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DESCRIPTIONANDREW JACKSON. Key Concept:. The expansion of slavery in the lower South and adjacent western lands, and its gradual disappearance elsewhere, began to create distinctive regional attitudes toward the institution. Sectionalism. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
ANDREW JACKSONThe expansion of slavery in the lower South and adjacent western lands, and its gradual disappearance elsewhere, began to create distinctive regional attitudes toward the institution.Key Concept:
SectionalismAfter the War of 1812 there was a heightened sense of nationalism bringing the country together.At the same time sectionalism was driving the country apart.
Sectionalism: loyalty to the interests of your own region or section of the country.
The North was loyal to the ideas of the economy based on manufacturing and trade.
The South was loyal to their reliance on the cotton industry and the use of slave labor.The West was mostly interested in transportation of goods and statehood issues.Sectionalism becomes a major issue when Missouri applies for statehood.The people of Missouri wanted to be a slave state.When Missouri applied their were 11 free states and 11 slave states.Missouri Applies for Statehood
For months the states argued over admitting Missouri.
James Tallmadge of New York proposed in Congress that slavery be banned in Missouri.
Angered Southerners argued that the Constitution did not give Congress the right to ban slavery.
6Both sides feared the other side would gain the majority in Congress.
The Compromise:Henry Clay who was Speaker of the House suggested that Maine and Missouri be entered into the Union together.This compromise maintained the balance of power in Congress.Slavery will not be permitted North of the Southern border of Missouri. The Missouri Compromise is a temporary fix.
Missouri CompromiseIn 1824 the peaceful time of politics from the Era of Good Feelings had come to an end.
Five candidates from the Democratic-Republican Party ran for office.
John Quincy Adams was nominated because he was the vice president under Monroe.
The Election of 1824
Andrew Jackson, John Q. Adams, William Crawford, Henry Clay, and at one point John C. Calhoun who later withdrew.
Jackson won 41% of the popular vote and 99 electoral votes.
John Quincy Adams won 30% of the popular vote and 84 electoral votes.
Nobody had a electoral majority. The decision had to be left up to Congress by order of the Constitution. 131 electoral votes were needed to win.
Henry Clay who had no chance of winning persuaded his supporters to support Adams.Jacksonian DemocracyJackson felt that the election of 1824 had been stolen from him, that the will of the people had been ignored.
For four years the split between the supporters of Jackson and the supporters of Adams grew.
Democrats: supporters of JacksonRepublicans: supporters of Adams
John Quincy AdamsJohn Quincy Adams was the first president to be photographed in 1843. The photograph was taken after his presidency.Election of 1828In 1828, Jacksons Democrats will come out in full force to oppose special privilege that was personified by John Quincy Adams.
The campaign was bitter. Adams campaign portrayed Jackson as an illiterate, back woodsman, murderer, and adulterer.
Jackson 278 electoral votesAdams 83 electoral votesJackson Wins!
The election took its toll on Rachel Jackson as she became the subject of the mudslinging by the Adams campaign.
Claims that she had committed adultery and polygamy were circulated throughout the country.
She died of a heart attack before Jackson was inaugurated. To the Victor Belong the Spoils.Spoils System: the practice of giving government jobs to political supporters.
Jackson opponents charged that this practice was corrupt.
It typically would result in unqualified people holding government office.
As president, Jackson will face three major issues:The Status of Native Americans.The Rights of StatesThe Role of the Bank of the United States.A New Political Era
Rising SectionalismWhen Jackson took office the country was being pulled apart by conflicts among its three main sections- The Northeast, the South, and the West.
Legislators were arguing over three economic issues:The Sale of Public LandsInternal ImprovementsTariffsSale of Public LandsThe federal government had acquired land through conquests, treaties, and purchases.
It raised money by selling land to the public. Northerners became concerned that land being sold at such a low rate would cause their workers to move west.
Factory owners could not afford to lose their workers. The government wanted low rates to encourage settlement.
Internal ImprovementsThe issue of internal improvements also pulled the sections apart.The Northeast and the West approved of government spending on roads and canals.The South disapproved of spending on transportation because the projects were financed through tariffs.The South did not want an increase of taxes on imported goods. They were opposed to rising tariffs because their economy relied on foreign trade.
Tariff of AbominationsIn 1828, during the last months of Adams presidency, Congress passed a bill that raised tariffs significantly.
Southerners were outraged. The had to sell their cotton at a very low rate just to be competitive. They hated the tariff and called it the Tariff of Abominations.
Abomination: a hateful thing
The crisis hit South Carolina especially hard because their economy was in a slump.Crisis Over NullificationThe crisis was so serious that some states considered leaving the union.
John C. Calhoun was the Vice President. He understood the problems of the South and proposed a Doctrine of Nullification.
Doctrine of Nullification: each state had a right to nullify, or reject, a federal law that it considered unconstitutional.
The many hairdos of calhoun
States Rights DebateCalhouns idea of nullification was an extreme form of states rights.One of the most famous debates in the history of the United States took place over the issue of states rights.The Webster Hayne Debate took place in 1830
The Webster-Hayne DebateWebster argued that it was the people and not the states that made the Union.Hayne argued that the doctrine gave the states the right to defend its freedom by not allowing laws that it thought was unconstitutional.Jackson and Calhoun will become bitter enemies over the issue.
Sen. Daniel Webster[MA]Sen. Robert Hayne[SC]South Carolina Threatens to SecedeJackson made it clear that he opposed the Doctrine of Nullification. He did not want to drive the South out of the Union so he asked Congress to reduce the tariff.
Southerners thought the reduced rates were still too high.
South Carolina nullified the tariff acts in 1828 and 1832 and then voted to build its own army.
They began to threaten secession, or withdrawal from the Union.
Jacksons ReactionJackson was enraged and vowed to enforce federal laws in South Carolina. He stated:
Ill hang the first man of them I can get my hands on.
Election of 1832Jackson runs for re-election in 1832 without Calhoun.
After he won he made it clear that he would use force to ensure that federal laws were obeyed.
Henry Clay introduced a compromise tariff in 1833. Congress quickly passed the bill and the crisis ended.
Jacksons Native American PolicySince the 1600s, white settlers had pushed Native Americans westward as they took more land.Some whites hoped that Native Americans would adapt to the white peoples way of life. Others wanted them to keep moving west.Many people believed that Native Americans were uncivilized and did not want to live near them.By the 1820s, only 100,000 Native Americans lived East of the Mississippi.
The American Population Moves West
More than any other tribe, the Cherokee adopted many white customs, including their way of dressing.Cherokee owned farms and cattle ranches, and some even owned slaves.In 1827, the Cherokee drew up their own constitutions and founded the Cherokee Nation.The Cherokee Nation
One year after the drafting of their constitution, gold was found in the Cherokee land in Georgia.The discovery of gold increased the demand by whites to move the Cherokee.The government proceeded with a plan to move all Native Americans from the Southeast.Gold Discovered
Rock-A-Bye BabyAlthough there is no evidence as to when the lyrics were written, it may date from the seventeenth century and have been written by an English immigrant who observed the way native-American women rocked their babies in birch-bark cradles, which were suspended from the branches of trees, allowing the wind to rock the baby to sleep.[
Jacksons Removal PolicyAndrew Jackson had long supported the policy of moving Native Americans west of the Mississippi.He first dealt with the Southern tribes during the war of 1812.Jackson believed that the government had the right to regulate where Native Americans lived.After the discovery of gold Georgia and other southern states passed laws that gave them the right to take over Native American lands.Jackson supported the states.
Indian Removal ActTo solve the problem, Jackson had Congress pass a law that would require all Native Americans to move west or submit to state laws.The law called for new treaties with Native Americans.Jackson considered the law just and liberal.
Trail of TearsWith whites invading their territory many Native Americans felt they had no choice but to sign treaties exchanging their land for land in the west.Under the treaties the Native Americans would be moved to an area that is now Oklahoma and parts of Kansas and Nebraska.
TreatyLand in this territory will be controlled by the following tribes:vnfjdjfdjvmndjdjfhedjfjdjfdjdjdjf