anti-semitism in europe

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Anti-Semitism in Europe. Part I: Why the Jews?. Four Stages Pagan Era ca. 2000 B.C. – ca. A.D. 50 Early Christianity ca. A.D. 100-500 Middle Ages ca. A.D. 500-1500 18 th -19 th Centuries A.D. 1700-1900. Part I: Why the Jews? Pagan Era ca. 2000 B.C. – ca. A.D. 50 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Anti-Semitism in Europe

Anti-Semitism in EuropePart I: Why the Jews?Four StagesPagan Eraca. 2000 B.C. ca. A.D. 50Early Christianityca. A.D. 100-500Middle Agesca. A.D. 500-150018th-19th CenturiesA.D. 1700-1900Part I: Why the Jews?Pagan Eraca. 2000 B.C. ca. A.D. 50

Jews introduce monotheism intoa polytheistic worldClaim to be Gods Chosen People stirsresentment (others make the same claim)

Jews become defined as the Other, a peculiar people

Part I: Why the Jews?Early Christianityca. A.D. 100-500

Jesus a trouble makerfor Roman and Jewish leadersJesus crucifixion (Matthew 27: 23-25)Jews as Christ-killers)Christians as Gods new Chosen PeopleReplacement theology

Part I: Why the Jews?Early Christianityca. A.D. 100-500

Gods plan for history (St. Augustine, A.D. 410)Jews conversion to Christianity a signal of Christs second comingAugustine says history develops in 7 stages: Adam, Noah, Abraham, David, Babylonian Captivity, Jesus. The 7th will be Christs return.Christs return signaled by conversion of the Jews, so dont persecute them: they are part of the planJews assigned role of being obstacles to the final perfection

Part I: Why the Jews?Middle Ages A.D. 500-1500Christianity defines and shapes new European worldThree estates:Those who prayThose who fightThose who workA French bishop says God divided his peopleexplains inequalitiesJews excluded by law from mainstream societyCannot own land or participate in honorable professionsSaid to be in league with the devil and the powers of evilJesus argument with Jewish leaders, John 8:44You belong to your father, the devil, and you want to carry out your fathers desires. He was a murderer from the beginning, not holding to the truth, for there is no truth in him. When he lies, he speaks his native language, for he is a liar and the father of lies. This verse was used and wildly twisted.

Part I: Why the Jews?Middle Ages A.D. 500-1500Church decrees that lending money at interest (usury) is a mortal sin (A.D. 1187)Church, as largest land owner, is the wealthiest entity. The church lends money at interest. Reformers like St. Francis of Assisi argue that this is not the function of the church. They win and usury is declared a sin: a Christian usurer cannot be saved.Problem: They still need moneylenders. So they look for a group that wont be saved anyway (according to the Church), and they decide to let them be useful.Jews are allowed to lend money to ChristiansJews become resented as money-lendersbut most banks are still in Christian hands. Further, fake Jews crop up.

Part I: Why the Jews?Middle Ages A.D. 500-1500Persecution of Jews worsens after A.D. 1000Jews slaughtered in the First Crusade (A.D. 1096)Religious fervor at fever pitchOn knight, Emico, decided in 1096 that the Holy Land is too far and targets infidels in Europe: the Jews. Kills about 12000 Jews in towns along the Rhine riverThis is NOT official Church stance. Some Jews are hidden in bishops palaces and are saved

Part I: Why the Jews?Middle Ages A.D. 500-1500Persecution of Jews worsens after A.D. 1000Charged with ritual murder of Christian boysIn 1144 in Norwich, a Christian boy is murdered. The killer is not found. A group of Jews on the edge of town are rumored to be guilty.The rumor is that Jews need the blood of Christian children for their Passover breadThis is the beginning of the blood libel applied to Jews

Part I: Why the Jews?Middle Ages A.D. 500-1500Persecution of Jews worsens after A.D. 1000Charged with host desecration, well poisoning, etc.Jews killed Jesus, so now they are out to kill him again in the EucharistArt depicts Jews stabbing Communion wafersBlamed for spread of bubonic plague (late 1300s)1/3 of population of Europe dies of the Black DeathIntense religious scapegoating Jews practice better hygiene androdent control, so they suffered less from the plagueJews are accused of spreading the plague by poisoning wells

Part I: Why the Jews?Middle Ages A.D. 500-1500Persecution of Jews worsens after A.D. 1000Jews are required to wear the Star of David, to stay inside during Lent, and to abide by other restrictionsA Christian who sees a Jew might be tempted to beat him up and sin during Lent, so Jews should stay inJews are slaughtered by the thousands across Europe in pogroms and mob attacks, and through public torture, burnings, and executionPassion plays transmit hatred of JewsMost people cant read, so myths and prejudices are passed through passion plays. Pontius Pilate becomes a hero and Jews are the bad guys

Part I: Why the Jews?Middle Ages A.D. 500-1500Expulsion of Jews From Western Europe

1290: England1306: France1300s 1400s: German states1492: Spain1400s 1500s: Italian states

Jews move in waves to Eastern Europe(so when Hitler was in power much later, 1% of Germanys population was Jewishbut 10% of Polands was Jewish)

Part I: Why the Jews?Middle Ages A.D. 500-1500Creation of Jewish ghettoes in European cities Ghettoes are surrounded by high walls with gates guarded by Christian sentriesJews are allowed out by day for business dealings with Christian communitiesJews must be back in ghettoes by curfewAt night, and on Christian holidays, gates were lockedJews are segregated and develop a life separate from the larger community

Part I: Why the Jews?Middle Ages A.D. 500-1500Protestant Reformation and the JewsMartin Luther, On the Jews and Their Lies (1543)Martin Luther was an Augustinian monkAs a young man, he writes a pamphlet favorable to Jews: he can see why they dont convert, as the Church is so corruptWhen he begins the Reformation, he invites Jews to convert, but they dont.As an older man, he writes a new pamphlet, reviling Jews. He wants synagogues burned, sacred texts burned, and rabbis silenced. He suggests putting Jews in labor camps to learn to work and learn to convert.Martin Luther

Part I: Why the Jews?18th and 19th Centuries: Hope and ThreatThe Hope of the EnlightenmentThomas JeffersonDeclaration of Independence (1776)We hold these truths to be self-evident,that all men are created equalJean Jacques RousseauOn the Origin and Foundation of the Inequality of Mankind (1755)Intellectual Father of the French Revolution of 1789Liberte, Egalite, Fraternite = Liberty, Equality, FraternityGod did not divide people. People can be equal. Man created inequality and man can undo it.

Thomas JeffersonJean Jacques RousseauPart I: Why the Jews?18th and 19th Centuries: Hope and ThreatEmancipation movements of peasants, slaves, women, and Jews

A safe harbor for Jews in Germany?They know the history and see what happens elsewhere, as with the pogroms in Russia, but Germany seems like a safe place. No one expected Jews to be harmed in Germany.If in 1900, an educated, politically sophisticated European had been told that in this new century one of these European countries was going to do something terrible to the Jews, that person would most likely have said, Ah yes! These French will do anything. or These Russians will do anything. (George Mosse, Toward the Final Solution: A History of European Racism, 1978)

Part I: Why the Jews?18th and 19th Centuries: Hope and ThreatAssimilation of Jews into 19th Century German societyEntry into business world (Industrial Revolution)Entry into German cultural world (art, literature, music, etc.)Entry into medicine and law (not prestigious professions at this time), and into new field: journalismAlready there is a high rate of intermarriage between Jewish and Gentile Germans.

Jews assimilate so well that rabbis have a new fear: the disappearance of Jews as a people (the Jewish people will be completely absorbed into Gentile culture).Part I: Why the Jews?18th and 19th Centuries: Hope and ThreatThe threat of the 19th Century: The Birth of Modern RacismArthur de Gobineau: Father of Modern RacismEssay on the Origin of Inequality in the Human Races (1854)Superior and inferior races: Jews as an inferior and destructive peopleRace as a biological concept

Arthur de GobineauPart I: Why the Jews?18th and 19th Centuries: Hope and ThreatThe Threat of the 19th Century: The Birth of Social DarwinismDarwins concepts in On the Origin of Species (1859) of survival of the fittest and natural selection applied to nations and racesSocial Darwinism especially popular in Germany, England, and the U.S.1879: term anti-Semitism introduced (term is coined by Marr, a journalist, who talks about a race of Semites plotting against Germany)

Charles DarwinPart I: Why the Jews?18th and 19th Centuries: Hope and ThreatThe threat of the 19th Century:

Social Darwinism + Modern Racism = a scientific basis for hatred}Goals:Breed a superior raceRoot out inferior stockSolve social problems (crime, poverty, disease)Birth of a new science:EUGENICS(good breeding)Part I: Why the Jews?18th and 19th Centuries: Hope and Threat1869: Darwins cousin writes that the superior race needs to promote breeding among themselves and impede the inferior race from breeding. He suggests sterilization. The U.S. takes the lead on thisIndiana was the first state to pass a compulsory sterilization law, with the law coming into effect in 1907 (Stern 2007, p. 7). After this law was struck down in 1921 by the Indiana Supreme Court, there was an attempt to pass a new sterilization law in 1925 which sought to reinstitute eugenic sterilization in Indiana through the creation of a state eugenicist, but this effort was defeated in the Indiana Legislature (Lantzer and Stern 2007, pp. 9-10). Shortly thereafter, the legislature succeeded in passing a second law in 1927. This law was expanded in 1931, and eventually repealed in 1974 (Baldanzi et al). The first law, in 1907, targeted: c

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