwe died on Septem. Colonel Thetma imber 11, 1968. the day after he names recur katlegsit had been detained. The inq~uest by detainees aidbssafound that he had committed at inquests libldwho4lsuicide by hanging. died.* Alpheus Madiba was said by At the Riviartrpolice to have hanged himself epoel said "Veti$W on September 9. 1967 about three not for the o~dihik(weeks after he was detained. He a mighty weaponinaip was one of the 156 accused in Indefinitedetcdaoalthe Treason Trial of 1956-61. finement is inlitelf a a Al Yan was asid to have been torture. Ont sf 11found hanging by socks from the methods of 'uterro water pipe of a shower cubicle the South Afriban,pollin a police cell in Pretoria on ing torture" 'dnxingb January 5, 1967. He was detained are preventedlfrom alon November 30, 1966. down.* Leong Yum Pin was detained on In very many asts,November 18, 1966 and was said Mohammed Essop,,:se to have hanged himself by his police haversnrtedcts shirt on November, 19. forms of torttire.- hbe* Hangula Shonyeka was detained people upsidendoWnin Pretoria prison and was said of windows, .ind7elccto have committed suicide on tre.October 9, 1966.* James Hamakwayo was said ina trial to have committed suicide by hanging. He was detained on August 26, 1966' and the date ofhis death is unknown." Suliman Saljee died after fallingseven floors from the Security Police headquarters in Johannesburg on September 9, 1964. He
Anti-Apartheid News. December 1971-January 1972. Page 7to die in poliecustody.tbsstodlave died TWENTY-NINE people are nowffst liAtroduced being held by the South AfricanSecurity Police in the aftermath of the raids which led to the death ofloin raetention for two Ahmed Timol.One of them, Mohammed Essop, is in a prison hospital with serious said to have injuries to his head andchest. Anbyace hanging other, Miss Khatija Chotia is reporqaasegrf from one ofof the window in his led to be ill.Some have been held since October ctIllhimbeth tome time 23 and 24. They include Mohammed
tbuto 196 dl. Timol. Ahmed Timol's brother, Fatitok andr 5I 1963 after ma Essop, sister of Mohammedkpe detained for about Essop, Yunus Patel, a fourth year tendta police said he engineeringutudent atWitwatersrand edilimilf by a pyjama University, Dfilhad Jethan, a second aP jersty in a cell in yearmedical student at Witwaters1000 f miles from his rand University, Fatima Wadi, a stu. Cap*Town. Amagis- de at the Indian University In Durbh-isited him before he bang Indris Moodley, a lecturer in bh had complained of pharmacy in Durban,Yussof Gard, suited , d a Johannesburg shopkeeper, Isbn Bul.ViMampe died on Sep. huia and Khaija Choltia, Johnnes. j1 9l 0 in Worcester jail hur secretaries, Mrs.Anima Dmu1eternape. He had and Haroon Mathews, a school1 ainie lApril. teacher.own; man was said to Mohammed Timol returned tokonaf unknown date South Africa from Britain on Septem. uth xfcan Minister of ber 29. He had beenstudying textile rei to a question on technology in Leicester and was a member of NUS. Yusuf Garda hadalso been a student in Britain.5kwaseing held under The 29 also include two Britishictgshich was passed citizens, Quentin Jacobson and David lAeiteallows the potice Smith, and MartinCohen, an AustraSfinitely without trial lian, who were detained in the first p enfiement anyone week ofNovember. In Hill, a fourth errorisa" or of having year medical student at Witwatersibout iterrorism. Norand University, was detained onurse and no one has November 12.tcecsisto the detained Eight more people were detained1o Minister o Justice on November 10. Among them are Soffi sia acting in an the younger sister ofMohammed andut a a. t Fatima Essop, Hajira Essop, Dr.pr frcan Sulbstantes Colin Marquard, a lecturer at Wit,ron itresAct, ncs- watersrand University and MaxCuts, in ealt also prdts a student at the university. detentivn without trial The families and friends of someen i o without laiad of the detainees have mid that police noin t tel are retaing to accept food andclothfitha overnment has ing for them. The wife of Indris t4f ,iapose of allow- M dley was given his shirtfor it e to detain washing with all the buttons rippedWylifito enable them 0.tflyiowant to extract Ahmed Timolo and Mohammed bib antI 10 e~ t Essop were arrested on theeveningwasytea Minister of of Friday October 22 in Johannes"It Id'not a very nice burg after police searched theircarihunaa bring broken, and =leg found plitical leaflets... The man taking n October 285 police announced..... te esoni that Ahmed Tiam had committed1 thn r s suicide by jumping from the tenth016" 0 have a eam floor of John Vorster Square poiceIo lelo by Lieutenant station.ah Smmmeptiel. whose Mohammed Essop's father, Mr.glillegtions of torture fim" Esop, learned that his son sadbin evidence given was in a Johannesburghospital on l[doidhose who have October 27. He went to the hospital and saw his son through a windowkiltinahin 1964 Swan- lying on a bed and covered withlipelriay drtention is brises and blood clots. At first adwiayc criminal. It is matron at the hospital had deniedhands." that Mohammed Essop was there andt solitary con- his father was not allowed into theitself a severe form of ward to visit him. bf the commonest On October 29 a court order wasuterrotation" used by granted restraining the Police from an police is the "stand- as'sulting MohammedEssop, but by stringhwhich detainees the terms of the order it had to be lrom:sleeping or sitting served inhis presence and the police prevented this for nine days. Now ycasen, such as that of Mohammed Essophas been moved lsop, the South African to a prison hospital and his family )rted(o the most brutal andindependent doctors are still ire-batings, hanging being refused access to him. nidoen sometimes out Thefirst detentions took place duriblelctric shock tor- ing a weekend of mass political raids which are said to
have been the biggest since 1964. At least 115 people were raided--3 in the Western Cape, 20 in the EasternCape, 30 in the Transvaal and 30 in NataLThey included 62 students, 9 clergy, 17 teachers and university lecturers and 6 journalists. Among theclergy were two Anglican bishops and the head of the United Congregationl Church in South Africa. Thirtyofthose whose houses and flats were searched were connected with the National Union of South AfricanStudents (NUSAS), some were membees of Student Representative Councils, 6 were officials of the blackSouth African Stdentse Organisation (SASBO) and at least 5 were activists in the University ChristianMovement (UCM). Police also questioned 11 officials of the recently revived Natal Indian Congress.Among the Institutions searched were a Lutheran College in Natal, an Indian commercial school inJohannesburg, a hospital in Zululand and the Asiatic High School at Ronde. poort, the Indian suburb ofJohannesburg. From many places the police took away samples of type faces and typeowritrs." u9 of the tbn the police wer obviously searching for were the sources of underground literature, much ofwhich is duplicated. An underground newsletter Revolt has been circulating for some time in Johannesburgand the South African Communist Paty recently sent copies of Its duplicated newspaper to the SouthAfrican pes.There have been massive protests inside South Africa against Ahmed Timo's death and the new wave ofdetentions. Several thousand people attended Ahmed Timol's funeral and all Indian businesses inRoodepoort closed as a mark of respect.At a packed meeting on October 30 Indian leaders declared November 10 a national day of mouraing insympathy with all South African political prisoners and a resolution, drawn up by the Nal Indian Congress,was passed calling on "all oppressed people of South Africa to observe a national day of mourning onWednes, day, November 10, 1971 and to withdraw completely from all spheres of commerce and Industryas a sip of protest". At the meeting an Exeetive member of the Congres said "H we have to pay the fialpenalty that Ahmed Timol let us pay it".The Indian Cangrem also Issued a statement saying that it "abhors beyond belief the death of AhmedTimol" und camng en Buam head* the Coloured Labour Party, the Federal Party and orgnendons. co-operating wilt, l Government" to "display in tangible terms their opposition to the Government in powe".The stooge South Alrican Indian Council has seat a telegram to Vorsta asking for a judicIal Inquiry intoAhaed Timols death. It has reported that there is "a tremendous amount of unrmest" among the Indiancomnmunity.Pupils staged protest sit-la in schools in Leausls and at the Indin College of Education for the TransTherehave also been bil multiracial meetings in Darhn, Johaunesburg and Cape Town. At a meeting attended bymore than 1,500 people in the Great Hall of Witwatererand Don Mattera, Press Officer of the Labour Partysaid "It is because of the laws of this country that my brothers on Robben Island beat against the batteredbreast of liberty".Another speaker clled for the total scrapping of the Terrorism Act and aid that the long-term solition to thecritical situation on South Africa's borders which was supposed to make the Act necessary was to create"sach conditions of life in South Africa that all men, Black, Brown and White, would be proud to live herein freei dom".The Principal of Witwaterserand University, Dr. G. R. Bozzoli and the university's Academic StaffAssociation have also protested against thedetention of the 5 detainees who are students at the university.At the UN India has called on the General Assembly to deplore the deaths of Asians and others while underdetention in South Africa and to declare those responsible "criminals" and the Soviet Union and Guineahave co-sponsored a draft "Convention on the Suppression and Punishment of the Crime of Apartheid".The UN Special Committee on Apartheid is to preparereport on nil known case of "malteatment and tortureof prisoner" in South Africa.In London the office of the African National Congress Isued a statement ying1 Thes brave patriots who arechallenging the fascist regime inside South Africa are in dice need of the support and protecinn of everyafel ,hishmi bei_ g throeghouthewrTHE NATIONAL UNION of Stedents of the United Kingdom has sent the following telegram to the falyof Ahmed Timoh"We extend our deepest sympathy on the death of Ahmed, victim of a brutal regme Representing half nmimon students we honour him and continue the s againstSouth African repeuaion."
The Annual ConfereWe of the NUS has sent a telegram to Prime Minister Vorster condemning thedetention and death of Ahmed Timol, condemning the detention of other South African students and callingfor the release of all political prisoners.The North London Association of the National Union of Teachers, of which Aimed Timol was a memberwhen he was in Britain, has passed the following resolution:"This North London National Union of Teachers deplores the death of Mr. Ahmed Timbl, formealy amember of the NUT and demands that the South African government make an official public enquiry intothe circumstances of his death. It also demands the release of other political detainees in South Africa.Furthermore it recommende that the National Executive of the NUT instructs its members to uphold theacademicboycott of South Africa".Resolutions condemning Ahmed Timoi's death are also to be discussed at meetings of the Westminster,Hackney and' Wandsworth NUT Associa tions.The Anti - Apartheid Movement asks Iudividul supporters and sympathetic organisations to send letters andtelegrams to Prime Minister Vorster deploring the death of Ahmed Tmol and calling for the release of theother detainees.
Anti-Apartheid News. December 1971-January 1972. Page 8INSIDE SOUTHERN AFRICASouth AfricaWorld shock atDean's sentence.THE DEAN of Johannesburg, the Very Rev. Gonville ffrench-Beytagh, says he will return to Britain if hisappeal is successful against his conviction under the Terrorism Act."I think I've shot my boll here," he said in a television interview.Horror at the five-year prison sentence imposed on the Dean has been expressed all over the world.At the United Nations, 36 member states tabled a resolution condemning the South African Government'streatment of its opponents.A, flood of criticism in the United States was directed not only at the trial, but at the whole Terrorism Act--many Americans pointing out that the Dean was innocent under US law.The 'Dean was found guilty on these three of the original ten charges:That at a Black Sash meeting in 1970, he incited or encouraged those present to contravene the laws ofSouth Africa and to support and prepare for violent revolution with the object of bringing about social. polinl and economic changes.That he encouraged Mr. Louis Henry Jordaan (the police agent provocateur) to support the commission ofacts of violence and to take part in prepartions for a violent uprising, against the State.That he received £30,000 from the Defence and Aid organisation in London and paid it out to membersof banned organisatios."I think this is a case where I should mpose the minimum sentence," said Mr. Justice P. M. Cillie, saying hebelieved the Dean had acted out of conviction. The minimum sentence .under the Act is five years.The Dean was given leave to appeal and was granted an extension of his bail of over £5,000.His legal costs for the mammoth hearing have been estimated at nearly £50,900-if all his lawyers take .theircustomary fees.Sentence passed onbus boycotters.SENThNCES HAVE now-been passed on 11 Coloured people convicted of public violence during "busriots" at the township of Gelvendale, outside Port Elizabeth in March.On March 7 the people of Gelvendale protested against increases in bus fares. The police attacked thisdemonstration with teargas, with combat clubbing and finally by shooting Into the unarmed crowd. At least12 people were injured including a 15-yearold girl who was shot in the chest, and a pregnant woman whogot a bullet in the stomach.'Predictably it was not the -police but their victims who ended up in court to receive sentences ranging fromnine cuts with the cane, to IS months imprisonment.Witness describestorture campin forest.
A STRING of State witnesses in the trial of 13 alleged members of the Unity Movement inPietermaritzburg have given evidence about an alleged network 'which recruited people to go abroad formilitary training. The prosecution alleges that four "agents" infiltrated into South Africa with the purpose offinding people who would go abroad to be trained.One of the witnesses, Donald Mlambo, who had been held in solitary confinement for three months, said hehad attended a meeting at which plans made by Ernest Jama, one of the alleged agents, to enlist people formilitary training were disclosed.trate in the Transkei, whose name was ordered not to be revealed, said that he had been approached by twoagents, Ernest Jama and Leonard Nikane, to go abroad for military training.He described the camp in the Pondoland forest where the accused say they were taken for interrogation andtorture. Among the 12 white policemen at the camp were Li6utenant Colonel Swanepel, Captain vanNiekerk, Captain Erasmus, Sergeant Male and Sergeant Nicholson. There were 'interrogation tents on theedge of the caelsjt a little way from the complex of tents housing detainees and police.The trial started in August and all the accused have been held inceFebruary and March. Charges against afourteenth man, who was originally charged with the thirteen were dropped before the trial began, but he isstill being held and no-one knows what is happening to him.It is still not known how many people are still being detained and have refused to give evidenc. Geradineand Alfred Wilcox, sister and brother of Robert Wilcox, one of the accused, were released last month afterbeing held in solitary confinement since March,Winnie Mandelaguiltyof lookingforher children.THE VICIOUS PERSECUTION of Wimte Mandela by the South African state still cotnuesIn November she was given a six month jail sentence, conditionally suspended for three years, for defyingher banning order. Her "crime" was to be seen talking to Mr. Peter Magabane, another banned person, inFraser Street, Johannesburg, on September 1, the day before she was scheduled to visit her husband, NelsonMandela, on Robben Island.On that day Mrs. Mandela had brought her two daughters with her to the Magistrates Court to fetch apermit granting her permission to leave Johannesburg to visit her husband. She then went on to ahairdressing salon-but when she left the salon she could not find her children, While looking for them inFraser Street, she found Magubane sitting in a car. She asked him if he . had secen the children-and wasstunned when the police, who had evidently been following her every move, suddenly appeared.For this heinous offence Winnie Mandela was dragged through yet another ordeal in a South African court.Farm labourerbeaten to death.TWO FARMERS have appeared in court, charged with the, murder of 30-year.old farm labourer JoeKadesame.Prosecution witnesses, all other labourers, mid Petrus and Gysbert Loures tied Mr. Kadesame behind atruck and dragged him more, than 100 metres-after beating, him unconscious with a pick-handle and apiece of hosepipe.The two brothers were charged together with their overseer, Thamie Ncanango. Witnesses said Mr.Kadesame was attacked so brutally because "the bas said he was not working". He was found dead later thesame day.Jobs vacant- shortsight an advantage.YOU CAN work as an usherette in a white cinema-but you mustn't look at the screen. This is the bizarredirective to Coloured girls in Johannesburg who are employed by a cinema chain.The girls must not look at the screen while the file is running, in case they see scenes which are banned tonon-whites. They are being recruited by She company because white staff are not available."When we show a film which our non-patrons in with a torch and watch the floor," said Mr. John Redman, general manager of Kinekor's theatredivision."We discussed the matter wih the Depart. ment of Labour . . . as a precautionary measure, we decided thatthey should not look at the screen."The girls are paid the same rate as white girls. They are not allowed to sit in the anditorium, as whiteusherettes do."
NamibiaSWAPO strikesinside NamibiaMORE THAN 50 South Atrican troops were killed in guerrilla attacks in Namibia in the period September24-October 5, according to the South West African People's Organisation (SWAPO).In a communique issued in Dar es-Salam on October 21. SWAPO states that their guerrillas launchedconcentrated attacks on a south African military supply and commuication camp in the Okavango region ofNamibia, killing 15 enemy troops and wounding many others.On October 4, two South African military vehicles struck land mines on a road about 35 miles west of theKatima Mulilo 'base, destroying the trucks and killing 30 soldiers on board. The communique continues:"The following day, SWAPO guerrillas ambushed an enemy convoy in the Caprivi Strip, wiping out nineenemy soldiers, and wounding 17 others. Three enemy cars were destroyed. During these operations,SWAPO guerrillas suffered no casualties".The communique strongly condemned atrocities perpetrated by South African troops against the Naibianpeople. It said that the enemy troops had carried out wanton bombings against villages in the northern andnorth-eastern parts of Namibia.Peasants had been killed and whole .vllages burnt. Hundreds of peasants had been fored to leave theirhomes.,The communique declared that the Naniblan people were determined to deal heavier blows at theenemy.MozambiquePortuguese step upterror asFRELIMOadvances.NEVER HAS the gap between Portuguese war communiques from Mozambique and actual fact been sowide as in recent months. Once again the Portuguese are claiming spectacular successes. In September andOctober they reported that they had killed 370 FRELIMO guerrillas, captured another 468, seized 200assorted arms, 226 grenades and mines and 21,000 rounds of ammunition, and destroyed no less than 114FRELIMO camps.There is an air of familiarity about Portuguese claims to have "almost ended" guerrilla activity in Niassaand to have "sealed the border" with Tanzania against infiltration. These objectives were allegedly achievednot only in the spring of this year, but also in operation Gordian Knot in 1970. In their latest desperateattempt to hold back FRELIMO's advance the Portuguese have resorted to a full-scale campaign of terroragainst the population of Tete. The White Fathers reported on massacres and brutalities carried out in May,and according to the thousands of refugees fleeing from Tote to Malawi similar atrocities have continuedeven since. The refugees, when inter. viewed, stated quite clearly that they had fled from the Portuguesearmy, not from clashes between the Portuguese and FRELIMO. Many admitted that they had givenFRELIMO fighters food and shelter and denied that FRELIMO had ever used any measures of coercionagainst them. Refugees told of Portuguese aircraft strafing fleeing villagers with machine-gun fire, killingsome and wounding many others. One Portuguese interrogation technique consisted of forcing Africanwomen to put their. babies intontondos-wooden bowls used for pounding maize. The women were then asked the whereabouts of "theterrorists" and if they failed to reply were forced to beat their children to death with pounding sticks. Somuch for the civilising mission.PortugalNATO basewrecked nearLisbonPORTUGAL has declared a "State ofSubversion" in an attempt to halt the build up of a "fourth front" in its African wars inside Portugal itself.In the latest of a series of bomb attacks on installations connected with the colonial wars, a NATO base waspartly wrecked on November 7. In a communique claiming respomibility for the explosion a group callingitself "The Revolutionary Brigade" ,says that NATO "is one of the main instruments of the imperialistoffensive". It stales that fascism will not be defeated by guerrilla activity alone, but that. the group's actionmust be seen in th context of a world-wide struggle which uses all the methods olien to it-some of themlegal, some semi-legal and some illegal. It appeals to revolutionary workers, students and peasants insidePortugal to form more "revolutionary brigades" which will undertake similar actions,
St HelenaPlease,canwe haveour island back?Douglas Marchant writes:JUST WHAT is happening on St. Helena, the tiny 47 sq. mile British island colony in the South Atlanticsome 1,200 miles off the West coast of Africa?Allegations of racial discrimination, 'police brutality, attempted rape, forced labour, etc., have become rifeover the last three years. yet the British Government refuses to set up an independent Commssion ofEnquiry. The islanders' plight stems from the dei' sion of the previous Labour Government to "sell" St.Helena to South Africa. In 1968 the Labour Government agreed to the pro. posal that Solomon & Co., theisland's main trading company, should be sold to the South Atlantic Trading and Investment 'Company(SATIC), a company with very strong White South African connections. Three of SATIC's dirctors areleading members of South Africa's ruling Nationalist Party and Tony Thornton, SATIC's Chairman, madehis fortunes as a result of the Group Areas Act. When the Coloured community of Cape Town's District 6were evicted from their homes, Thornton bought their properties at dirt cheap prices and then resold themto whites at substantially higher prices.Whilst some people found it reassuring that there was money to be made from racial discrimination, the St.Helenians considered it it quite a different light. Their ancestors were British, French, Spanish, Portuguese,Chinese and African. Not unnaturally they viewed the prospect of becoming a South African colony ratherapprehensively. They sent telegrams of protest to U Thant, Harold Wilson and the Queen. 800 St.Helenians staged a protest march through the streets of Jamestown, the island's capital. But to no avail.Thornton, and his cronies were allowed on the island and the present Tory Government seems asunconcerned with the implications as the previous government was.While it is surprising, given the scarcity of jobs, the incredibly small community (less than 5,000), and theSouth African stranglehold, that a number of St. Helenians have dared write about the situation to BritishMPs, it isn't surprising that they have asked for their names to be kept private. And it isn't surprising thatthe Tory Government refuses to set up an independent Comnission of Enquiry-if there is any truth in theallegations....hite airlk ar not allowed to seeth usher.1 - . .1-1 s. - s- w e
Anti-Apard.New December 1971-Jamoy 1972. Page 9Angela facesdeath forher belefs.THE TRIAL of Angela Davs, on charges of murder, kidnappmg and tcoarpsacy, winch could carry the apenalty, began on NovemberL CUKINt'd 8'aKEICH talked to Angela's Sister, k ana Jordan, when she was in Britain last October."THIS COUNTRY is galloping at high, speed down the path leading to South African type fascism. Thefact that political prisoners are rapidly increasing in number and are emerging as a central focus aroundwhich massea of people are mobilising, is indicative of the fascist tendency of our time.... Fascist tactics ofrepression should not be confused with fascism.... Conditions have not deteriorated to that level. We stillretain a slight degree of flexibility. Therefore we must continue to make use of the legal channels to whichwe have access, which of course does not mean that we operate exclusively on the legal plane.. . . Theimportant thing is to realise that we must do everything in our power to consolidate and solidify a massmovement devoted to struggling not only against repression but with the positive idea of socialism as itsgoal. This means that we assume an offensive rather than a defensive posture...."Bomb attacksAngela, Davis is 27, a southern bore. black American whose schoolteacher parents took part in earlycampaigns for voter registration and desegration for Birminghas, Alabama. As a chfld, Angela participatedwith them and saw many bomb attacks on black families in her neighbourhood, bombs which killed four ofher young friends. She became a promising student who won scholarships and degrees from universities inthe U.S.. France and Germany.Now she is charged with murder, kidnapping and conspiracy, resulting fromthe shootout at the Matin County courthouse in northern California in which four persons, including thejudge, were killed. She pleads innocent to the charges. She was not at the scene of the crime. Theprosecution slates that the guns, registered in her name, were supplied by her and that Jonathan Jackson
carried them into the courtroom during the trial of his brother, George. and that, therefore, it is charged, sheis an accessory before the fact. If she is found guilty she faces the death penalty or life imprisonment withthe Possibility of parole. It is unusual for the prosecution to seek the supreme penalty in a case of"accessory before the fact". It is also considered unusual that she is denied bail, kept in solitaryconfinement and treated like a hardened criminal although she has had no previous criminal record.But Angela Davis was a national figure and a symbol of black radical resistence before- the Maria Countycourthouse insurrection, her flight, -capture and subsequent-extradition from New York City to California.In 1969 when she was an instructor of Philosophy at the University of California, the regents of that univer-sity voted to have her dismissed because she was an avowed Communist. A California judge ordered herreinstated. Yet at the end of the first'year of her two year contract, the regents again dismissed her.Recently, the American Association of University Professors prepared a report which states that the regents'action was a violation of academic freedom and a violation of Miss Davis' academit freedom. This reportwill be submitted at the next annual meeting of the AAUP and could lead to censure of the university."Dangerous terrorist"At the time of her dismissal, California Governor Ronald Reagan publicly and wholeheartedly supportedthe decision of the regents. At the time of her arrest, President Nixon addressed the nation on television andcongratulated the FBI for capturing a "dangerous terrorist". He was severely: criticised for making thisstatement since it implied that Angela Davis was guilty before any evidence had been submitted. Americanlegal tradition holds that a person charged with a crime is presumed innocent until proven guilty. But thepresumption of innocence can be difficult touphold in the case of a controversial defendent. One CaliforniaCongresman said that her case is based more on dislike for her political beliefs and associations than onlegal evidence. Questions of discrimination and the deprivation of civil liberties have arisen so often of latethat more and more members of the black community are asking if violence is their only hope in America.However there have also been acquittals.- as in the trial of Erika Huggins and Bobby Seale, leadera of theBlack Panther Party. Their"six-month long trial ended in a hung jury. The Judge then dismissed all charges(for murder and conspiracy to commit murder) and maintained that due to the extent of local press coverageit would be impossible for them to receive a fair trial.Commenting on this trial, Fania Davis Jordan, Angela's younger sister, safd "in London 'recently, "ErikaHiggins 'and Bobby Seale were released because of public pressure and revolutionary lawyers. CharlesGarry, their chief defence counsel, who is now defending Huey Newton in his third manslaughter trial,created a new series of questions to select the jury and it took three months to get black jurors."Fania Jordan is 23. married and has a five-month-old baby girl. She is touring the world raising money andsupport for Angela Davis' defence. Her message is very direct. "I'm ,not here only to fight for my sister'slife but for the freedom of all political prisoners and to fight against the rising tide of fascism in mycountry."She said "We expected support for Angela in France and Italy because there are large Communist partiesthat can bring people out in demonstrative support. There were 60.000 in a demopstration in Paris. InEngland, the left wing influence is small but there has been a fantastic amount of support. I was per-FANIA JORDANsonally disappointed because I expected there to be more justice in England. Theres an image of the BritishBobby. unarmed, not riding around in tanks and armoured cars. But the repression is in. sidious and on theverge of developing. The Immigration Bill is a racist measuretae ains polofclour, and the Indugri~a latosAct isoa ateo divide the working class.Class unity"The black movement is not just a black cause. It is more sophisticated and encompasses working classunity. Black peopie are in the vanguard of the revolutionary cause because they've had the experience ofrepression all these hundred of years. In spite of .nationalistic over. tones, there is a heartening amount ofsupport from people in all nations. Blacks must be in the forefront because we have the history behind us.Whites will not reject the system so completely ,as we will." " .In the shorthand language of platform rhetoric much is condensed, overlooked, misquoted andsmisunderstood. When Fania Jordan spoke" at a meeting at Central Hell, London,the question of Anti-Zionism among black militants was vociferously raised by a few members of the audience. After someheated discussion on the subject, the Chairman said there was no more time to go on with it at that meeting.Afterwards Fania Jordan said, "I am Anti-Zionist. Zionism represents extreme nationalism and imperialism.There are black people, who are imperialists and I am against them too. But black people aren't racist. You
can't be racist unless you have the power to exploit others in housing and in jobs. I'm not against Israeliswho are struggling against the same oppression as we are and who try to assert themselves. I usedto rate white people but I stopped when I realised it wouldn't get me anywhere. Being racist is a niaveresponse to exploitation."Throughout Mrs. Jordan's talks, and in the speeches, of most black American militants, the message is forblack people to be in the vanguard of the struggle to free Angela Davis and al political prisoners and tounify the poor of all nations against the system of capitalistic imperialism. In Angela Davis' words, "Thesuperexploited want total liberation from capitalism. We must inevitably draw the conclusion that ourthrust towards liberation must be organically bound up with the movement involving large numbers ofwhite people, who through a socialist revolution, will liberate themselves, and particularly whites at thepoint of production so the people who work the apparatus will collectively receive the fruits of theirlabour."Back intellectualAmong many Americans sponsoring freedom for Angela Davis there are some who fear that she will betried not only for what she is alleged to have done but ,-also that she will be tried as a black intellectualwho has worked actively to solidify radical opinion.Howard Moore, her chief defence counsel, was quoted as saying, "There is no vanguard party in Americawith sufficiently sophisticated ideologies to lead people in the direction of revolution. The IJS is probablythe most sophisticated right wing country in the world. There is no real, significant organised left wingactivity because once a group is identified as a radical organisation, th*,n't move any more."
Anti.Aparlheid News. Deceber 1971-Jannuay 1972. Page 10"Get out of S Africa,say Hull students.ON DECEMBER 1, the Hull University Students' Union will be deciding what steps to take against itsuniversity's financial support for apartheid.Hull University is the second largest shareholder in Reckitt and Colman Ltd., a firm which has numerouslucrative invest. ments in South Africa. Rhodesia and Mncanabique. The largest shareholder in Reckittand Colman is the chairman of the University Council, Dr. Basil Reckitt. The University's shares have anominal value of £300,000, and a real value of over £1.5 million.The University is clearly making a packet out of the exploitative conditions in South Africa. The assets ofReckitt and Colman there are- worth about £5.85 million, or 5 per cent of the capital employed by thewhole company. Yet trading profits in 1971 amounted to £1.51, or 7 per cent of the world total. Wages forAfrican employees were less than a quarter of those for white employees.The Students' Union at Hull has already demanded that the University call upon Reckitt and Coman todivest themselves of their South African interests, by November 27. At the time of going to press, itappears unlikely that the company will do this, or indeed, do anything which runs counter to the apartheidsystem. If there is no action from Reckitt and Colman, then the Students Union has called upon theUniversity Council to get rid of its own shares in the company by January 27. The meeting on December 1will consider a motion from the Anfi-Apartheid Society, calling upon the University Council-to give astatement of intent by January 27. declaring that it will withdraw from Reckitt and Colman.This clear stand against collaboration with apartheid is the result of a sustained eampaign by the Anti-Apartheid Society, which had its origins in the Anti-Apartheid Weekheld at the start of this academic year. This initial campaign resulted in the enrolment of 120 members, andprovided the base from which the movement towards positive action was launched,The Students Union meeting which took the vital decisions on Reckitt and Colman was held on Ocober 27.The mcstion calling on Reckitis to withdraw from 'Southern Africa, and, failing tf t, for the University towithdraw from Reckitt's. was proposed by Mike Goss.. In his speech to the motion, he pointed out that allforeign investments bolster the apartheid regime. Any "concessians" produced by Reckitt's which fell shortof total withdrawal would be likely, like the earlier "concessions" antounced by Polaroid and Barclays, tobe derisory. In addition, there wa no reliable way of monitoring what Reckitt's said they were doing forblack workers in South Africa.The motion was passed overwhelmingly after the defeat of an amendment saying that. "some improvementin the appalling conditions" of the company's black workers would be sufficient.Support for the campaign to prevent Hull University collaborating with apartheid has been growing sincethen. Over 1,000 students and 100 members of staff have signed the Anti-Apartheid Society's petition.
About 140 members of the University picketed the meeting of Counci on November 5. And the Chairmanof Council, Dr. Reckitt, the majority shareholder in the co mpany, has asked for a "chat" with Mike Goss. "Hull students have contacted groups at other centres which have shares-in Reckitt and Colman-Cambridge, -Oxford and London University. The University of East Anglia has been contacted inconnection with the Norwich factory of Reckitt and Colman.The campaign to prevent Barclays Bank from carrying on business in the Hull Union is proceedingsimultaneously. During Oto-her, a number of Barclays posters were daubed so that they read: "Th is no ordinary carrot-it's apartheidbacked".The local newspaper, the Hull Daily Mail. has published strident editorial comment in an attempt todiscredit the AntiApartheid Society. On October 28, they referred to "the vociferous handful who pass sillyresolutions-. . , in the guise of altruism". Without any supporting evidence whatsoever, they said, "Reekilt'shave good reason to feel that they run their South African interests in a humane and enlightened fashion".It is not yet known how much of the Hull Daily Mail's advertising revenue comes fromReckitt and Colman.ACCORD attacksAustralian firms.JIM BOYCE, former Australian rugby international, has been spearheading moves against companieswith links with South Africa beginning with Rothmans (Austraha) Ltd.Mr. Boyce appeared at Rothmans' annual meeting and put a series of questions to the chairman, Sir RonaldIrish. He was heckled by shareholders who shouted "Shut up", "Sit down" -and "This is not a politicalmeeting".However Sir Ronald answered his questions--which had already been publishd in a Sunday newspaper andhad been given to the company in writing. Copies of the chairman's five-page, reply were passed round toall shareholders at the meeting.Sir Ronald said: "Rothmas (Australia) have no policy of discrimination of any kind to people of any sex,colour or creed. Rothmas (Australia) does support nonracialism in sport"Mr. Boyce, who was active in the oppositionto the Springbok tour as a member of the .Campaign AgainstRacialism in Sport, was representing ACCORD (Australian Citizens' Committee o OpposeRacialDiscrimination) at the meeting.ACCORD has been compiling a list of Australian companies in South Africa.The Presbyterian Church of Victoria is also taking action to emphasise the realities of the South Africansituation to all companies in which it his holdings,,which haveinterests or subsidiaries in South Africa.Art Collegebans Rothmans.THE STUDENTS UNION executivecouncil at the College of Art and Design, Cheltenham has closed its account with Carreras/Rothmansbecause of the involvement of the parent company, Rembrandt, in South Africa.The executive' council decided unanimously on October I1 to dissociate themselves entirely fromCarreras/Rothmansand to have all the company's cigarette machines removed from he college."This union is fully aware of the despicable nature of British commercial involvement in Southern Africasupporting apartheid, which we abhor," Dave Homer, the president, said in his letter to Carreras!Rothmans.Trinity maysellPolaroid shares.THE BOARD of Trinity College, Dublin have decided not to invest in any company which supplies goodsfor the enforcement of apartheid in South Africa. The Board will probably also selt the Polaroid shareswhich they had already bought.It was this purchase 'hich sparked off the protest from the Irish Anti-Apartheid Movement and students'representativesPolaroid supplies the South African Government with its ID card system, one of lhsmain tools of apartheid.Some years ago the Board decided to selltheir Anglo-American shares, because of that company's involvement in South Africa.Christian.CHRISTMAS,
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