anni di piombo: the hidden network

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An infographic about the political violence in Italy in the 70s

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  • Anni di piombo:the hidden networkan atlas by Giacomo Boffo

  • Anni di piombo:the hidden networkan atlas by Giacomo Boffo

  • Introduction

    On the 12nd of December 1969, a bomb explodedin the Agricolture Bank in Piazza Fontana, Milan,killing 17 and injuring 88.It was the beginning of the so called anni di piombo (years of lead) period, a season of unprecedented political violence in Italy that lasteduntil the early eighties.Most of the delicts during this season have been attributed, officially or unofficially, to either fascisteither communist extremist groups, but the storyis much more complicated than that, and includes criminal organizations as well as italian and american secret services.The aim of this atlas is to show the network of responsibilities behind these bloody facts.Nonenthless, this booklet is intended to give a general overview of the issue more than a detailed information; the reader willing to deepen the subjectshould consult the vast literature available on it.

  • Legend

    control

    responsibility

    financing

    information supply

    weapon supply

    investigation misleading

    protection

    verified relationship

    hypotised relationship

    Secret service

    Organ of the State

    Secret organization

    Extreme left group

    Extreme right group

    Criminal organization

    Leader(s)

    Person

    Killing

    Massacre

    Note: the diameter of each circle/organizationin the map is directly proportional to its amountof links/overlaps with other organizations/events.

    Chronology

    Piazza Fontana bomb (1969): 17 dead, 88 injuredGioia Tauro bomb (1970): 6 dead, 66 injuredPeteano Bomb (1972): 3 dead, 2 injuredItalicus train bomb (1974): 12 dead, 44injuredPiazza della Loggia bomb (1974): 8 dead, 102 injuredMurder of politician Enrico Pedenovi (1976)Murder of politician Emilio Alessandrini (1976)Murder of attorney Francesco Coco (1976)Murder of judge Vittorio Occorsio (1976)Murder of lawyer Fulvio Croce (1977)Murder of journalist Carlo Casalegno (1977)Via Fani massacre (1978): 5 deadMurder of politician Aldo Moro (1978)Murder of journalist Mino Pecorelli (1979)Bologna bomb (1980): 85 dead, 200 injured

    General Map

    Map

    2: Extreme rig

    htMap

    3: crim

    inality

    Map

    1: Secret s

    ervices an

    d orga

    niza

    tions

    Map

    4: extreme left

    SID

    SISD

    E

    CIA

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    io

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    della

    Dife

    sa

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    ro

    dellInte

    rno

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    io Affa

    ri Rise

    rvati

    Ordine

    Nuovo

    Avan

    guardia

    Nazion

    ale

    Band

    ade

    lla M

    aglia

    naMafia

    Nuova

    Camorra

    Orga

    nizzata

    Nucle

    i Armati

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    luzion

    ari

    Terza

    Posizion

    e

    Brigate

    Ross

    e

    Nucle

    iArmati

    Proletari

    Lotta

    Continua

    Prim

    aLine

    aPo

    tere

    Operaio

    Ordine

    Nero

    Rosa

    dei v

    entiFron

    teNa

    zion

    ale

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    luzion

    ario

    Bologn

    a bo

    mb (198

    0)

    Piaz

    za della Log

    gia bo

    mb (197

    4)

    Piaz

    za Fon

    tana

    bom

    b (196

    9)

    Petean

    o bo

    mb (197

    2)Gioia Ta

    uro bo

    mb (197

    0)

    Italicus

    train bo

    mb (197

    4)

    Murde

    r of jud

    geVitto

    rio Occorsio(19

    76)

    Murde

    r of jou

    rnalist

    Mino Pe

    corelli (1

    979)

    Murde

    r of jou

    rnalist

    Carlo

    Cas

    aleg

    no (1

    977)Via Fa

    ni M

    assa

    cre (197

    8)

    Murde

    r of p

    oliticia

    n Aldo

    Moro (197

    8)

    Murde

    r of law

    yer F

    ulvio Croce (197

    7)

    Murde

    r of p

    oliticia

    n En

    rico Pe

    deno

    vi (1

    976)

    Murde

    r of p

    oliticia

    n Em

    ilio Alessa

    ndrin

    i (19

    76)

    Murde

    r of a

    ttorney Francesco Coco (197

    6)

  • Legend

    control

    responsibility

    financing

    information supply

    weapon supply

    investigation misleading

    protection

    verified relationship

    hypotised relationship

    Secret service

    Organ of the State

    Secret organization

    Extreme left group

    Extreme right group

    Criminal organization

    Leader(s)

    Person

    Killing

    Massacre

    Note: the diameter of each circle/organizationin the map is directly proportional to its amountof links/overlaps with other organizations/events.

    Chronology

    Piazza Fontana bomb (1969): 17 dead, 88 injuredGioia Tauro bomb (1970): 6 dead, 66 injuredPeteano Bomb (1972): 3 dead, 2 injuredItalicus train bomb (1974): 12 dead, 44injuredPiazza della Loggia bomb (1974): 8 dead, 102 injuredMurder of politician Enrico Pedenovi (1976)Murder of politician Emilio Alessandrini (1976)Murder of attorney Francesco Coco (1976)Murder of judge Vittorio Occorsio (1976)Murder of lawyer Fulvio Croce (1977)Murder of journalist Carlo Casalegno (1977)Via Fani massacre (1978): 5 deadMurder of politician Aldo Moro (1978)Murder of journalist Mino Pecorelli (1979)Bologna bomb (1980): 85 dead, 200 injured

    General MapMap

    2: Extreme rig

    htMap

    3: crim

    inality

    Map

    1: Secret s

    ervices an

    d orga

    niza

    tions

    Map

    4: extreme left

    SID

    SISD

    E

    CIA

    Glad

    io

    SISM

    I

    Ministero

    della

    Dife

    sa

    Ministe

    ro

    dellInte

    rno

    Uffic

    io Affa

    ri Rise

    rvati

    Ordine

    Nuovo

    Avan

    guardia

    Nazion

    ale

    Band

    ade

    lla M

    aglia

    naMafia

    Nuova

    Camorra

    Orga

    nizzata

    Nucle

    i Armati

    Rivo

    luzion

    ari

    Terza

    Posizion

    e

    Brigate

    Ross

    e

    Nucle

    iArmati

    Proletari

    Lotta

    Continua

    Prim

    aLine

    aPo

    tere

    Operaio

    Ordine

    Nero

    Rosa

    dei v

    entiFron

    teNa

    zion

    ale

    Rivo

    luzion

    ario

    Bologn

    a bo

    mb (198

    0)

    Piaz

    za della Log

    gia bo

    mb (197

    4)

    Piaz

    za Fon

    tana

    bom

    b (196

    9)

    Petean

    o bo

    mb (197

    2)Gioia Ta

    uro bo

    mb (197

    0)

    Italicus

    train bo

    mb (197

    4)

    Murde

    r of jud

    geVitto

    rio Occorsio(19

    76)

    Murde

    r of jou

    rnalist

    Mino Pe

    corelli (1

    979)

    Murde

    r of jou

    rnalist

    Carlo

    Cas

    aleg

    no (1

    977)Via Fa

    ni M

    assa

    cre (197

    8)

    Murde

    r of p

    oliticia

    n Aldo

    Moro (197

    8)

    Murde

    r of law

    yer F

    ulvio Croce (197

    7)

    Murde

    r of p

    oliticia

    n En

    rico Pe

    deno

    vi (1

    976)

    Murde

    r of p

    oliticia

    n Em

    ilio Alessa

    ndrin

    i (19

    76)

    Murde

    r of a

    ttorney Francesco Coco (197

    6)

  • SID

    SISDEP2

    Gladio

    SISMI

    Ministerodella Difesa

    Ministero dellInterno

    Ufficio Affari Riservati

    GianadelioMaletti

    Guido Giannettini(Agente Z)

    AntonioLabruna

    FedericoUmbertoDAmato

    Vito MiceliPaoloInzerilli

    Licio Gelli

    AldoSemerari

    GiovanniVentura

    MaurizioTramonte

    Giulio Grassini

    GiuseppeSantovito

    FrancescoDelfino

    Delfo Zorzi

    Bologna bomb (1980)

    Map 1: Secret services and organizations

    CIA OrdineNuovo

    A

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    6

    7

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    6

    7

    B C D E F G H I J

    A B C D E F G H I J

    to Map 2

    to Map 4

  • SID

    SISDEP2

    Gladio

    SISMI

    Ministerodella Difesa

    Ministero dellInterno

    Ufficio Affari Riservati

    GianadelioMaletti

    Guido Giannettini(Agente Z)

    AntonioLabruna

    FedericoUmbertoDAmato

    Vito MiceliPaoloInzerilli

    Licio Gelli

    AldoSemerari

    GiovanniVentura

    MaurizioTramonte

    Giulio Grassini

    GiuseppeSantovito

    FrancescoDelfino

    Delfo Zorzi

    Bologna bomb (1980)

    Map 1: Secret services and organizations

    CIA OrdineNuovo

    A

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    6

    7

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    6

    7

    B C D E F G H I J

    A B C D E F G H I J

    to Map 2

    to Map 4

  • Map 2: Extreme right

    CIA

    OrdineNuovo

    AvanguardiaNazionale

    Nuclei Armati Rivoluzionari

    TerzaPosizione

    OrdineNero

    Stefano delle Chiaie

    MarioMerlinoCarmineDominici

    Junio Valerio Borghese

    GiovanniVentura

    ClementeGraziani

    MassimoCarminati

    GiorgioVale

    GiusvaFioravanti

    FrancoAnselmi

    AlessandroAlibrandi

    FrancescaMambro

    PierluigiConcutelli

    Vincenzo Vinciguerra

    MaurizioTramonte

    Rosadei venti

    FronteNazionaleRivoluzionario

    Mario Tuti

    Luciano Franci

    Piero Malentacchi

    FrancoFreda

    Delfo Zorzi

    Piazza della Loggia bomb (1974)

    Piazza Fontana bomb (1969)

    Peteano bomb (1972)Gioia Tauro bomb (1970)

    Italicus train bomb (1974)

    Murder of judgeVittorio Occorsio(1976)

    Murder of journalistMino Peco

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