Andrzej Pownuk, The University of Texas at El Paso http://andrzej.pownuk.com

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  • Andrzej Pownuk, The University of Texas at El Paso http://andrzej.pownuk.com
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  • Modeling errors Approximation errors Rounding errors Uncertainty Human errors
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  • 5% uncertainty
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  • Example
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  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interval_finite_element http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interval_finite_element
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  • Interval Random variable
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  • Intervals Random variables
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  • Example n=100
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  • - design value - characteristic value
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  • (i) the possibility of unfavourable deviation of material strength from the characteristic value. (ii) the possibility of unfavourable variation of member sizes. (iii) the possibility of unfavourable reduction in member strength due to fabrication and tolerances. (iv) uncertainty in the calculation of strength of the members.
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  • - design value - characteristic value
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  • - probability of failure
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  • Probability of failure = = (number of safe cases)/(number of all cases) structure fail often = structure is not safe
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  • Probabilistic methods How often the stucture fail? Non-probabilistic methods (worst case design) How big force the structure is able to survive?
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  • Elishakoff I., 2000, Possible limitations of probabilistic methods in engineering. Applied Mechanics Reviews, Vol.53, No.2,pp.19-25 Does God play dice?
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  • 1:09 20 /1 53
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  • 21 /5 3 Set valued random variable Upper and lower probability
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  • 1:0923/153 Nested family of random sets
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  • Fuzzy sets Extension principle
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  • http://andrzej.pownuk.com/fuzzy.htm http://andrzej.pownuk.com/fuzzy.htm Fuzzy approach (the use of grades) is similar to the concept of safety factor. Because of that fuzzy approach is very important.
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  • - is called the prior probability of H that was inferred before new evidence, E, became availableprior probability - is called the conditional probability of seeing the evidence E if the hypothesis H happens to be true. It is also called a likelihood function when it is considered as a function of H for fixed E.conditional probabilitylikelihood function - marginal probability - is called the posterior probability of H given E.posterior probability
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  • Cox's theorem, named after the physicist Richard Threlkeld Cox, is a derivation of the laws of probability theory from a certain set of postulates. This derivation justifies the so-called "logical" interpretation of probability. As the laws of probability derived by Cox's theorem are applicable to any proposition, logical probability is a type of Bayesian probability. Other forms of Bayesianism, such as the subjective interpretation, are given other justifications. Richard Threlkeld CoxprobabilityBayesian probabilitysubjective interpretation
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  • First described by Zdzisaw I. Pawlak, is a formal approximation of a crisp set (i.e., conventional set) in terms of a pair of sets which give the lower and the upper approximation of the original set. In the standard version of rough set theory (Pawlak 1991), the lower- and upper-approximation sets are crisp sets, but in other variations, the approximating sets may be fuzzy sets.crisp setfuzzy sets
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  • Design with the interval parameters
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  • R. E. Moore. Interval Analysis. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs N. J., 1966 Neumaier A., 1990, Interval methods for systems of equations, Cambridge University Press, New York Ben-Haim Y., Elishakoff I., 1990, Convex Models of Uncertainty in Applied Mechanics. Elsevier Science Publishers, New York Buckley J.J., Qy Y., 1990, On using a-cuts to evaluate fuzzy equations. Fuzzy Sets and Systems, Vol.38,pp.309-312
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  • Kyloglu H.U., A.S. akmak, and S. R. K. Nielsen (1995). Interval Algebra to Deal with Pattern Loading of Structural Uncertainties, ASCE Journal of Engineering Mechanics, 11, 11491157
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  • Rump S.M., 1994, Verification methods for dense and sparse systems of equations. J. Herzberger, ed., Topics in Validated Computations. Elsevier Science B.V.,pp.63- 135
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  • Muhanna in the paper Muhanna R.L., Mullen R.L., Uncertainty in Mechanics Problems - Interval - Based Approach. Journal of Engineering Mechanics, Vol.127, No.6, 2001, 557-556 E.Popova, On the Solution of Parametrised Linear Systems. W. Kraemer, J. Wolff von Gudenberg (Eds.): Scientific Computing,Validated Numerics, Interval Methods. Kluwer Acad. Publishers, 2001, pp. 127-138.
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  • I. Skalna, A Method for Outer Interval Solution of Systems of Linear Equations Depending Linearly on Interval Parameters, Reliable Computing, Volume 12, Number 2, April, 2006, Pages 107-120
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  • Akpan U.O., Koko T.S., Orisamolu I.R., Gallant B.K., Practical fuzzy finite element analysis of structures, Finite Elements in Analysis and Design, 38 (2000) 93-111 McWilliam, Stewart, 2001 Anti-optimisation of uncertain structures using interval analysis Computers and Structures Volume: 79, Issue: 4, February, 2001, pp. 421-430
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  • Pownuk A., Numerical solutions of fuzzy partial differential equation and its application in computational mechanics, FuzzyPartial Differential Equations and Relational Equations: Reservoir Characterization and Modeling (M. Nikravesh, L. Zadeh and V. Korotkikh, eds.), Studies in Fuzziness and Soft Computing, Physica- Verlag, 2004, pp.308-347
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  • Neumaier A., Clouds, fuzzy sets and probability intervals, Reliable Computing 10: 249272, 2004 http://andrzej.pownuk.com/IntervalEquation s.htm http://andrzej.pownuk.com/IntervalEquation s.htm
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  • http://webapp.math.utep.edu:8080/~andrzej /php/ansys2interval/ http://webapp.math.utep.edu:8080/~andrzej /php/ansys2interval/ http://webapp.math.utep.edu/Pages/Interval FEMExamples.htm http://webapp.math.utep.edu/Pages/Interval FEMExamples.htm http://calculus.math.utep.edu/IntervalODE- 1.0/default.aspx http://calculus.math.utep.edu/IntervalODE- 1.0/default.aspx http://calculus.math.utep.edu/AdaptiveTaylo rSeries-1.1/default.aspx http://calculus.math.utep.edu/AdaptiveTaylo rSeries-1.1/default.aspx http://andrzej.pownuk.com/silverlight/Vibrat ionsWithIntervalParameters/VibrationsWithInt ervalParameters.html http://andrzej.pownuk.com/silverlight/Vibrat ionsWithIntervalParameters/VibrationsWithInt ervalParameters.html
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  • Example
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  • because
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  • United solution set Tolerable solution set Controllable solution set
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  • http://www.ippt.gov.pl/~kros/pccmm99/10PSS.html
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  • What is the definition of the solution of differential equation?
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  • Dubois D., Prade H., 1987, On Several Definition of the Differentiation of Fuzzy Mapping, Fuzzy Sets and Systems, Vol.24, pp.117-120 How about integral equations?
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  • Modal interval arithmetic Affine arithmetic Constrain interval arithmetic Ellipsoidal arithmetic Convex models (equations with the ellipsoidal parameters) General set valued arithmetic Fuzzy relational equations . Etc.
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  • Gradient descent Interior point method Sequential quadratic programming Genetic algorithms
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  • Endpoint combination method Interval Gauss elimination Interval Gauss-Seidel method Linear programming method Rohn method Jiri Rohn, "A Handbook of Results on Interval Linear Problems,2006 http://www.cs.cas.cz/~rohn/publist/handboo k.zip
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  • W. Oettli, W. Prager. Compatibility of approximate solution of linear equations with given error bounds for coefficients and right- hand sides. Numer. Math. 6: 405-409, 1964.
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  • H.U. Koyluoglu, A. akmak, S.R.K. Nielsen. Interval mapping in structural mechanics. In: Spanos, ed. Computational Stochastic Mechanics. 125-133. Balkema, Rotterdam 1995.
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  • Rohns methodCombinatoric solution

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