antebellum america

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Antebellum america. Lead up to the Civil War. Manifest Destiny. The belief that it was God’s will that America spread west to the Pacific Ocean Most people believed this The country spread west with… Texas Mexican American War California Gold Rush Presidents supported people moving west. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Antebellum america

Antebellum americaLead up to the Civil War

Manifest DestinyThe belief that it was Gods will that America spread west to the Pacific OceanMost people believed thisThe country spread west withTexasMexican American WarCalifornia Gold RushPresidents supported people moving westAnnexation of TexasAnnexation- the process where a territory or country is added to another countryTexas was part of MexicoWhite settlers outnumbered Hispanic citizensTexas declared independence and fought a war with MexicoAlamoTexas asked Congress to become a stateCongress added Texas as a state in 1845.It took a while because Texas allowed slavery

Mexican-American WarMexico was upset over the United States annexing TexasThey invaded TexasThe United States invaded Mexico The United States won the war (1846-1848)ResultsUnited States got the Northern territories of MexicoMake up all or parts of 7 states todayThe United States now stretched to the Pacific Ocean

Manifest DestinyCalifornia Gold RushIn 1848, Gold was discovered in the new California TerritoryIn 1849, many people moved west to get rich from the goldHelped to settle CaliforniaIn 1850, California had enough people to become a stateProblem- would it allow slavery or not?

SectionalismSectionalism- the belief by a people in a region that their ideas or interests are more important then othersAround 1850, it was clear America was divided into 3 sections with 3 different views of the countryMost noticeable were between North and South

States rights- the belief that a states interests should be more important then the national interestsStates rights concerns: Slavery and Tariffs (taxes on goods from other countries)North-South DivisionWho would control the new states in the west?

Differences between the north and south were many. The big issues were:

SLAVERY

STATES RIGHTS

TARRIFS

The Southern culture was very different from the north as wellSouthern CulturePlanters- plantation owners who owned most of the slaves, top of the social ladder, only about 3% of population Yoeman farmer- poor white farmers, did NOT own slaves (too poor), made up about 75% of the populationFree blacks- only 6% lived in the southSlaves were at the very bottom of society, but not all slaves had the same life

Slave societyOverseer- the person who managed the slaves on a plantation. Usually whiteDriver- the person who usually worked the slaves in the field. Usually blackHouse slaves generally had a more comfortable life and were generally treated betterField hands had the hardest life and generally treated worst

Issues leading to the Civil WarEconomy

Slavery

What would new states support?Southern EconomyBy 1800, the economy in the south wasnt growingTobacco was hurting the soil Eli Whitneys cotton gin helped make cotton a money making cropAs cotton production increasedThe economy of the south grewThe cost of slaves increasedThe number of slaves needed by planters increased

AbolitionistsAbolition- the movement to end slaveryAbolitionists supported itMost were in the North The movement started with religious movementsThe movement angered many southernersFrederick DouglassFamous abolitionist, orator (public speaker), and newspaper editorFreed black who worked to end slavery

Efforts to avoid warThe differences between the north and south were growingMany efforts were made to avoid a civil warEfforts to avoid the Civil War include:The Missouri CompromiseCompromise of 1850The Kansas-Nebraska ActSome factors continued to lead to warFactors leading to the Civil WarDred Scott DecisionActivities of abolitionists and spread of abolitionismThe Republican party and Lincolns electionMissouri CompromiseIn 1819, there were 22 states11 free states- states that outlawed slavery11 slave states- states that allowed slaveryMissouri applied for statehood as a slave stateA compromise was reachedMissouri was allowed as a slave stateMaine was allowed as a free stateNo states above Missouris southern border were allowed to have slaveryKept the peace for a while

Dred Scott DecisonIn 1834, Dred Scott, a slave, traveled with his master from Missouri (a slave state) to Wisconsin (a free state)In 1857, Scott, after he and his master returned to Missouri sued for his freedom (since he had lived in a free state (Wisconsin)The case went to the Supreme CourtThe Supreme Court ruled:Dred Scott could not sue because he was a slave and slaves are NOT citizensThis angered many in the north and got both sides closer to war.

Compromise of 1850

California enters as a Free State

Slave trade ends in Washington DC

Texas will not annex western territories

Utah & NM territories decide their own slavery issues

Fugitive Slave Law inacted runaway slaves must be returnedKansas-Nebraska Act

New territories will test the concept of popular sovereignty The idea that the population vote on their own future of slavery

1st tested in 1854 when the Kansas population grew high enough to consider applying for statehood

Pro-slavery people from the South & Abolitionists from the North moved into the territory to shift the vote their way

People brought their weapons & began open conflict This mini Civil War became known as BLEEDING KANSASSLAVERY

Marriage was encouraged, but not legally recognized

Religious practices were allowed, but education outlawed

Planters & politicians feared slave rebellions

SLAVE CODES were established these rules regulated almost every aspect of slave life. EX: A slave leaving the plantation MUST have documents stating their business, destination, time frame, etcHelp for Slaves

John Brown was hanged as punishment for unsuccessful raid on a federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry, VA & became a martyr

Nat Turner led the bloodiest slave revolt in US history 1831, VA, about 80 dead he was captured & hanged

Underground RR a secret series of safe houses where escaping slaves could rest on their journey to freedom in the north

Harriet Tubman escaped, but returned to help others do the same

Sojourner Truth was freed when NY abolished slavery & spent her life preaching to others about the horrors of slaveryANTEBELLUM GA.1860 ELECTION1854- Republican Party founded (abolitionists)Democrats could not agree on a single candidate & so ran against each otherAbraham Lincoln gets less than 40% , but winsSouthern states threaten to secedeLincoln promised NOT to impact slaveryStephens asked GA politicians NOT to secedeDec. 20, 1860 SC secedes leaves the US1/19/61: GA votes (2:1) = Independent Republic2/4/61 Confederate States of America formed{SC, GA, FL, AL, MS, LA, & TX} Davis (MS) = Pres., Stephens (GA) = VP, Toombs (GA) = Sec St

CIVIL WARChapter 8

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