Anti-Semitism and the Holocaust We must always remember… we must never forget… “First, they said we cannot live among them as Jews… Next, they said we.

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> Anti-Semitism and the Holocaust We must always remember we must never forget First, they said we cannot live among them as Jews Next, they said we cannot live among them Finally, they said we cannot live. </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> Roots of Anti-Semitism Ancient Ancient Between 1200 1400 BCE; biblical; Diaspora Medieval Medieval Jews scattered throughout former Roman Empire Played a key economic role Used as a scapegoat Modern many issues in the present-day Modern many issues in the present-day Wilhelm Marr aka Mr. Anti-Semitism Coined the term in 1879 Hitler used the already deep-seeded anti-Semitism and put a race dimension to it defined by biology </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> Hilbergs Steps According to historian Dr. Raul Hilberg, there were five steps used for Jewish destruction: According to historian Dr. Raul Hilberg, there were five steps used for Jewish destruction: 1. Definition: determine and define the target group 2. Expropriation: take away their livelihood 3. Concentration: place the target group in a centralized location 4. Slave labor: force them to work without pay 5. Annihilation: kill and destroy the entire group http://graphics8.nytimes.com/images/2007/08/07/us/07hilberg.190.jpg </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> Laws and Actions Against Jews Nazi Book Burning Nazi Book Burning May 10, 1933 Burned unsuitable books 1933, Jews banned from certain jobs 1933, Jews banned from certain jobs Nuremberg Laws aka Law for the Protection of German Blood and Honor, 1935: Nuremberg Laws aka Law for the Protection of German Blood and Honor, 1935: Jews could not be German citizens or vote ID cards (before yellow stars) Children prevented from going to public school http://media-2.web.britannica.com/eb-media/41/67841-004-21BD0894.jpg </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> Laws and Actions Against Jews 1. Germany over 400 regulations against Jews; violence 1. Germany over 400 regulations against Jews; violence 2. Austria Jews targeted; beaten, humiliated, riots 2. Austria Jews targeted; beaten, humiliated, riots 3. Poland Hitler saw the 3 million Jewish Poles as the worst: 3. Poland Hitler saw the 3 million Jewish Poles as the worst: Himmlers idea: limit their education and kill intellectuals sort out those with valuable blood and those with worthless blood (survival of the fittest) 4. Children: 1.5 million kids killed during the Holocaust 4. Children: 1.5 million kids killed during the Holocaust first had restrictions (no swimming pools, school, rationed) had to help parents (ex: smuggling in food) http://history1900s.about.com/library/holocaust/blpkrakow27.htm </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> Evian Conference, 1938 Significance: Significance: 1. Called to address the Jewish refugee problem 2. Hitler willing to let Jews go to other countries 3. World shut out the Jews http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Holocaust/stlouis.html </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> Kristallnacht Night of the Broken Glass, November 9/10, 1938: Night of the Broken Glass, November 9/10, 1938: October 27, 1938 Hitler expelled 18,000 Jews from Germany Son of a victim took revenge by killing a German Murder sparked a rumor about a Jewish-takeover Result: night of violence against Jews across Germany Result: night of violence against Jews across Germany destruction of stores, synagogues, people arrested/killed http://www.english.uiuc.edu/maps/holocaust/essaypics/kristallnacht.jpg http://www.amuseum.org/shoah/brokewin.jpg </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> The Final Solution July 1941, the Final Solution to the Jewish Question: July 1941, the Final Solution to the Jewish Question: Reinhard Heydrich (and Adolf Eichmann); Wannsee Conference earlier thought of creating ghettos (walled-in neighborhoods) exterminated through killings or deportations planned to annihilate 11 million Jews development of Auschwitz and Treblinka Dachau the first Concentration Camp (1933) 1941 mass usage of camps </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> Development of Gas Chambers Einstazgruppen (mobile killing units) did mass shootings Einstazgruppen (mobile killing units) did mass shootings ex: Babi Yar Himmler (head of killing orders) appalled by mistakes at shootings led to mobile gas units Himmler (head of killing orders) appalled by mistakes at shootings led to mobile gas units Zyklon B pellets that gave off cyanide fumes; rat poison/disinfectant; used in gas chambers in Camps Zyklon B pellets that gave off cyanide fumes; rat poison/disinfectant; used in gas chambers in Camps http://www.sephardicstudies.org/images/auschw-crematorium-gas-chamber.jpg </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> Concentration Camps Selection process Selection process Meals: watered-down soup and 1 ounce of bread Meals: watered-down soup and 1 ounce of bread Lodging: barracks; 800/barrack; many to a bed (planks of wood); no pillow and 1 cover (thin sheet) Lodging: barracks; 800/barrack; many to a bed (planks of wood); no pillow and 1 cover (thin sheet) After gassed, bodies burned and buried After gassed, bodies burned and buried http://history1900s.about.com/library/holocaust/blmajdanek1.htm http://history1900s.about.com/library/holocaust/blbergenbelsen1.htm </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> A Picture is Worth a Thousand Words http://history1900s.about.com/library/holocaust/blpictures.htm </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> Acts of Resistance 3 kinds: active armed, passive unarmed, spiritual 3 kinds: active armed, passive unarmed, spiritual 1. Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (April and May 1943) 1. Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (April and May 1943) Led by Mordecai Anielwicz Held Nazis for 28 days 2. First death camp rebellion Treblinka, August 2, 1943 2. First death camp rebellion Treblinka, August 2, 1943 3. Warsaw Uprising Act of resistance; August 1, 1944 3. Warsaw Uprising Act of resistance; August 1, 1944 Lasted 63 days (surrendered October 2, 1944); 250,000 killed 4. Auschwitz-Birkenau revolt, October 6, 1944 4. Auschwitz-Birkenau revolt, October 6, 1944 Ala Gertner (one of the revolt organizers) http://www.alabamaholocaustcommission.org/images/AHCpic08518.jpg </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> Righteous Gentiles Righteous Gentiles those who helped Jews (rescued, hid, gave false papers, employed, etc.) Righteous Gentiles those who helped Jews (rescued, hid, gave false papers, employed, etc.) Righteous criteria: act on own discretion; in territories under German or German collaborating control; at risk to themselves; without reward or precondition; substantiated by survivor testimony or documents 17,433 recognized Righteous Gentiles as of January 1, 2000 Oskar Schindler Raoul Wallenberg </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> And It Comes to an End Who knew what..? Who knew what..? Many key leaders and reporters knew, but. ignored evidence and information refused to publish/broadcast information because it was too upsetting and could not be corroborated Camps Liberated by the Allies Camps Liberated by the Allies Soldiers could not believe what they saw Send to Displaced Persons Camps Send to Displaced Persons Camps Relocated to start over (America, Israel, etc.) </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> Nuremberg Trial Nuremberg Trial, November 20, 1945; Significance: Nuremberg Trial, November 20, 1945; Significance: 22 high-ranking Nazis investigated for war crimes conducted by joint American, British, French, and Russian military tribunal 4-count indictment including conspiracy, crimes against peace, war crimes, and crimes against humanity (like murder, extermination, enslavement, persecution on political and/or racial grounds, involuntary deportment, and inhumane acts against civilians) 7 given lengthy prison terms, 3 acquitted, rest sentenced to death by hanging (hung October 16, 1946) 12 other Nuremberg Trials from 1946-1949; most pardoned </li> </ul>

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