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    Anthropology and Anarchism:Their Elective Affinityby Br ia n Mo r ri s

    G AR P 1 1Go ldsm i th s Co l le g e 2005

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    Anthropologyand Anarchism:Their Elective AffinityGoldsmi th sAn th ropo logyResea rchPape rsEds :Soph ie Day , Oliv iaHar r i s ,Ca the r ine Alexande r ,Mao Mol lonaand Car r ieClan ton I n t hi s e ss ay , I w a nt t o b ri ng t og et he r

    a nt hr op ol og y a nd a na rc hi sm , f ir st b ye xam in in g a nt hr op ol og is ts w h o h a vee xp re ss ed a n i nt er es t i n a n ar ch is m , t he n b yd i sc u ss i ng c l as s ic a l a n a rc h is t t h in k e rs wh oh av e d ra w n u p on a nt hr op ol og ic al l it er at ur et o d ev el op t he ir i de as . I n t h e s ec on d p ar to f t he e ss ay , I o f fe r s om e r ef le ct io ns o na na rc hi sm a s a p ol it ic al t ra di ti on a nd d ea lw it h c er ta in m is co nc ep ti on s t ha t h av e b ee nf or w ar de d b y i ts l ib e ra l a n d M a rx is t c ri ti cs .

    Th eAn t h r op o lo g yDe p a rtme nt a t Go l d sm i t hs i s o n e o f t h e n ewes t i nB r i t a in , ha v in g b e e n f o rma l ly c re a te d i n1 9 85 .W e a re p ro ud o f w h a t w e h a ve a c h ie ve d s in ce t h e n, a nd i n p a rt ic u la r o f t h e w a y t ha t p e op le i n t h eDe p a rtme nt - s t ud e n ts , s t af f a n d r e se a rc h e rs - h a v e s o u g ht t o b r o ad e n t h e f r on t ie r s o f t h e d i sc i pl i nea n d t oengage c r i t ic a l lyand c rea tive lywi th the t rad it ion so f An th ropo logy in the con tempora rywor ld .We h o p e t h a t t h e Go l d sm i t hsAn t h ro p o lo g yR e s e ar c h P ap e rs p r ov i de a p l at f orm t o c ommuni c at e s ome o f t h ework tha t makes the Go ld smi th sDepa r tmen t d is t in c t ive .These r ie s inc ludesa r tic le sby members o f academics ta f f, r e search fe l lows ,PhDand o the r s tudents .

    GAR PNumb e r 1 1 .Copy r igh t:Go ld smi th sCo l lege ,Un ive rs i tyo f london and Br ianMorr i s2005 T he re i s i n m a ny w ay s a n " el ec ti ve a ff in it y"b e tw e en a nt hr op o lo g y a nd a n ar ch is m .

    A l th ou g h a n th ro p ol og y 's s ub j ec t m a tt er h asb ee n d iv er se a nd i ts c on sp ec tu s r at he r b ro ad ,a s a s tu dy o f h um a n c ul tu re h is to ri ca ll y i t h a sa lw a ys h ad a r at he r s pe ci fi c f oc us : t he s tu dyo f n o n- st at e s o ci et ie s. B u t i t i s q ui tem is le ad in g t o p or tr ay t he a nt hr op ol og y o fth e p as t a s b ein g si mp ly t he s tu dy o f s o-c al le d p ri m it iv e p e op le o r t he e xo ti c o th er ,a nd t hu s la rg ely e ng ag ed i n a k in d o f sa va geo p er at io n o f d is ap pe ar in g c u lt ur es .

    ISBN1-904158-60-9Cove r image : Pe te r K r o p ot k in , Anonymous .A l l r ig h ts r e s e rv e d .No p a r t o f t h is p u b li c at io nma y b e r e pr o du c e d i n a n y f o rm o r b y a n y me a n sw i t ho u tthe pe rmiss iono f the pub l i she rs .F i r s tpub li shed in Grea t Br i ta in2005 by Go ld smi th sCo l lege ,Un ive rs ityo f london ,NewCro s s , l o n do n SE14 6NW .Add i t iona lcop ie so f th i spub l ica t iona re ava i lab le f rom the An th ropo logyDepa r tmen t ,Go ld smi th sCo llege ,Un ive rs ityo f london , New Cross , london SE146NW T hi s i s a r at he r b ia se d a nd i na cc ur at e p or tr ai to f a nt hr op ol og y, f or t he d is ci pl in e h as a l on g

    t ra di ti on o f " an th ro po lo gy a t h om e, " a ndm a ny im po rt an t a nt hr op o lo gi ca l s tu d ie s h av eb ee n lo ca te d in In dia , C hi na a nd J ap an . I t i st hu s n ot ew o rt hy t ha t J am es C li ff or d a nd

    An th ropo logyand Ana rch ism:The i rElec t iveAff in i ty 1

    G e or ge M a rc us ( 19 86 ), i n w h at m a ny r eg ar da s t he f ou nd in g t ex t o f l it er ar y o r p os t-m o de rn a nt hr op ol og y, a re n ot o nl y r at he rd is m is si ve o f f em i ni st a nt hr op o lo g y, b u ti gn or e e nt ir el y t he e th no gr ap hi c s tu di es o fn o n- "w e st er n" s ch o la rs s uc h a s S ri ni va s,K e ny a tt a, F e i a n d A i y ap pa n .B u t i n a n i mp or ta nt s en se a nt hr op ol og y i st he s oc ia l s ci en ce d is ci pl in e t ha t h as p ut af oc al e mp ha si s o n t ho se k in ds o f s oc ie ti esth at h av e b ee n se en a s e xe mp la rs o fa na rc hy , a s oc ie ty w it ho ut a s ta te . I nd ee d,Ev a n s- P r it c ha r d, i n h i s c l as s ic s t ud y T h e N u e r( 1 94 0 ), d es cr ib e d t he ir p ol it ic a l s y st em a s" or de re d a n ar ch y ." H a ro ld B a rc la y s' u se fu la nd p er ce pt iv e l it tl e b o ok Pe o p le W i th o u tGove rnmen t ( 1 9 92 ) i s s i gn i fi c an t ly s u b ti t le d" Th e A n th ro po lo gy o f A n ar ch is m ," a ndBa r cl a y sm a k es t h e f am il i ar d i st i nc t io nb e tw e en a na rc hy , a n o rd e re d s o ci et y w i th o utg o ve rn m en t, a nd a n ar ch is m , a p ol it ic alm o ve m en t a nd t ra di ti on t ha t b ec am ea rt ic ul at ed d u ri ng t he 1 9 th c en tu ry .An th ropolog is ts and anar ch ism :Rec lus , Bougie , Mauss,Radcliffe-BrownMa ny a nt hr op o lo g is ts h a ve h a d a ff in it ie sw it h a na rc hi sm . O n e o f t he e ar li es te th no g ra ph ic t ex ts w a s E l ie R e c l us ' Primi t iveFolk ( 1 90 3 ), w h ic h c ar ri es t he s ub - ti tl e" St ud ie s i n C o rp o ra ti ve E t hn ol og y ." I t i sb as ed o n i nf or ma ti on d er iv ed f ro m t hew r it in g s o f t ra ve ll er s a nd m i ss io n ar ie s, a ndt ho ug h i t h a s t he e vo lu ti on ar y f la vo ur o fb ooks w ritten at the en d of the 1 9th

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    2 Anthropo logy and Anarch i sm:The i rE lec ti veAf f in i t y

    c en tu ry , i t c o nt ai ns l uc id a n d s ymp a th et ica cc ou nt s o f s uc h p eo ple a s t h e A pa ch es ,N a ya r s, T o da s a n d I nu it s. R e cl us l ik en e d t hemo ra l a n d i nt el le ct ua l e qu a li ty o f t he s ec u lt ur es t o t ha t o f s o -c a ll ed c iv il is e d s ta te s ,a nd it is o f in te re st th at h e u s ed th e n owf am il ia r t erm I nu it , w h ic h me an s " pe o pl e, "r ath er th an th e F re nc h t er m E sk im o . E li eR ec lu s w a s a ls o t he e ld er b ro th er , a ndl if et im e a s so c ia te , o f E li se e, t h e mo refamous anarch i s t-geographer .

    A n ot he r F re n ch a n th ro p ol og is t w it h a n a rc hi sts y mp a th ie s w a s C el es ti n B o ug ie , w h o w r ot en ot o nl y a c la ss ic al s tu dy o f t he In dia n c as tes ys te m ( wh ic h h ad a p ro fo un d in flu en ce o nL ou is D um on t) in 1 90 8, b ut a ls o a ni mp o rt an t s tu dy o f P ie rr e- Jo s ep h P r ou d ho n .B ou gie w as o ne o f th e firs t to a ffir m,c on tr ov er sia ll y i n 1 91 1, t ha t P ro ud ho n w a s as o ci ol og ic a l t hi nk er o f s ta n di ng . T h er e w a s ,in fa ct , a c lo se r ela tio n sh ip b etw ee n t heF renc h so c io l og i ca l t ra d it io n , f o cu sseda ro un d D ur kh eim , a nd b oth s oc ia lis m a n da n a rc hi sm , e ve n t ho u gh D u rk he im h im s el fw a s a nt ag on is tic t o th e a na rc hi st s tr es s o nt he in div id ua l. D ur kh ei m w a s a k in d o f g uil ds o cia lis t, b ut h is n ep he w M a rc el M a us sw r ot e t he c la s si ca l s tu dy o f r ec ip ro c ale x change among p re- li te r a te c u lt u re s ,T h e G i ft ( 19 25 ). T his s ma ll te xt i s n o to n ly i n some w a ys a n a na rc his t t ra ct, b uto ne o f th e fo un da tio n t ex ts o f a nt hr op olo gy ,r ea d b y e v er y b u dd in g a n th ro p ol og is t.

    B r it is h an t hr o p ol ogi s ts ha v e l e ss c onnec ti o nw ith a na rc his m, b ut it is w o rth n otin g th ato ne o f th e s o- ca ll ed fa th er s o f B ri ti sh

    a n th ro p ol og y, A .R . R a dc li ff e- B ro w n w a s a na na rc hi st i n h is e ar ly y ea rs . A lf re d B ro w n w asa la d f ro m B ir min gh am w ho m an ag ed , w ithth e h el p o f h is b ro th er , t o a tte nd O xf or dUn i ve r si ty . The re , tw o i n fl u en c e s we reim po rta nt to h im . O ne w as th e p ro ce ssp hi lo s o ph er A lf re d W h it eh ea d , w h os eo rg an is m ic t he or y h ad a d ee p in flu en ce o nR a dc li ff e- B ro w n . T h e o th e r w a s P e te rK ro po tk in , w ho s e w rit in gs h e i mb ib ed . I n h iss tu d en t d a ys a t O x fo r d R a dc li ff e- B ro w n w a sk no w n a s " An ar ch y B ro w n. " A la s , O x fo rdg ot to h im , a nd h e e ve nt ua ll y b ec am es omet hi ng o f a n i nt el le ct ua l a ri st oc ra t,c ha ng in g h is n a me t o th e h yp he na te d " A. R.R a dc li ff e- B ro w n ." B u t a s T im I ng o ld ( 19 86 )h a sw r i tt en , R a dc li ff e- B ro w n 's w r it in g s a r ep er me at ed w it h a s en se th at s oc ia l li fe is ap ro c es s , a lt ho u gh l ik e m o s t D u rk he im ia nfu nc ti on ali sts h e t e nd ed to p la y d ow n i ss ue sr el at in g t o c o nf li ct , p o we r a n d h is to r y.

    b ro a d h is to r ic a l a n d e th n og ra p hi c i nt er es tso f M a r x a n d E n ge ls . E n ge ls ' w e ll -k n ow nstudy T he O rig in o f t he F a mi ly , P riv at eP ro p er ty a n d t he S ta te ( 18 84 ) i s, o f c o ur se ,b a se d a lm o s t e n ti re ly o n L ew is M o rg a n' sa n t hr o p ol ogi c al s t ud y , A n ci en t S o ci et y( 18 77 ). H ow ev e r, t he w r it in g s o f c la s si ca lM a r xi st s s u ch a s L en in , T r ot sk y, G r am s ci a n dL u ka c s a r e d is ti ng ui sh e d b y a w h ol ly E u ro -c en tr ic p e rs p ec ti ve a n d a c omp le te d is r eg a rdf o r a n t hr o p ol ogy .

    T he e nt ry fo r " An th ro po lo gy " i n A D i ct io n a ryo f M a r xi st T h ou g ht ( B ot tom o r e 1 9 83 )s ig n if ic a