Anti-Semitism & The Holocaust. Important Events in Jewish History  It is important to begin our discussion about Anti-Semitism by looking at the timeline.

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> Anti-Semitism &amp; The Holocaust </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> Important Events in Jewish History It is important to begin our discussion about Anti-Semitism by looking at the timeline of Jewish history in order to understand the persecution that has existed from the time of Moses. 1400 BCE? (date unclear) The descendants of Abraham move to Egypt where they work as slaves. 1280 BCE Moses leads the Hebrews out of Egypt and across the Red Sea. 721 BCE Assyrians conquer and invade Israel (Northern Tribes), evicting most Jews. 586 BCE Babylonians capture Jerusalem (Southern Tribes) and destroy Solomons Temple which is later rebuilt. Jews exiled. 70 CE Roman invaders conquer Jerusalem, seize the city, and destroy the temple, which is never rebuilt. 119 CE Emperor Hadrian bans circumcision in an attempt to ban the expression of Judaism. 135 CE Emperor Hadrian continues persecution of the Jews. Renames Judea, Palestine. 529-559 CE Justinian the Great restricts citizenship to Christians, restricts Jewish civil rights, banishes of use of Hebrew in worship, and changes synagogues into churches. </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> Important Events in Jewish History 613 CE Jews persecuted in Spain. All who refused to be baptized are exiled. Later remaining Jews lose all rights and property. All children under the age of 7 must receive a Christian education. 807 CE Jews and Christians ordered to wear different coloured belts 1290 CE Edward I banishes Jews from England; 15 000 Jewish people leave the country. 1306 CE King Philip banishes Jews from France; 100 000 Jewish people leave the country. 1321 CE Jews accused of poisoning wells in France; 5 000 Jewish people are burned to death. 1348 CE European Jews blamed for the plague. Massacres of Jewish people occur in Spain, France, and Germany. Over 200 Jewish communities were destroyed. 1794 CE Jewish men forced to serve 25 years in Russian military. Thousands left the country. Again, these are just some of the experiences of Jewish people throughout history. </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> European Jews blamed for the plague and burned in 1349. </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> Why were Jews subject to this persecution? The Diaspora meant that Jews did not have any type of social safety net or safety in numbers. They represented a very small minority in communities throughout history, making them vulnerable to attacks. No matter where they went throughout history, Jewish people always brought with them, unique ways of expressing their religion and culture. These customs distinguished or set them apart in communities in which they lived. Some groups of Christians held Jews responsible for the death of Jesus Christ. This is interesting since Jesus life and death fulfilled Christian prophecy. Some believe that this misinterpretation still exists today. Recently, this debate reignited in the 2004 Mel Gibson movie, Passion of the Christ. Jews became scapegoats for problems that existed in communities and countries. Certainly, Adolf Hitler blamed the Jews for many of Germanys problems after WWI. </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> The Rise of Anti-Semitism After WWII, the Guilt clause (Germany &amp; her allies had to accept responsibility for WWI) came into effect. This provision meant that Germany suffered greatly, defensively, territorially, and financially. The total cost to Germany was 132 billion marks. Many historians today blame at least part of the rise of Hitler and WWII on this fine. As a result, Germany plummeted into economic turmoil, which lead to an economic depression. As Hitler rose to power he increasingly referred to Jews as the cause of Germans misfortune; and he made anti-Semitism a central theme of the Nazi message. When Hitler seized complete political power in 1933, anti-Semitism became a significant part of government policy. </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> The Rise of Anti-Semitism In 1933, Hitler introduced the Nuremberg Laws, which took away citizenship from the Jews and restricted their civil rights. The laws classified Jews as sub-human and forced them to wear special badges and symbols that would readily identify them as Jewish. The Nazi regime took away Jewish rights and property A member of Einsatzgruppe D about to shoot a man sitting by a mass grave in the Ukraine, in 1942. </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> The Holocaust The Holocaust, the genocide of six million Jews and as many as 12 million people was a human tragedy. </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> Defining the Holocaust HOLOCAUST (Heb., sho'ah) which originally meant a sacrifice totally burned by fire the annihilation of the Jews and other groups of people of Europe under the Nazi regime during World War II GENOCIDE: the systematic extermination of a nationality or group </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> European Jewish Population in 1933 was 9,508,340 </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> Estimated Jewish Survivors of Holocaust: 3,546,211 </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> Swastika: A Symbol of Good or Evil? In 1920, Adolf Hitler decided that the Nazi Party needed its own insignia and flag and chose the swastika to represent the mission of the struggle for the victory of the Aryan man Because of the Nazis' flag, the swastika soon became a symbol of hate, anti-Semitism, violence, death, and murder. The swastika is an ancient Indian symbol (Sanskrit) that is over 3,000 years old meaning well being, life and good luck, prosperity The swastika is sacred religious symbol for Hindus, Jains and Buddhists Common symbol in ancient civilizations (Mesopotamia, India, China, Central and South America (Maya) </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> The Holocaust Hitler pushed for the final solution - the goal to systematically exterminate the Jewish population. Not all Germans supported him, and some did not really know the extent of the Hitlers plan. Yet as a dictator Hitler pushed his plan ahead. Consider the ways in which the final solution reached into all sectors of government and society: Review of birth records to identify people of Jewish origins; Jewish children prohibited from schools; Trains delivered prisoners to the concentration and death camps; Clear and concise records kept of prisoners and death statistics. The most famous riot against the Jewish people is known as Kristallnacht meaning Crystal Night, or Night of Broken Glass. On November 9, 1938, the Nazi regime destroyed over 1500 synagogues and 8000 Jewish businesses, leaving German streets covered in glass, Jewish people covered in blood, or herded into train cattle cars for a journey to concentration camps. </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> The Holocaust The final solution involved rounding up Jews by the thousands and transporting them to concentration, and eventually specialized death camps. It is believed that the order for the final solution came in the summer of 1941. Construction of concentration and labour camps demonstrated the organization and magnitude of the Nazis determination to free German society of Jews. Prisoners often faced disease, hunger, and unbelievable living conditions. For many, death brought an end to a long road of incredible suffering and misery. These prison camps evolved into mechanisms of systematic and organized killing machines. The preferred method of extermination became gas chambers: </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> The Holocaust Hitler wanted it made clear, the Jewish race had to be eliminated. The first use of gas took place at Auschwitz in September, 1941. Along with Auschwitz, five other death camps designated to carry out the mass extermination of the Jews existed: Chelmo, Majdanek, Belzec, Sobibor, and Treblinka. The operations at the death camps became extremely efficient. Camp officials processed new arrivals; and herded those not able to work, directly from trains to the gas chamber. Hundreds of thousands of Jewish peoples deaths occurred at these camps. Only after the defeat of Nazi Germany and Adolf Hitler, did the world completely become aware of the extent of the horrors of this regime. </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> Holocaust Art: Concentration Camp </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> The Aftermath Yom ha-Shoah: Holocaust Remembrance Day established in 1951 and observed on the 27th day of the month of Nisan (Jewish calendar). Nuremberg Trials: 1945-1949 were trials for war crimes of Nazi officials (24 Nazi leaders tried) Displaced Persons Anti-Semitism till exists in the world today </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> The Canadian Context Many people ask the question, How could the world let this happen? Many historians argue governments knew some of the realities of the Holocaust, but the true scope did not become clear until the war ended. In 1939, a ship with 907 Jewish refugee passengers attempted to gain entry into Canada. The authorities refused the ship and its passengers entry. Earlier, both Cuba and the United States also refused the Jewish people entry into their countries. In the end, the ship returned to Europe, and it is believed that over half of the passengers died during the Holocaust. Jewish refugees on the SS St. Louis </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> Impact on Jews in Canada The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, passed in 1982, guarantees a freedom of religion, thought, belief and expression. This protects people from persecution by the government for their religious beliefs. Furthermore, Canadas provinces recognize the Holocaust Remembrance Day. It has a two-fold purpose: to officially recognize the tragedy, and to create awareness about the need to educate and remember. </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> Effects of Holocaust on Jewish Community -After the horrors faced, the faith of many Jews was shaken. -Some wondered if God were punishing them for their lack of faithfulness -Others wondered how they could stay faithful after all they had been through </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> Effects of Holocaust on Jewish Community The Mishnah teaches: Therefore was Adam created single, to teach you that the destruction of any persons life is tantamount to destroying a whole world and the preservation of a single life is tantamount to preserving the whole world. (Tractate Sandhedrin 4:5) </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> Effects of Holocaust on Jewish Community -For others, the belief that God is with us through good and bad remains strong -The central message of the Torah, What is hateful to you, do not do to other is the rallying cry for many Jews after the Holocaust. Greater emphasis on tikkun olam was a response Life is sacred because it is from God, preserving life is another key response </li> </ul>

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