Announcing War in the Americas!
Post on 31-Dec-2015
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DESCRIPTIONAnnouncing War in the Americas!. The first 4 World Wars. King Williams War (1689-1697) Queen Annes War (1702-1713) King Georges War (1744-1748) French & Indian War (1754-1763 ). The Most France Ever Had. Louis XIV takes interest in the Americas - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Announcing War in the Americas!
The first 4 World WarsKing Williams War (1689-1697)Queen Annes War (1702-1713)King Georges War (1744-1748)French & Indian War (1754-1763)
The Most France Ever HadLouis XIV takes interest in the AmericasOne year after Jamestown Quebec establishedNew France Friendly relations with Huron IndiansIroquois didnt like the French
France begins to stretchHunting Beaver for furRecruited Indians to huntIndians died of diseaseBeavers over huntedFrench Catholic missionaries tried to convert Natives
France begins to stretchDetroit founded to keep English out of Ohio ValleyDe La Salle founded Louisiana in 1682 to keep Spanish out of Gulf of Mexico **
King Williams & Queen Annes War 2 different eventsEnglish colonists fought the French coureurs de bois beaver hunters) and the IndiansVideo: King Williams War
King Williams & Queen Annes War 2 different eventsThe peace deal in Utrecht in 1713 gave Acadia, Newfoundland, and Hudson Bay to EnglandVideo: Queen Annes War
British Territory after Two Wars, 1713
War of Jenkins EarBritish Captain caught smuggling by SpanishSpanish cut off his ear and sent him home to the KingWar broke out in 1739 between British and SpanishConfined to Caribbean
Turns into War of Austrian Succession in EuropeCalled King Georges War in the coloniesFrance allied w/SpainPeace terms gave Louisbourg back to FranceVideo: King Georges War
North America before 1754
George Washington Starts a warThe Ohio Valley battleground for Spanish, British, and FrenchVirginia Gov. sends 21 year old Washington with 150 minutemenLt. Col. Washington encounters French and troops kill French leader at Fort DuquesneFrench return and surround Washington at Fort Necessity surrenders after 10 hoursLeft with men
Global War and Colonial DisunityWar #4 starts in America instead of EuropeThe Seven Years War in Europe and the French and Indian War in the coloniesEngland & Prussia against France, Spain, Austria and RussiaFrederick the Great defeats the French, Austrian, and Russian armies
Albany CongressFranklins idea that the Colonies should unite in common defense Keep Iroquois loyal to BritainThe Albany Congress was before its time and failed. The colonies were not yet ready for unity
Colonial Disunity turns into UnityThis was created before the ill fated Albany Congress
Join or Die CartoonThe first cartoon appeared in Ben Franklin's newspaper The Pennsylvania Gazette on May 9, 1754. It appeared as part of an editorial by Franklin commenting on 'the present disunited state of the British Colonies.'
Join or Die CartoonThe woodcut drawing entitled 'Join or Die' pictures a divided snake in eight pieces representing as many colonial governments. The drawing was based on the popular superstition that a snake that had been cut in two would come to life if the pieces were joined before sunset.
Join or Die
Braddocks BlunderingBraddock sent to lead inexperienced colonial soldiers to capture Ft. DequesneLt. Col. Washington was in the battleBraddock was killedResults: Indians felt confident and waged war from North Carolina to Pennsylvania British met with defeat after defeat
Pitts VictoryThe Great Commoner took controlTook troop strength away from West Indies and focused on Montreal and Quebec1758 Louisbourg fell
Wolfe Vs MontcalmBattle of Quebec 1759 most significant battle. Wolfe defeated Montcalm and he was killedFrench kicked out of Canada
French and Indian War RecapVideo: French and Indian War
Treaty of Paris-1763Britain got all of CanadaFrench kept sugar islands in West IndiesInlets in Gulf of St. LawrenceLouisiana turned over to Spain to pay for Spains losses in the war
North America after 1763
British Policy created their GREAT adversaryBritish refused to recognize any American officers above the rank of CaptainWashington got very angry! His greatest dream was to be a British officersHe resigned in a fitBoy was this a mistake on Britain's part!
Long lasting effectsAmericans from different parts of the colonies found common ground; barriers of disunity began to melt away. They were finally ready for Franklins ideaColonist were not less dependent on Britain
**** (stop at French Indian Wars)****The War of Jenkins EarAn English Captain named Jenkins had his ear cut off by a Spanish commander, who had sneered at him to go home crying (essentially).This war was confined to the Caribbean Sea and Georgia.This war soon merged with the War of Austrian Succession and came to be called King Georges War in America.France allied itself with Spain, but Englands troops captured the reputed impregnable fortress of Cap Breton Island.However, peace terms of this war gave Louisbourg, which the New Englanders had captured, back to France, outraging the colonists, which feared it.
***IV.George Washington Inaugurates War with France1.The Ohio Valley became a battleground among the Spanish, British, and French.a.It was lush and very good land.2.In 1754, the governor of Virginia sent 21 year-old George Washington to the Ohio country as a lieutenant colonel in command of about 150 Virginia minutemen.a.Encountering some Frenchmen in the forest about 40 miles from Fort Duquesne, the troops opened fire, killing the French leader.b.Later, the French returned and surrounded Washingtons hastily constructed Fort Necessity, and after a 10-hour siege, made him surrender.c.He was permitted to march his men away with the full honors of war.*Global War and Colonial Disunity1. The fourth of these wars between empires started in America, unlike the first three.2. The French and Indian War (aka Seven Years War) began with Washingtons battle with the French.3. It was England and Prussia vs. France, Spain, Austria, and Russia.4. In Germany, Fredrick the Great won his title of Great by repelling French, Austrian, and Russian armies, even though he was badly outnumbered (skill).5. In previous wars, the Americans were not unified, but now they were.
*6. In 1754, an intercolonial congress was held in Albany, New York.a. A month before the congress, Ben Franklin had published his famous Join or Die cartoon featuring a snake in pieces, symbolizing the colonies.7. Franklin helped unite the colonists in Albany, but the Albany plan failed because it compromised too much
*Who is missing? Why???****VI. Braddocks Blundering and Its Aftermath1. In the beginning, the British sent haughty 60 year-old general Braddock to lead a bunch of inexperienced soldiers with slow, heavy artillery.2. In a battle with the French, the British were routed.a. In this battle, Washington reportedly had two horses shot from under him and four bullets go through his coat, but never him.3. Afterwards, the frontier from Pennsylvania to North Carolina felt the Indian wrath, as scalping was everywhere.4. As the British tried to attack a bunch of strategic wilderness posts, defeated after defeat piled up.
*Pitts Palms of VictoryIn this hour of British trouble, William Pitt, the Great Commoner, took the lead.In 1757, he became a foremost leader in the London government.Later earning the title of Organizer of Victory, he soft-pedaled assaults on the French West Indies, assaults which sapped British strength, and concentrated on Quebec-Montreal.In 1758, Louisbourg fell after a blistering siege.32 year-old James Wolfe, dashing and attentive to detail, commanded an army that boldly scaled the cliff walls of a part protecting Quebec, met French troops near the Plains of Abraham, and in a battle in which he and French commander Marquis de Montcalm both died, the French were defeated and the city of Quebec surrendered.The 1759 Battle of Quebec ranks as one of the most significant engagements in British and American history, and when Montreal fell in 1760, that was the last time French flags would fly on American soil.In the peace treaty at Paris in 1763, Britain got all of Canada, but the French were allowed to retain several small but valuable sugar islands in the West Indies and two never-to-be-fortified islets in the Gulf of St. Lawrence for fishing stations.Frances final blow came when they gave Louisiana to Spain to compensate for Spains losses in the war.Great Britain took its place as the leading naval power in the world, and a great power in North America*