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The Greek World 500-440 BC

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Ancient History Assessment Task 3 The Greek World 500-440 BC Due Date: Wednesday 15th August Assessment Task Weighting: 20%

H.S.C STUDY GUIDE

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A HISTORY study guide to help you through the HSC and beyond

Alexandra Seifertova

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ContentsMain Characters ................................................................................................................................................................ 8 Persians: ........................................................................................................................................................................ 8 Geography of Greece: ....................................................................................................................................................... 9 Basic Overview .............................................................................................................................................................. 9 The Effects of Land Forms ............................................................................................................................................. 9 The States (Polis): ........................................................................................................................................................... 10 The Persian Wars: Persian Empire.................................................................................................................................. 10 Main sources used ...................................................................................................................................................... 10 The causes for the Persian Wars ................................................................................................................................. 11 The Scythian Campaign ............................................................................................................................................... 11 The Ionian Revolt: 499 BC ............................................................................................................................................. 12 Reasons for the Revolt ................................................................................................................................................ 12 What happened .......................................................................................................................................................... 12 Course of the Ionian Revolt ........................................................................................................................................ 12 The invasion of 490 BC: The Battle of Marathon........................................................................................................... 14 Reasons for Attack ...................................................................................................................................................... 14 Background: ................................................................................................................................................................ 14 Use of Calvary ............................................................................................................................................................. 15 The Battle .................................................................................................................................................................... 16 Athenian win ............................................................................................................................................................... 16 Inter-war Period: preparation and developments in Persia and Greece .......................................................................... 18 Events after the Persian loss at Marathon/ Development ......................................................................................... 18 Athens- Aegina War .................................................................................................................................................... 19 Developments in Greece and the rise of Themistocle ................................................................................................ 20 Greek preparations for war ........................................................................................................................................ 20 Invasion of 480- 479 BC: Thermopylae, Artemisium, Salamis, Plataea and Mycale ..................................................... 22 Greek Strategy ............................................................................................................................................................ 22 Battle of Thermopylae: 480 BC ................................................................................................................................... 22 Battle of Artemisium: 480 BC...................................................................................................................................... 23 Results from Thermopylae and Artemesium .............................................................................................................. 24 Battle of Salamis ......................................................................................................................................................... 25 The Battle of Plataea: 479 BC...................................................................................................................................... 26 The Battle of Mycale: 479 BC ...................................................................................................................................... 28 Role and Contribution of Themistocles, Leonidas, Eurybiades, Pausanias .................................................................... 29 Themistocles ............................................................................................................................................................... 29

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Leonidas ...................................................................................................................................................................... 30 Eurybiades ................................................................................................................................................................... 30 Pausanias .................................................................................................................................................................... 31 Reasons for Greek Victory and Persian Defeat............................................................................................................... 32 Leadership ................................................................................................................................................................... 32 Geography and the natural elements ......................................................................................................................... 32 Armour, equipment and tactics .................................................................................................................................. 33 Greek Unity ................................................................................................................................................................. 33 Development of Athens and the Athenian Empire: The Delian League ......................................................................... 34 Origins ......................................................................................................................................................................... 34 Aims............................................................................................................................................................................. 34 Organisation ................................................................................................................................................................ 35 Membership ............................................................................................................................................................ 35 Finances .................................................................................................................................................................. 35 Delos........................................................................................................................................................................ 35 Voting and Autonomy ............................................................................................................................................. 35 Activities until the Battle at Euryumedon River .......................................................................................................... 36 Athens Power .............................................................................................................................................................. 36 The Battle of Eurymedon 467 BC ................................................................................................................................ 36 What the Athens and allies gained and lost from the Delian League ......................................................................... 37 Allied States: ........................................................................................................................................................... 37 Athens: .................................................................................................................................................................... 37 Role and Contribution of Cimon and Aristides the Just ................................................................................................. 38 Aristides the Just ......................................................................................................................................................... 38 Cimon .......................................................................................................................................................................... 39 Transformation of the Delian League into the Athenian Empire .................................................................................... 40 The Defeat of Thasos: 465- 63 BC ............................................................................................................................... 40 Growing conflict between Athens and Sparta ............................................................................................................ 40 Athens at its Peak and Peace at last ........................................................................................................................... 41 Athens and its loss of its land empire ......................................................................................................................... 41 The Revolt of Samos 440 BC ....................................................................................................................................... 42 Nature of Athenian Imperialism: Changing Relations with Allies ................................................................................. 43 Control of Allies ........................................................................................................................................................... 43 Changing Status of the Allies................................................................................................................................... 43 Control over the Allied Fleet ................................................................................................................................... 43 Using Force against its Allies ................................................................................................................................... 43

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Garrisons ................................................................................................................................................................. 43 Cleruchies ................................................................................................................................................................ 44 The Never Ending Oath ........................................................................................................................................... 44 Judicial Control ........................................................................................................................................................ 44 Imposition of Democracies ..................................................................................................................................... 45 Control of Finances ................................................................................................................................................. 45 Control of Trade and Resources.............................................................................................................................. 45 Control of Foreign Policy ......................................................................................................................................... 45 Key Democratic Developments: Influence of the Thetes, Ostracism and Citizenship Law ........................................... 46 Athenian Democracy................................................................................................................................................... 46 Solon ........................................................................................................................................................................... 47 Cleisthenes .................................................................................................................................................................. 47 Changes to the democracy ......................................................................................................................................... 47 Glossary of All Terms ..................................................................................................................................................... 50 Biography:....................................................................................................................................................................... 51 Ancient Sources: ......................................................................................................................................................... 51

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Maps of Ancient Greece (1, 2)

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Main CharactersPersians: Artaphernes (Half brother of Darius, satrap of Western Asia) Darius (King of Persia) Datis and Artaphernes (Persian generals who led the attack. Datis was an experienced Median soldier while Artaphernes was Datis nephew and the son of the Satrap of Sardis) Megabates (Darius cousin) Mardonius (Leading military commander) Xerxes (Son of Darius, next king)

Greeks: Aristagora (Tyrant of Miletus- son in law of Histiaeus) Aristides (Athenian statesman, also referred to as the Just) Callimachus (Scholar) Cimon (Political figure) Cleisthenes (Noble man, reformed the constitution) Cleomenes (King of Sparta) Eurybiades (Spartan commander) Hippias (ex tyrant of Athens who resided at the Persian court in Sura, and helped guide the Persians to Marathon) Histiaeus (former tyrant of Miletus) Leonidas (King of Sparta) Leotychides (King of Sparta) Miltiades (one of the 10 generals in command of the Greek forces at Marathon) Pausanias (Spartan general) Solon (Athenian statesman) Themistocles (Athenian politician) Xanthippus (Athenian politician)

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Geography of Greece:Basic Overview Greece is covered in rugged lime stone mountains ranging from North, South, East and West. Dividing the peninsula from the North and South is the Pindus chain of mountains. Running from the West are mountains that divide the planes of Thessaly, Boeotia and Attica. Within the Peloponnese the mountains, running North and South form the Aegean islands. The rare, large planes strewn across Greece played an important role in the economy of Ancient GreeceMap of the mountains and planes of Greece

The Effects of Land Forms Due to the high mountains and the infrequent passes between them communication was virtually impossible across land. Therefore the usage of sea was used for trade and people. Allowing for communication between city states and countries. However the mountains did not only provide difficulties. It allowed Poleis natural defence from both natural and man-made forces. The narrow passes, scattered throughout the mountains also enabled army generals to have an advantage in battles, allowing smaller forces to contain and defeat armies, for example the Battle of Thermopylae. With poleis being surrounded by mountain barriers, many were isolated. Creating strong feelings of independence and autonomy. Celebrating their love of freedom and civic pride. By being separated from other poleis each polis would have their own form of government institutions and community life. With the polis being so isolated from each other, self-sufficiency was extremely important. Each polis would have their own access to getting food and water, meaning they did not have to rely on the neighbouring polis; however that does not mean that trading did not exist, rather the opposite. However with each polis being independent and different in some forms, feelings of jealously would rise up causing destructive quarrels and re-laitance to re-unite. Without the geographical barriers the act of amalgamating would have been made easier and would have created one singular political unit not several.

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The States (Polis): The Poleis were created around 1100-800 BC, after the Dark Ages. Even though called a city state it was neither city, nor state rather a community of people. These polis had their own self-governing, autonomous community. It included - the acropolis - town or city built around the acropolis - villages of the countryside - people of the city - political, cultural, religious and economic way of life

The Persian Wars: Persian EmpireMain sources used The main sources that describe the Persian War either contained useful, factual information or were or mythological, having no relationship to the actual wars. Most of the sources are from the Greeks. Virtually none survive from the Persian Empire and those that do consist of small details and when compared to the Greeks hold no real information. However with only having Greek sources one must take care to acknowledge to great Greek bias evident throughout these pieces. Other biases also include gender and over exaggeration. The main written source is The Histories written in the 5th century BC by the Greek historian Herodotus. The reason why Herodotus is such a main source is that he describes the entire war, including all the battles that occurred. However one must take care when interpreting him, his book was meant as a story and remembrance of what occurred rather than a factual book. Within the work there are many over exaggerations and there is a particularly strong Athenian bias. In addition Aeschylus, an Athenian playwright created a work by the title of The Persians in 472 BC. The play consists of the Athenian victory at the Battle of Salamis. Fragment from The Histories by Herodotus, Book VIII The Greek historian Thucydides wrote at the end of th the 5 century wrote The History of the Peloponnesian War. The last main written source is that of Plutarch, a Greek biographer who wrote in 1rst century AD about the lives of the leading Roman and Greek leaders.

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Apart from written sources, many archaeological and epigraphical sources exist, including The Trozen Decree which relates to the decision to evacuate Athens before the 2nd Persian invasion along with The Serpent Colum at Delphi which shows the Greek states that fought in the wars. The causes for the Persian Wars There were several reasons as to why the Persian Wars were started. The long term include: the megalomania of the Persian kings, the force of imperialism and the need for a Persian king to outdo his predecessor. The Short term issues contain: the Ionian Revolt that occurred in 499-98 BC, the Greeks horror and sympathy towards the Ionian Greeks and the way they were being treated and lastly the former tyrant of Athens, Hippias made sure he would have Persian backing for his return over the state. The Scythian Campaign Darius, seeking further expansion embarked on a journey across Danube and into Scythia. The force used for this expedition was mainly made up of the Ionian Greeks who had recently been put under Persian control. According the as soon as night fell (Darius) began the Herodotus around 600 ships were supplied. homeward marchas for the men (left behind) Along with having to lend troops to the they were incapacitated by sickness and he did Persian Army the Ionian cities were also not want themDariuswas, in point of fact, commanded to build bridges of boats across deserting (them)the Persian remnant, the Hellespont and the Danube River so that realising that Darius had betrayed them, held both the Persian Army and Ionian forces could out their arms in sign of Surrender past across safely. [The Histories- Herodotus. Book 4, 135-136] Thrace was soon captured however the Persian forces were unable to capture the Scythian tribes. Overall the expedition was a complete failure. The Persian forces were forced to retreat. This was done in the dead of night. After the Persian retreat the Scythians observed that the Persian army would be soon evident in Greece. The Persian king, having overrun the whole of the other continentbrought Thrace into subjectionwith the intention of making himself master of all Europe the Persians will never be content to leave you unmolested. [The Histories- Herodotus. Book 2, 118]

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The Ionian Revolt: 499 BCReasons for the Revolt

Expansion of the Persian Empire

The Persians take over Lydia

Greeks living in and running the ionian prvince

The Greeks, always free people dislike being dominated and controlled by Persian tyrants

Tension over some tyrants

The Persian failure of the Scythian campaign led to opposition, for it was seen that the Persians do not always win.

What happened The lead up to the Ionian Revolt was caused by the failed attack on Naxos between the oligarchs and democrats. The oligarchs were banished and asked the help of Aristagoras, the tyrant of Miletus in order to help them gain back Naxos. Aristagoras, possibly seeing this as a way to gain more power suggested that Naxos be captured and used as a base for future expansion. Thus allowing Persia more access to lands. The attack however failed. The 4-month siege led to a stale-mate. Aristagoras, fearing for his life due to his failure decided to initiate a full-scale revolt with the Ionian Greeks, him being the leader. One of the many reasons for Aristagoras ideas for revolt may have also been due to the fact that Darius was holding Histiaeus in Susa. Histiaeus, managing to contact Aristagoras sent him one word on the head of his slave revolt. For Histiaeus wanted to urge Aristagoras to revolt but had no other safe way of communicating with him (for all the roads were watched); so he took his most trustworthy of all his slaves and shaved his head and then tattooed a message on in and waited until the hair grew in again. He sent the man off to Miletus with no instructions save that, when he came to Miletus, he should bid Aristagoras to shave him hair off and examine his head. The tattooed marks did, as I said before urged Aristagoras to revolt. [The Histories- Herodotus. Book 5, 35] 12

Course of the Ionian Revolt The first action for the revolt was to drive out all the tyrants from the Ionian cities and set up Greek democratises in their stead. To lend support in the revolts Athens promised to send out 20 ships and Eretia to send out 5 ships. In 498 BC, the Ionians managed to

capture the headquarters of the Persian Satrap, Sardis. The city was captured but not the citadel itself. A fire broke out and burnt many parts of the capital including the temple of Cybele and the Great Mother Goddess. It was only when a large Persian cavalry force approached Sardis did they Ionians flee; however they were caught by the Persian army at Ephesus, causing a defeat for the Greeks. Athenians seeing the past events left the revolt, not taking part within it and the next few occurrences. Thus with the Athenians leaving them, the Ionians were on the own and were forced to face Darius seething anger. It was only until 494 BC that the last revolt battle happened, causing a defeat for the Ionians. The island of Miletus was attacked by over 600 Persian ships, the Greeks having only 350 ships to defend their city with. After the defeat all the men found were executed while the women and children were taken as slaves and sent to Susa.

Results of the Ionian Revolt

Darius became obsessed with the one thought of revenge.

Increase migration from the Ionian cities to mainland Greece.

The preperation of the Invasione of 490 BC

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The invasion of 490 BC: The Battle of MarathonCharacter Profile for Miltiades: - Miltiades is a key player in the Battle at Marathon, without him it is sure that the Greek forces would have lost. - Before Marathon Miltiades was the tyrant of the Greek Colonies at Thracian Chersonese. - He married Hegesipyle, the daughter of king Olorus of Thrace. - Thracian Chersonese was forced to submit to Persian rule as they were over taken. Miltiades thus became a vassal of Darius I. He then joined Darius' expedition against the Scythians around 513 BCE. - He joined the Ionian Revolt, creating relations with Athens and capturing the islands of Lemnos and Imbros which were then creeded to Athens.

Reasons for Attack It is believed that the attacks on Athens and Eretria in 490 BC were due to Darius need for revenge for the part both states played in the Ionian revolts. Along with this want for revenge for taking part in the Ionian Revolt the Persians sent envoys to all the Greek states, asking for the submission of earth and water. Several states including Thessaly and Boeotia submitted. However both Athens and Sparta killed their envoys, a massive breach in protocol. This was seen as a direct assault on the Persians. The conquer of Athens and Eretria would have also allowed Darius to expand into the West. Athens was a powerful and wealthy city, making it a valuable asset.

Background:

Mardonius an experienced Median soldier and Artaphernes, the son of the satrap of Sardis and Darius nephew became the commanders of the fleet. The Persians went onwards and attacked and managed to capture Naxos, all their temples were burnt in retaliation for the burning of the temples at Sadris during the Ionian Revolt in 499 - Spent 3 years in prison and BC. was to be sentenced to death for tyranny. However, he The city of Eretria on the island of Euboea was next, successfully presented himself capturing the city after a 6 day siege. Once again all the temples as a defender of Greek were burnt and all the inhabitants were captured as prisoners, most freedoms against Persian probably used as slaves later on. despotism and escaped death, The Persian forces, having just defeated Eretria, crossed soon becoming one the 10 Euboea to the region of Attic. The Athenians seeing the immediate generals on the council of war. danger raised a force of approximately (to modern day historians) 9000, help was asked of the other states but only the Boeotian town of Plataea agreed and sent a force of 1000. The actual number Herodotus gave were over exaggerated and often were meant to create awe and amazement rather than factual information. The Athenian forces were placed under the command of Polemarch Archon, who was the head of the Council of War which contained 10 generals. The leading strategoi of the army was Miltiades, the former tyrant of Chersonese. The Bay of Marathon, located North of Athens was the site where the Persian fleet landed. The bay, un-guarded enabled cavalry to manoeuvre easily (source from Herodotus) and the bay enabled shelter and protection for the ships. Furthermore by landing away from Athens it meant that the Athenian army would be lured away from Athens leaving it undefended and open to attacks. 14

When news arrived of the Persian if we fight a battle before any unsoundness appears in fleet landing at Marathon was any part of the Athenian people, then we are able to gain the heard in Athens a runner victory in the fight, if the gods grant equal conditions. These (Pheidippides) was despatched to things then all belong to you and depend on you; for if you run to Sparta and ask for attach yourself to my opinions, you have both a fatherland assistance. Pheidippides reach which is free and a native country which shall be your first Sparta in 2 days, running over 225 among the cities of Hellas; but if you choose the opinion of km. However the request for help those who are earnest against fighting, you shall have the was delayed for the Spartans were opposite of those good things of which I told you. in the middle of a religious [The Histories- Herodotus. Book 6, 109 festival and refused to send help until the moon was full. A council of war was then held in Athens were the issue of whether to fight or not was discussed. Now there are several variations with sources now. Some say that Callimachus, the polemarch decided the matter, saying they were to fight. Herodotus however states that is was Miltiades that gave the final say. Despite the disagreement it is definite that the Athenians chose to fight back. The Athenians, marching up to meet the Persians at Marathon positioned themselves in the foothills of Mt. Agriliki and blocked the path into Athens. The camp was defended by a stockade of felled trees that would stop cavalry attacks, weakening the Persians. Both the Greek and Persian armies stayed silent, watching each other, waiting. It was obvious that the Athenians were outnumbered 10 000 to 25 000. Use of Calvary The use of cavalry at Marathon is debatable. Herodotus states that the cavalry was disembarked but other than that there is no more mention of cavalry. However that is the only mention given on cavalry. However it would be unlikely if they were not there at the battle. and there came to them also the ships for carrying horses, which in the year before Darius had ordered his tributaries to make ready. In these they placed their horses, and having embarked the land-army in the ships they sailed for Ionia with sic hundred triremes [The histories- Herodotus. Book 6, 95]

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The Battle

Athenians formation= left wing had Plataeans, right wing had Callimachus while the the thinner lines (centre) were commanded by Miltiades.

Athens charge. The weak centre was pushed back but the wings held.

As the Persians push at the centre, pushing the Athenians back and them forward they become trapped by the Greek wings.

The surviving Persians try to flee to their ships, 7 are taken by the Greeks.

A messenger is sent to Athens to say the great news, he runs over 26 miles straight. Upon arriving in Athens he cries 'Victory' and then drops dead.

The remaining Persians sail to the South side of Athens where they lie anchor at Phaleron. Their plan is to attack Athens while it is unguarded.

Word is sent to the army at Marathon and they are called back. They whole army, exhausted and tired cross the 26 miles in one night. arriving in the morning at Athens.

The Persians seeing the army they just lost to, turn around and sail back to Persia.

Athenian win There are many reasons for the stunning victory by the Athenians at Marathon. The leader ship of Miltiades is a major one. It is clear that without Miltiades the Battle at Marathon would have been a failure. By being the former tyrant in Ionia and fighting under Darius rule Miltiades would have known the tactics and strategies used by the Persian army. This might be one of the many reasons why at the council of war meeting Callimachus listened to him, knowing they would have an upper hand advantage. Another reason is that the way the Greek army was armoured compared to the Persian army. The Greeks were able to deflect arrows and sword/spear jabs through their thick armour.Weapons and Armour: Greeks - Wore heavy defensive armour, included greaves to protect the lower legs and a breastplate/ cuirass made of many layers of linen and a helmet. Along with the armour the weapon of choice was a spear and sword, carried along with a shield or hoplon. The Greeks were used to close-range combat. Persians - Persians on the otherhand were used to long distance attack, thus they worse very little or no armour at all. They carried wicker shields and their main weapon of choice was the bow. However along with the foot soldiers cavalry was commonly used, creating a deadly threat.

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The Greeks also used their terrain. They did not march out into the open planes for that would have meant defeat. Rather they waited in the hillsides, where they would have the advantage. Lastly the Greeks were highly motivated. They were fighting for their homeland, a place of freedom. If they lost they would be either killed or sold into slavery. The Persians on the other hand were fighting for expansion (long term reason). They were not fighting for their lives, rather fighting to take lives.

Map of the tactics at the Battle of Marathon

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Inter-war Period: preparation and developments in Persia and GreeceAthen and Aeginan war

Greece

Athenian political devolpments and the rise of Themistocles

The key devolpments in greece and Persia

Prepare for war

Internal problems with the Egyptians and Babylonians Persia Prepare for war

Summary of the Inter-war period

Events after the Persian loss at Marathon/ Development King Darius, started preparing for war after the defeat at Marathon, however he did not get to see the coming war for he died in 485 BC. His son My intent is to throw a bridge over Hellespont Xerxes took up the crown, continuing on and march an army through Europe against with his plan for war. The reasons for the Greece, that thereby I may obtain vengeance war is unsure, however there are several from the Athenians for the wrongs committed by possibilities. One is to get revenge at them against the Persians and against my Athens. father. Another reason was the possibility for [The Histories- Herodotus. Book 7, 8] empirical expansion. Another reason being that certain Greeks wanted Xerxes to invade. Economy might have also played a large role in the invasion. Xerxes would have seen that Greece could interfere with his western possessions were there was both gold and timber. However before Xerxes would be able plan For, in the first place, it chanced that the attack on Greece, he would have to messengers arrived from Thessaly, sent by the solve the revolts happening within the Aleuadae, Thessalian kings, to invite Xerxes into empire. With the Egyptians rebelling in Greece, and to promise him all the assistance 486- 484 BE and the Babylonians rebelling which it was in their power to give... [The in 482 BC. Histories- Herodotus. Book 7, 6] The Egyptian revolt was put down in 484 BC and several of their religious temples

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were burnt. Along with the Egyptians, Xerxes brother was threatening revolt however he was soon bought off with gifts. The revolt in Babylonia was crushed ruthlessly and their lands were confiscated, making Babylonia into the satrapy of Assyria. After 4 years (481 BC) Xerxes was ready to attack. Herodotus claimed that the Persian forces were over 1 700 000 in number however this seems to be an exaggeration and it is more likely the numbers were around 300 000 land forces and 800 000 naval forces. Xerxes, while planning the attack knew that a land attack would not be enough against the Greeks. He needed to combine, making a land and sea attack. Having a large army to march over to Greece and for ships to follow carrying supplies. The organization took over 4 years. The first aim Xerxes had to achieve was to build bridges across the Hellespont and the Strymon River, allowing men and supplies to cross, cutting time and saving resources. A canal was also constructed at Mt Athos for safe passage for the navy. Supply deposits were strategically placed en-route. Lastly recruits were gathered from all over the Persian Empire, making the army one of the largest anyone in the Ancient world Bridge of boats made by Xerxes has seen, let alone faced. Over the time all these preparations were being done diplomatic embassies were sent over to all the Greek states excluding Athens and Sparta asking for earth and water (a submission), those who submitted would be spared from the slaughter and destruction.

Athens- Aegina War Aegina was the strongest naval power in Aegean at the time, and the relations between them and Athens were poor. Athens fearing that Aegina would side with Persian during the time at Marathon asked the help of Cleomenes, the king of Sparta. After the victory at Marathon the idea that Persia would be wanting revenge and would start preparing for another battle did not come into mind. However during the years 490- 480 BC there was a bitter political rivalry and trade war between the neighbouring island of Aegina. Cleomenes took ten hostages and gave them to Athens, preventing Aegina openly siding with the Persians. However the death of Cleomenes in As nobody has left a record, I cannot state 489 BC changed things dramatically. the precise number of men provided by each The Aeginetans now demanded that Sparta separate nation, but the grand total, excluding and their new king Leotychides influence the naval contingent, turned out to be 1, 700, Athens to return their hostages. Athens 000 refused causing a war to erupt between them [The Histories- Herodotus. Book 6, 60] and Aegina. Over several years both countries won and lost battles.

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Developments in Greece and the rise of Themistocle Political developments increased in the inter war period. An incensement ostracism occurred along with the lessening importance of the position of archon and the growing importance of the strategoi. The leading political figures in Athens at the time were Xanthippus, Aristides and Themistocles. Xanthippus was the one responsible for sentencing Miltiades to prison and was soon ostracised in 484 BC. Aristides was known as the just; he was honest and was renowned for his integrity. He and Themistocles were great rivals however they were both able to put their differences aside to help defend themselves against the Persians. He was ostracised in 482 BC. Themistocles and his victory against both Aristides and Xanthippus would save Greece from the Persians in 480 BC. He would enable Athens to become one of the biggest and most influential cities in the world. However both exiled men (Xanthippus and Aristides) would be brought back in 480 BC. Greek preparations for war In 481 BC Xerxes proceeded to send heralds to all the Greek states except for Athens and Sparta, the heralds seeking a submission of Earth and Water. It was evident that the mercy for Athens and Sparta had stopped long ago and now only their death and defeat would satisfy Xerxes. In the same year the Greeks, seeing that war was unavoidable and that if there was to be a chance of winning there would be needed a union of the Greek states. The Hellenistic League was set up, which was made up of many of the Greek Miltiades on his return to Athens, became city states. Within the league it was the talk of the town; many were loud in their decided that any state that medised censure of him, and especially Xanthippus, who would be tithed, meaning that all their brought him before the people to be tried for his wealth would be confiscated and a tenth life on the charge of defrauding the public would be given to the god at Delphi. [The Histories- Herodotus. Book 6, 136] Overall over 31 city states were present at the congress; the only ones missing were the Northern provinces. The reason for their absence was that the Northern states did not want to commit themselves until they were sure that Greek forces, significantly Spartan forces would be sent North to protect them. By setting up the Hellenistic League it was seen that the states were forming a Greek Unity, one that had never existed before. By forming this unity it also meant that Persia would be Temistocles was no friends of his (Aristides); facing two of Greeks biggest naval powers. indeed he was his most determined enemy; but The leadership between who would lead Aristides was willing, in view of the magnitude of was divided, Spartan leadership of the land the danger which threatened them, to forget old forces was a given however leader ship of quarrels in his desire to communicate with the naval forces was undecided. Jealous of him Athenians growing power many Greek [The Histories- Herodotus. Book 8, 79] states would fight only if there was a Spartan in command, Athens yielded to this.

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However not all the Greek states participated, Argos remained neutral, Crete and Corcyra did not want to be involved and the tyrant of Syracuse, Gelon wasnt able to help due to possible attacks from Carthage. The Athenians, set for war aided the help of the oracle at Delphi to answer their questions about what they should do. Her first answer to their questions about what to do was to not fight, for they would all die. Unsatisfied with this answer they returned a second time, seeking for another answer. This time they were given a more confusing yet less dreadful answer compared to the first. The message was heavily discussed; some said that the wall referred to the ancient fence around the Acropolis why Themistocles argued that it was Athens fleet. His argument won the day and he was able to convince the people to move away from Athens and fight at sea. A second congress was held in 480 BC where the Spartan king, Leonidas was appointed to be the commander of the land army while Eurybiades, also from Sparta was made commander of the fleet.

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Invasion of 480- 479 BC: Thermopylae, Artemisium, Salamis, Plataea and MycaleGreek Strategy Much of the Greek strategy was conducted by Themistocles. Themistocles was by far one of the most important men within the Persian Invasion. Without him Yet Zeus the all- seeing grants to Athens power Athens wouldnt have become a That the wooden wall only shall not fall, but help you and great naval power and wouldnt your children, have enable Athens and Greece to But await not the host of horse and foot coming from Asia, win out against Persia. Nor be still but turn your back and withdraw from foe, He made sure to avoid major Truly a day will come when you will meet him face to face, battles in the open where the Dive Salamis, you will bring death to womens sons Persians would be able to use the When the corn is scattered, or the harvest gathered in. cavalry and have an advantage. He [The Histories- Herodotus. Book 6, 141] used the geography to their advantage. Fighting in narrow passes and straights, eg Thermopylae and Salamis rather than open planes. Themistocles also argued that they should neutralise the fleet, place pressure on the army which would lack supplies, foment a rebellion n Ionia and destroy their supply lines. Thus it was decided that they would defend the mountain pass of Thermopylae for it contained narrow passages and would allow the small Greek forces to hold off the larger Persian army. Along with land being defended ships were positioned at Artemisium on the coast of Histiae. The places were near each other and would allow both land and naval forces to communicate easily. The defending ships would also ensure that the land army could not be attacked by the Persian navy. Battle of Thermopylae: 480 BC A Greek force of 7000/ 8000 troops were sent north to Tempe in Thessaly, within the force was 300 Spartans along with a mix of Phocians, Arcadians, Thebans and Thespians. Tempe was soon abandoned and the troops were sent to the pass at Thermopylae. Once there Leonidas rebuilt an old wall in the passage way that would help defend the pass, Leonidas also heard of a secret mountain overpass, fearing the Persians would know of this he sent a force of 1000 to guard it. The Persians waited several days before attacking the Greek forces, and once they did their loses were considerable, even the Immortals werent able to break through the Greeks. One of their weakness was that they were not able to use their cavalry which wasnt able to pass through the steep and narrow passes.Route taken by the Greeks and Persians at Thermopylae

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and when the Medes were being roughly handled, then these retired from the battle, and the Persians, those namely whom the king called Immortals, of whom Hydarnes was commander, took their place and came to the attack, supposing that they at least would easily overcome the enemy. When however these also engaged in combat with the Hellenes, they gained no more success than the Median troops but the same as they, seeing that they were fighting in a place with a narrow passage, using shorter spears than the Hellenes, and not being able to take advantage of their superior numbers. The Lacedemonians meanwhile were fighting in a memorable fashion, and besides other things of which they made display, being men perfectly skilled in fighting opposed to men who were unskilled, they would turn their backs to the enemy and make a pretence of taking to flight; and the Barbarians, seeing them thus taking a flight, would follow after them with shouting and clashing of arms: then the Lacedemonians, when they were being caught up, turned and faced the Barbarians; and thus turning round they would slay innumerable multitudes of the Persians; and there fell also at these times a few of the Spartans themselves. So, as the Persians were not able to obtain any success by making trial of the entrance and attacking it by divisions and every way, they retired back. [The Histories- Herodotus. Book 7, 211] However the Greeks winning streak did not last long, they were betrayed by Ephialtes, a native of the region. He led the Persians through the mountain pass, where they soon passed through. Leonidas learning that they had been betrayed sent most troops down to the south, however he remained with his 300 Spartans, the Thebans who were being held hostage and then volunteers from the Thespians. The battle ended gruesomely, the Greeks (Xerxes) proceeded to pass through the slain; fought down to their last man. Leonidas and finding the body of Leonidas , whom he knew to was killed and a battle occurred over the have been the Lacedaemonian king and captain, he possession of his body. ordered that the head should be struck off, and the Leonidas bravery enabled the Athenians trunk fastened to a cross. to have time to evacuate out of their city. [The Histories- Herodotus. Book 7, 238] Without his and his mens sacrifice many Athenians would have perished. Battle of Artemisium: 480 BC The battle of Artemisium was once that occurred on the sea. The commander of the Greek fleet was Spartan leader Eurybiades. The Greek ships were positioned on the Northern tip of the island of Euboea, about 110 km west of Thermopylae. Overall there were 271 Greek vessels while Herodotus states there was over 1200 Persian ships. Before the battle had begun both sides were hit by bad weather, forcing the Persians to pull anchor at Cape Sepias. The storm continued for 3 days and once finished the Persian ships were badly damaged. The Greeks however were able to avoid disaster by riding on the storm into the lee of Euboea. After the storm it is said by Herodotus that 200 Persian ships went South however they were shipwrecked on the coast. Xerxes then ordered that the fleet at Cape Sepias to attack the Greeks in order to gain supplies for the rest of the Persian fleet. The battle was crowded and the Greek loses were large. 23

The Greeks withdrew under the cover of night once the news of the defeat at Thermopylae was heard. Thus there was no victor at the battle. Results from Thermopylae and Artemesium The Persian army had reduced in size by approximately half. Loosing 20 000 in Thermopylae while the Greeks only lost 4000. The Persians were able to over South, taking hold on central Greece including Phocis and Boeotia. Athens was evacuated. Though the Greeks had loss their fleet was still in good shape and the sacrifice Leonidas did rose Greek moral and helped to inspire future events against the Persians.

The Decree of Themistocles and Greek Strategy in the Persian Wars. There are many historiographical issues about what happened with the evacuation of Athens. In 1960 an inscribed marble stele, now known as the Decree of Themistocles was found by a farmer. The stele is a decree issued by Themistocles during the Persian Wars and points out the strategy used for Greek defence and the Battles of Thermopylae and Artemisium. However the Decree raises issues. First the information on the decree seems to contradict the events that Herodotus describes. Herodotus states that the evacuation of Athens after Thermopylae was one that was in a state of panic and disorder while the Decree says that it was carefully planned and was to be followed if the Greeks lost to the Persians at Thermopylae. Another issue is that the Decree was written in 3rd Century BC, over 200 years after the Persian Wars.

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Battle of Salamis Xerxes reached an abandoned Athens in 480 BC, the few remaining people found were slaughtered. As Xerxes invaded the Greeks were called on to come up with another strategy, however there was The Persians rushed to the gates and many disagreements. The Peloponnesians said that opened them, after which they massacred the best move would be the strengthen the Isthumus the suppliants, when all slain, they and hold of the coming Persians there. plundered the temple, and fired every part Themistocles on the other hand argued that the best of the citadel. idea as to tackles the Persians via the sea at the Bay [The Histories- Herodotus. Book 8, 53] of Eleusis. By attacking the Persians here the Greeks would have an advantage because of the narrow straights around Salamis, making the larger Persian ships useless. The strategy plan was not only a problem in the Greek camp but also within the Persian one. Xerxes leading commanders were eager for a battle and did not want to waste time however Queen Artemesia of Halicarnassus urged caution on Xerxes. Xerxes brought his ships up into a line between Salamis and Piraeus, creating a wall that would prevent any possible Greek escape. He also proceeded to place troops on the island of Psyttaleia, an island that was in the middle of the canal. The Persian fleet contained over 600 vessels vile the Greeks had about 390, a small number in comparison to the Persians. The Greeks were positioned on the eastern side of Salamis. By being in such a position Themistocles was hoping to draw out the Persians into the narrow strait, letting the Greeks have the advantage with their smaller, more manoeuvrable ships. However unlike the Persians who were ready to fight the Persians the Greeks were still undecided. Themistocles, to forestall this sent a secret messenger to Xerxes, using Sicinnus his faithful servant. He told Xerxes that the Greeks were divided, many not wanting to fight and that a fleet was going to escape via the western exit of the Bay of Eleusis. Xerxes, apparently believing this message, moved 200 of his Egyptian vessels to the Western exit to block the escaping Greeks, meaning that Xerxes had split his force. The Corinthian ships then sailed straight into the Bay of Eleusis to help defend against the Egyptian fleet in the west. Xerxes commanded his ships to follow them into the straights, not realizing the narrow passes that would incapacitate the larger ships. The battle is then described by Herodotus in detail:Strategy at the Battle of Salamis

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Opposite the Athenians had been ranged the Phenicians, for these occupied the wing towards Eleusis and the West, and opposite the Lacedemonians were the Ionians, who occupied the wing which extended to the East and to Pirus. Of them however a few were purposely slack in the fight according to the injunctions of Themistocles, but the greater number were not so greater number of their ships were disabled at Salamis, being destroyed some by the Athenians and others by the Eginetans: for since the Hellenes fought in order and ranged in their places, while the Barbarians were no longer ranged in order nor did anything with design, it was likely that there would be some such result as in fact followed. Yet on this day they surpassed themselves much more than when they fought by Euba, every one being eager and fearing Xerxes, and each man thinking that the king was looking especially at him. [The Histories- Herodotus. Book 8, 85-86]

Night came and the Persian fleet was been mostly destroyed, leaving the Greeks victorious. Arristides then proceeded to land his troops at Psyttaleia and destroy the remaining Persian troops there. By winning here at Salamis, it created a turning point in the war, for a large part of the Persian army had been destroyed and it would take several years for it to rebuild itself to its original number. This also meant that the Persian land and sea organization fell to ruins for now the supply chain was broken. This also meant that the grasp over the Ionians, mostly done by ships was weakened, in the future creating another revolt. However even though the Persian navy was defeated the land army was still un-defeated.

The Battle of Plataea: 479 BC After the battle of Salamis Mardonius proceeded to take his troops down to Thessaly were he offered Athens its autonomy, land and gold to rebuild its city and temples if it would join the Persians. It is obvious that the Greeks refused this offer leading to a second invasion and destruction of what remained of Athens. Gold was also sent to several Spartan enemies in hope of to try and undermine Spartan residence. The Athenians attacked Sparta once again for deserting them, threatening to leave the alliance and come to terms with the Persians if Sparta did not act against the Persians and help the Greeks. The Spartans, by no means cowards would not have wanted to be engaged in more war fare against the Persians for by moving large numbers of troops away, much of the Peloponnese would have been fully guarded. However there was many Spartans who wished to fight, the most notorious being Pausanias, the nephew of Leonidas, the ex-king of Sparta. He served as regent for Leonidas' son, Pleistarchus. Pausanias headed North to Plataea into the Territory of Thebes were they encountered the Persians. The Greeks forces numbered around 5000 Spartiates, 5000 Perioikoi and 35 000 Helots, 600 Plataeans, 3000 Megarians, 500 Aeginetans and some small contingents from other Greek states. The Athenians were commanded under Aristoides. The Persians contained a force of over 35 000 men, Herodotus states that it was around 300 000 however modern histories have narrowed this down to a 26

more accurate number. The Persian cavalry The number of the barbarians, as I have would have also numbered around 12 000. The already mentioned, was three hundred army would have contained infantry thousand; that of the Greeks who had made composing of 10 000 immortals, hop;ires from alliance with Mardonius is known to none, for the central Greek states and then cavalry from they were never counted: I should guess that Persia, Media, Syctha, Bactria, India and they mustered near fifty thousand strong. Greek states such as Macedonia, Boetia, [The Histories- Herodotus. Book 8, 32] Thessaly. The Battle at Plataea ran over several days, with Mardonius gaining the better position, being able to build an open road to his ally, Thebes. The Greeks were forced into the hills near Plataea. The first course of action for Mardonius was to try tempt the Greek forces out onto the open plain by using his cavalry however the bait was not taken. The Greeks then moved across towards Plataea near the Asopus Ridge. By moving to this location the Greeks would be given more room along with the advantage of having water where their food supplies could be safety unloaded. The Persians tyring to waylay the Greeks, slaughtered 500 animals and their escorts which were heading towards the Greek camp. Mardonius also used his cavalry to prevent the Greeks taking water from the Asopus River. However they did not try and cross the Asopus River, instead they poisoned the Gargapina spring, the only available water to the Greeks. Pausanias, seeing what had been done withdrew back into the foothills, closer to Plataea and water. The move to the hills began awhen the cover of darkness decended and was to have been completed by sunrise, however it was not. Mardonius seeing this, thought that the Greeks were retreating thus ordered an attack. The next moments were full of confusion and disorder. The Persians allies (Greek states, Boetians and Thebes) were divided from the main army and fought against the Athenians, they lost. The second half of the battle was between the Persian Infantry and the Spartans and Tegeans. The role of Sparta in this battle was crucial to its win. Herodotus states that Mardonius fought in person, he was thick into the battle. He was soon killed. Once dead the Persians, having no one in command fled. The Greeks left no survivors. This complete victory over the Persians was a reality just like at Salamis. The remnants of the Persian army, approximately 3000 out of the original 300 000. Thebes, who had been an ally of the Persians was put under siege, the leaders of the pro-Persian groups in the cities of Thebes, Attaginus and Timagenidas were executed without trial however Attaginus made an escape. To remember the battle and those who sacrificed their lives for it, the Greeks built three memorials which were created from the spoils of the Perisan camp. The first was and 8m Serpent Colum, which was made and dedicated at Dephi. Over 31 patriotic states who were part of the battle are engraved on there. The second is a 5m statue of Zeus. Its base contains the 31 loyal states. Finally a 3m statue of PoseidonSerpent Column

which was erected at Isthmus. With news being spread about the Persian defeat revolts

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broke out along the Ionian coastlines. The Greeks saw this as an opening and took the offensive by going out and attacking the Persians at Mycale. The Battle of Mycale: 479 BC Following the Battle of Salamis, Greek refugees living in Chios, Ionia requested that the Greeks sail East to help the Ionian Greeks who were ready for revolt. This did not occur however the fleet were able to sail as far as Delos, midway between Greece and Asia. The Persians sailed to Samos for Herodotus explains that the Persians did not They despaired, however, altogether of gaining want to venture into Greek waters, rather any success by sea themselves, though by land they they only wanted to guard against any revolt thought that Mardonius was quite sure of victory. happening within Ionia. So they remained at Samos, and took counsel A fleet sailed to Samos under the command together, if by any means they might harass the of Leotychides however once at Samos they enemy, at the same time that they waited eagerly discovered that the Persians had left. Seeing to hear how matters would proceed with this Leotychides sailed close to Mycale Mardonius where he landed his troops and attacked the [The Histories- Herodotus. Book 8, 130] Persians, breaking through their stockade. The Spartans had gone via the inland and reached the Battle to finish it off, leaving none alive and those who were Ionians fighting for the Persians swapped sides, joining the Greeks in attacking the Persians. The Battle of Mycale was definitely not the last battle faced by the Greeks against the Persians, it was however the great turning point in history, from here on the Greeks would be in the win, soon defeating Persia completely. As for Miesiansthey, instead of obeying their orders, broke them in every respect. For they guided the fleeing Persians by wrong roads, which brought them into the presence of the enemy, and at last they set upon them with their own hands, and showed themselves the hottest of the adversaries. Ionia, therefore, on this day revolted a second time from the Persians. [The Histories- Herodotus. Book 9, 104]

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Role and Contribution of Themistocles, Leonidas, Eurybiades, PausaniasThemistoclesThemistocles is responsible for Athens becoming a naval power. He convinced the Athenians to use the silver found at Laurion for ships not for gifts for the people. .

He was the initiator of the Hellenic League which would bring together 31 Greek states, thus uniting Greece.

He was the one who convinced everyone that the Oracles message at Delphi regarding wooden walls meant Athens ships.

He was a key player in the Battle of Artemisium for he promoted the land and sea strategy.

He convinced Athenians of the evacuation of Athens instead of staying and fighting.

He made the decision to fight at Salamis rather than Isthmus.

His secret message to Xerxes in Salamis made it possible for the Greeks to win.

Role and Contribution of Themistocles to the Greek win

Herodotus comments that Themistocles was regarded everywhere as by far the wisest man of all the Greeks; and the whole country rang with his fame. [The Histories- Herodotus. Book 8, 124]. Along with Herodotus compliments the Spartans though highly of him, giving his a chariot and on his way from Sparta over 300 elite knights led him to the boarder. Thucydides describes Themistocles as being a man who showed a natural genius. He was a man who by virtue of Lacedaemonians received him his intellect would be able to consider complex problems handsomely, and paid him great and reach a conclusion in a short amount of time. He respect. The prize of valour indeed, was able to look into the future and see the good and bad which was a crown of olive, they results of an action gave to Eurbiades; but Plutrarch saw him with high regard, just like everyone Themistocles was given a crown of else within Athens. Plutarch makes a distinction that olive too, as the prize of wisdom Themistocles knew everyone by their name and was and dexterity considered to be an honest arbitrator in legal cases. [The Histories- Herodotus. Book 8, Victor Ehrenberg also comments by saying that it was 124] Themistocles navy policy which determined the course of the following century. Themistocles was a man of great political foresight, intellectual power and diplomatic skill.

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Leonidas Leonidas was the commander of the army sent to fight the incoming Persian attack in 480 BC. He will be always remembered as the man who defended Greece by giving up his and 300 Spartan lives. Leonidas was in charge of the Peloponnesian forces heading North to face the Persian army in 480 BC. He was first positioned at Tempe but he soon saw that the area was indefensible thus moving his forces into the pass at Thermopylae. By doing this Leonidas was using the well-known geography to his advantage, being able to hold off vast numbers of Persians with a smaller army. This stand at Thermopylae held the Persians at bay for several days and allowed other Greek states to organize more efficiently. However soon the battle turned ties, allowing the Persians to have the advantage by going through the mountain passes and attacking the Greeks from both sides. Leonidas, knowing what would need to be done sent most troops down to the South leaving him, his 300 Spartan soldiers and a few others to defend Greece against the Persian army. The sacrifice Leonidas and the 300 Spartan troops did that fateful day was astonishing and has been remembered throughout history.

and here, as they strove, Leonidas fell fighting bravely, together with many other famous Spartans [The Histories- Herodotus. Book 8, 224]

the one to whom all especially looked up, and who had the command of the entire force, was the Lacedaemonian, Leonidas. [The Histories- Herodotus. Book 8, 204]

Eurybiades Eurybiades was the Spartan general in charge of the Greek fleet at Artemisium. He was first not keen to stay and fight at Artemisium however it needed only Themistocles and some bribery At these words of Themistocles, Eurybiades that Eurybiades consented. changed his determination principally, as I Once the fleet had gathered at Salamis believe, because he feared that if he withdrew Eurybiades sought the advice of his captains his fleet to Isthmus, the Athenians would sail on where the best place to fight would be. The away, and he knew that without the Athenians, argument presented by Thistocles grapped the rest of the ships could be no match for the Eurybiades attention and he heartly argeed to fleet of the enemy. He therefore decided to stay and fight in the straights of Salamis. remain, and give battle at Salamis After the victory at Salamis Themistocles [The Histories- Herodotus. Book 9, 63] wanted to tear down the bridges across Hellespont however Eurybiades argued strongly against this. For if this did occur it would force Xerxes to stay in Greece where he remain inactive, gradually winning over Greek states and then Europe. Along with thi the annual harvests would allow the Persian army to live off the country.

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Pausanias Pausanias was a Spartan general and was of great importance at the Battle of Plataea. During the battle Pausanias had to overcome several problems. - He had to command 100 000 men, all from 24 separate and individual states, many of which were jealous of each other. - He had the problem or suppling his army with fresh food and water. - Having to fight in a location which gave advantage to the Persians. - The fact that the Persian cavalry could be used at any moment. However all these difficulties were dealt with and Pausanias led a great victory. In the place where Mardonios himself was, riding on a white horse and having about him the thousand best men of the Persians chosen out from the rest, here, I say, they pressed upon their opponents most of all: and so long as Mardonios survived, they held out against them, and defending themselves they cast down many of the Lacedemonians; but when Mardonios was slain and the men who were ranged about his person, which was the strongest portion of the whole army, had fallen, then the others too turned and gave way before the Lacedemonians; for their manner of dress, without defensive armour, was a very great cause of destruction to them, since in truth they were contending light-armed against hoplites. 64. Then the satisfaction for the murder of Leonidas was paid by Mardonios according to the oracle given to the Spartans, and the most famous victory of all those about which we have knowledge was gained by Pausanias the son of Cleombrotos, the son of Anaxandrides; of his ancestors above this the names have been given for Leonidas,68 since, as it happens, they are the same for both. Now Mardonios was slain by Arimnestos,69 a man of consideration in Sparta, who afterwards, when the Median wars were over, with three hundred men fought a battle against the whole army of the Messenians, then at war with the Lacedemonians, at Stenycleros, and both he was slain and also the three hundred. [The Histories- Herodotus. Book 9, 63-64] However in 478 BC Pausanias was suspected of conspiring with the Persians and was called back to Sparta. In the same year he rejoined the Greek fleet and captures Byzantium. He sent a letter to Xerxes offering to help bring down Sparta and Greece in return of Xerxes daughter, the deal was accepted. Pausanias started to dress like a Persian aristocrat as well as adopting Persian customs. He was called back to Sparta from Byzantium in 470 BC where he was to be tried for treason however he sought refuge in the Temple of Athena of the Brazen House. This was walled up by Ephos and Pausanias was left to starve to death.

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Reasons for Greek Victory and Persian DefeatLeadership One of the main reasons for the Greek victory was the role of leadership. Without leaders such as Leonidas, Pausanias, Eurybiades and Themistocles the war might have gone to the Greeks.

- Leonidas' descion to not fight at thembe but at Thermopylae - His courage and sacrifice for the future.

- Eurybiades' effective relationship with Themistocles. - His wisdom not to destroy the bridges at Hellespont.

Leadership and its role for the Greek victory and Perisan defeat.

- Pausanias' ability to hold Greek forced in 479 BC . - Being able to turn a defeat into a victory.

- Themistocles' foresight in devolping Athens into a naval power. - Willingness to employ questionable methods for the chance of victory, eg: messages and bribery. - His tactical skills.

- Xerxes rash and over- confidence. - Wasterful tactics. - Mardonius yearning for glory and power, making his reckless.

The leaders prominent in allowing the Greek win.

Geography and the natural elements Another major aspect that allowed the Greeks to win was that they used their knowledge of the land and sea to aid them in battles. They would stay in narrow passes and bays, avoiding open planes where they would easily be beaten by the Persian army. Along with this the Persians, having to cross through Asia Minor, Hellespont, Thrace, Northern Greece and finally Attica had troubles with communication and supply lines and having to live off the land. However with Greece being a mountainous terrain would not have provided enough for the entire Persian army. Furthermore by the Persian fleet getting into battles, every failure jeopardised the carefully planned land and sea strategy.

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Armour, equipment and tactics A great advantage was that the Greeks were better armed and equipt compared to the Persians. The Greeks had: - Greaves which protected their legs - A breastplate/ cuirass that protected their chest - A sword and spear for every man - A shield which protected their left side All these allowed the Greeks to fight in a tightly organized phalanx. The Persians on the other hand wore very light gear for the strength of the army was in the cavalry (were on horses thus were higher up) and arches (who stayed at long range). - Had very light armour - Carried only a wicker shield The Persians were not used to fighting at close proximity thus the lacking of armour and weapons. Greek Unity Along with leadership, geography and armoury comes the unity of the Greek States. Before the Persian wars and even at the start of it Greece was a collection of city states that would war with each other on a regular basis. However the forming of the Hellenic League in 481 BC called all Greek states together and would agree to set aside their differences and fight together. Without unity of the states it is certain that the Persians would have over taken Greece. - The Serpent Column lists 31 independent states - At Plataea, Pausanias commanded troops from 24 states - Greeks and mainly Athens was able to accept Spartan leadership The Persians forces on the other hand were a heterogeneous collection of different races, cultures, religions and languages. The soldiers fought out of fear from what the king would do to him if he failed. A Greek soldier fought voluntarily for his freedom, his homeland.

Leadership

Strategy and Tatics

Reasons for victory and defeat

Unity/ Disunity

Weapons and Armour

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Development of Athens and the Athenian Empire: The Delian League With the Persians being defeated in 480-479 BC a new era could begin. Though expelled from Greece, the Persians were not fully destroyed. This meant that the concern of Greece and its freedom was still present. To prevent Persia rising up once again the Greek states remained united. However the leadership within the group changed from Sparta to Athens. Along with this, the league soon evolved from a group of like-minded city states brought together for defence but to a Atheniandominated empire. Origins From the defeat of the Persians the collection of states were called the Delian League also known as the Confederacy of Delos. This league grew up from the Hellenic League created in 481 BC. The main reason for the Athens becoming the leader of the Delian League was due to Pausanias behaviour. Though he saved Greece at the Battle of Plataea soon after he alienated, turning even some of his strongest admirers away from him. This image of his worsened as he took over Byzantium and became power hungry, soon messaging Xerxes to help take down Greece. The allies refused to serve under Pausanias, he was recalled to Sparta where he was replaced by Dorcis however he too was rejected by the Greek allies. The allies trusted the Athenians thus leadership landed upon them. The Spartans did not seem upset by the change of leadership for when Dorcis was rejected there was no Spartan protest. One of the reasons for accepting Athenian leadership was due to the fact that the Spartans were more concerned about domestic matter and the concern about the possible restlessness of its helot population.

Aims Most of the allies, finding that The aims of the Delian League were both offensive and they could not endure the defensive. harshness and contempt with which The main role of the League was to maintain the peace they were treated by Pausanias, put and freedom that was gained after the end of the Persian themselves under the orders of (the wars. It was also there to provide future security against Athenians) Aristotes and Cimon, other Persian attacks. who as soon as they had won this A way to fund the security the League offered was from following, sent word to the ephors regular contributions from the members of the league. By to recall Pausanias, since he was gaining this money the Greeks were able to keep their bringing disorder to Sparta and fleet in top condition, ready to sail out and fight at any disunity to Greece. time. [Plutarch, the Rise and Fall of Another key aim was to seek compensation from the Athens, Chapter 6] Persians for the damage Greece had suffered at the hands of the invaders. Along with this was to liberate the Greeks of Asia Minor who were still under Persian control.

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Organisation Membership When a Greek state joined the Delian League their membership was considered permanent. Every time a state joined iron bars would be thrown into the sea. Thus the alliance would stay in place until the iron bars floated to the surface. Finances For the League to maintain an active military action a constant flow of financial funds was crucial. All the financial problems were worked out by Aristides. It was decided that 460 talents per year would be required to keep a fleet in working condition. The amount each state would have to pay was changed every four years. These funds, once collected would be looked after by 10 officials called Hellenotamiai. There was an exception to the fund paid. Some countries preferred to contribute ships to the League such as Chios, Lesbos, Naxos, Samos. However this method was not popular for it was hard to keep their boats and crew at the ready if an attack did present itself. Over time most states contributed ships to the League and paid the annual payment of money.

Delos Delos was the headquarters for the Delian League. It was the ideal location for Delos was an island paced midway between Athens and Asia Minor. The island was also political neutral and did not favour any Greek state. It also contained a good harbour and the island had a deep religious and cultural significance for it contained the Temple of Apollo.

Voting and Autonomy At the start all the states had their own independent form of government, it is not certain if each state had equal voting rights when part of the League however it can be assumed that Athens would have been able to use its power to bring smaller states around to its way of thinking.

(it was Aristides) who swore the oaths to the Ionians that they should have the same enemies and friends, to confirm which they sank lumps of iron in the sea. [Aristotle, Athenian Constitution, 23.5]

Delos

35Map of the Island

Activities until the Battle at Euryumedon River In 476- 75 BC the League sent force out, under the command of Cimon and captured the Persian fortress of Eion which was located in Thrace on the Strymon River. By capturing the Persian fortress the League removed a possible base of a future Persian rebellion. The capture also enabled Athens to gain control over timber and silver resources. In 474- 73 BC Cimon attacked the island of Syrus in the Central Aegean, though this was not a Persian threat it was a pirate base. Once captured it made trade much safer. Cimon's prestrige also grew as he delivered home the alleged bones of the hero Theseus. 472 BC saw the League forcing a non-league state, Carytus to become part of the alliance, This action was justified for Carytus' location, southern end of Euboea would become dangerous if they were placed under Persian rule. In 469 BC, Naxos tried to secede from the League however the revolt was put down and Naxos lost both its autonomy and ships, becoming a tribute- paying subject ally. This act showed that once a member of the Delian League, always a member.. ...This blow so dashed the king's hopes that he accepted the terms of that notorious peace, whereby he agreed to stay away the distance of a whole day's ride from the Greek seaboard of Asia Minor and not to let a single warship or armoured vessel sail west of the Cyanean and the Chelidonian Islands... [Plutarch, Cimon, 13] ...a furious battle developed, in which the Athenians lost some of the bravest and highest in the rank of their soldiers. But at last, after a fierce struggle, they threw back the barbarians with great slaughter and captured the army and its camp which was full of all kinds of spoil. [Plutarch, The Rise and Fall of Athens, Cimon, 13]

Athens Power

It could be clearly seen that Athens power and influence was growing within the League. Athens was a unchallenged permanent leader Aristides had the job of assessing each of the ally's tibute Cimon commanded the League's fleet. The Treasury officials were all Athenian The Synod was run by the Athenians Along with this Athens was the military muscle, its fleet was the most powerful from all the Greek states.

The Battle of Eurymedon 467 BC

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It was heard that Xerxes had assembled another military force to go against the Greeks at the Eurymedon River. Cimon organised a fleet of 300 ships, 200 of which were Athenian. Over 200 Persian ships were sunk throughout the battle. Along with this defeat in the sea the Persians suffered a humiliating defeat on land. After the Battle of Eurymedon Cimon sailed to Cyprus, once there he defeated a Persian led Phoenician fleet. What the Athens and allies gained and lost from the Delian League

Allied States: Gained safe trade routes, along with access to the Black Sea. Gained a democratic government and access to Athenian courts. Gained protection from Persia and other future threats. A share of the wealth captured from the Persians. They lost a majority of their autonomy. Had to pay tribute annually. Were at possible risk of being attacked by Athens. Had to put up with Athenian cleruchies being established. Gradually lost economic autonomy. Athens: Gained power over all the states. Able to dominate trade. Became extremely wealthy. City was able to provide jobs and provide funds for building plans.

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Role and Contribution of Cimon and Aristides the JustAristides the Just Born in 530 BC, Aristides would play an important role in the development of the Athenian Power. Turning the Delian League into an Empire. He was the son of Lysimachus and was a close friend of Cleisthenes who was responsible for introducing democratic reforms into Athens in 6th century BC. However it is stated by Plutarch that he favoured the Spartan lawgiver Lycurgus, thus favouring a more conservative form of government bring him into conflict with Themistocles. One of the key aspects of Aristides that stands out was his integrity and reputation for honesty. Aristides (nature) was founded upon a steadfast character, which was intent on justice and incapable of any falsehood, vulgarity, or trickery even in jest. [Plutarch, Aristides, 2] He was a sturdy champion of justice, who was as little swayed by personal sympathy or the desire to do a favour as he was by feelings of anger or hatred. [Plutarch, Aristides, 4]

Timeline of his Contribution Date Role/ Contribution 490 BC Was one of the general at the Battle of Marathon. 489- 88 BC Elected Archon Eponymous, thus giving his name to the year. 480s BC Supported the ideas of keeping Athens a land power. Came into conflict with Themistocles who wanted Athens to become a naval power. 482 BC Was ostracised. 480 BC Was called back to Athens. Once back he convinced Themistocles to give up their quarrel in the face of the Persian danger. I admire the example you have set me and I shall try and follow it and to do better still in the future. [Plutarch, Aristides, 8] Supported Themistocles battle strategy at Salamis. He landed the infantry on the island on Psyttaleia and killed the Persian troops that arrived there. 479 BC Travelled to Sparta and reproached the Spartans for failing to move North to fight the Persians. Commanded 8000 Athenian troops at Plataea. 478 BC Successfully argued against Themistocles about the plan to destroy the allied naval station which if done would have established Athenian naval superiority over the other Greek states. Became one of the leaders of the Delian League along with Cimon. it happened, through the indiscreet conduct of Pausanias, and the equity of the Aristides, that all the states of Greece attached themselves as allies to the Athenians, and chose them as their leaders against the barbarians. [Cornelius Nepos, Lives of the eloquent commanders, Aristides.] 478- 77 BC Was allowed to work out the sum of tribute needed to be given by each state towards the Delian League. He also made the Greeks swear an oath to keep the alliance against Persia and solemnised it by throwing iron bars into the sea. 468 BC He maintained a key position in Athens. Died in this year. 38

Cimon Cimon is described by Plutarch as a man of war. He life was a strong admiration for his statesmanship, his military skill and his integrity. Cimon was already a rich man, and so he saw to it that the money which he was credited with having won honourably from the enemy in his campaigns was spent even more honourably on his fellow citizens [Plutarch, Cimon, 10] He was as brave as Miltiades and as intelligent as Themistocles, and he generally admitted to have been a juster man than eitherin statesmanship he showed himself immeasurable their superior, even when he was quite young and inexperienced in military matter [Plutarch, Cimon, 5]

His father was Miltiades, the great commander at Marathon. His mother was Hegesipyle who was of Thracian descent. He also had an open incestuous relationship with his sister Elpinice however he eventually gave her away when he offered to pay off the fine that had been imposed onto his father. Timeline of his Contribution Date 480 BC Role/ Contribution Openly showed his support for the idea of dedicating a horses bridal to the goddess on Acropolis as token. and then went down to the sea; and because of this action many of his countrymen began to take heart again [Plutarch, Cimon, 5]. Had more conservative principles, and was a admirer of Sparta. This made him a great rival of Themistocles. The allies under his command removed the Persian from Eion. Cimon then took control of the region, donating it to the Athenians once there was a colony established there. He led forced to Skyrus where they defeated non-Greek pirates. He also brought back the bones of the Hero, Thseus. He proposed the tribute be eithr money or an offer of empty ships. Achieved a double land/ sea victory over the Persians at Eurymedon. The island of Thasos rebelled, however Cimon and his forced supressed it and showed that no ally could leave the league. The neighbouring territories were taken, meaning Athens now had a large portion of gold mines. While away on an expedition his political rivals in Athens, Pericles and Ephialtes were democratising the Athenian political system. Once Cimon returned he was unable to revert these changes. Cimon was ostracised. Athens had a military conflict with the Spartans and Peloponnesian allies. At Tanagra Cimon arrived fully armed and ready to fight with his countrymen however he was sent away for the generals were suspicious of him and thought he was trying to sow confusion into the Athenians forces and lead Sparta in destroying the city. Recalled back into Athens from exile. He helped restore peace between Athens and Sparta with the Five Year Truce. He sailed to Cyprus with 200 ships and quelled a revolt, he then sent 60 ships to Egypt to help in fighting the Persians there. Having defeated the Persians, he attacked the city of Citium. It was here that Cimon died, either from a inflicted wound or sickness. 39

470 BC 476-75 BC

474- 73 BC

467 BC 465 BC

462 BC

461 BC 457 BC

451 BC 450 BC

Transformation of the Delian League into the Athenian Empire By 467 the Persian attack had been neutralised, with Xerxes being forced to sign an agreement with forbade his forces to be a days march of the Greek seaboard. The victory of Eurymedon River and the attack on Cyprus had brought security to all the Greek states and those Greek states that were under Persian rule were freed. With the Persian threat gone, the Delian League was no longer needed however Athens dispelled this notion in 465 BC when Thasos tried to quit the League. The Defeat of Thasos: 465- 63 BC Thasos deeply resented Athens interest and great influence into their traditional markets and gold mines. This dispute between the two states led to Thasos decision to secede from the Delian League. Thasos sought assistance from Macedon and also from Sparta. Cimon defeated the Thasian fleet but it took him over two year to be-siege the city. Thasoss was finally brought down, their punishment for going against Athens and trying to leave the League was that they were forced to hand over all their ships, had to surrender their clam to the goldmines and lastly had to pay a large indemnity Athens. By Athens attacking one of their own allies to showed to the rest of the members of the League that Athens would not be letting any state to leave the League. Growing conflict between Athens and Sparta Athens started to form better relations with Argos and Thessaly who were the enimies of Sparta. They also often came into conflict with Corinth and Aegina who were the friends of Sparta. In 459 BC, Corinth and Megara both allies of Sparta were involved in a boarder dispute. Megara asked Athens for help which they gladly gave. With this being done Corinth declared war on both Megara and Athens who were quickly backed up by Athens naval rival Aegina. Throughout the battle, Athens succeeded in fighting a series of land and sea battles. They finally defeated Aegina in 458 BC b capturing 70 of its ships. Aegina was forced to join the League. Sparta soon started to become concerned with Athens continuing success, they sent troops to boetia in 457 BC to assist Doris their ally against Phocis. It was at this time that Sparta established a confederation under the leadership of Thebes. The Spartan sent their forces South but they were intercepted by Athens forces. A battle soon broke out in Tanagra in 457 BC. The Spartans were victorious. After their win the Spartans, deciding that they did not feel strong enough to fight at the city of Athens and so returned to the Peloponnese. Within a few months whoever Athens regained the initiative with a victory at the Battle of Oenophyta. This gave Athens control of all of Boetia except for Thebes. Phocis now joined the alliance and was soon followed by Troezen.

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Athens at its Peak and Peace at last In 454 BC the Delian League treasury was moved from the Temple of Apollo on Delos to the Temple of Athena in Athens. This movement of funds meant that Athens had full control over League funds. Athens was at its height of its power at this time, it controlled seas from Pontus to Levant and controlled a land empire that stretched from Thermopylae to the Isthumus. It was three years later in 451 BC that Athens negotiated a Five Year Truce with Sparta. Peace within Greece was finally achieved after the campaign to Cyprus. It was negotiated that Persia could not come within three days march of the coast of Asia Minor, their warships would have to avoid the Aegean and the Propontis and that Athens would not attack Persian territory. Both forces had reasons for forming a agreement. The Persians believed that Athens needed time to consolidate its empire and it was not strong enough to bring down the Persian Empire. The current Persian King, Artaxerxes also had several internal problems to deal with. Athens and its loss of its land empire Athens had strengthened its hold over their empire in several ways. Once method was that cleruchies were established all across the Aegean and was a policy greatly favoured by Pericles. Though victorious against Persia, the Athenian Empire soon lost its land empire in Boetia, they town rose up in revolt in the early 440's BC and the Athenian force at Coroneia was defeated. All the surviving troops were held as prisoners until 446 BC. Athens then faced another revolt in Megara and on the island of Euboea. An Athenian garrison was destroyed but the Athenians were able to hold on to Pegae and Nisae of Megara. Pericles was able to hold onto Euboea and the Chalcis Decree of 447- 46 BC. The people of Histea were expelled, cleruchs placed onto their land and he whole island was subject to a tribute paying status, the lowest of the ranks within the League. It was here that Athens faced major challenges. Many of which were proposed by Pericles. The Athenian Empire was large, a majority of which was part of land. Would it be realistic to hold a land empire if they were a more naval based empire. Along with cam the question of what would happen if Persia resumed their hostilities? Pericles decided that it was a good idea to give up on the land empire, he also decided to focus more on a deeper and longer lasting peace relationship with Sparta. Forming a Thirty Year Peace plan in 446 BC. The main terms of the agreement was: Athens would give up its Peloponnesian possessions including Troezen, Achaea, Pagae and Nisaea. Each agreed not to accept into the alliance a city that was an ally of the other. Non-allied states were allowed to join either the Athenians or the Peloponnesian'. Any differences that arose between Athens and Sparta would be settled by arbitration. Several years after the signing of the treaty Athens consolidated its economic and military hold over its empire. The port of Piraeus was strengthened and the walls linking Piraeus and the city were completed. Promotion of trade was done by the establishing of a colony in Italy at Thirii in the Gulf of Tarentum. Expeditions were sent to Thrace and to the Black Sea to warn the communities there not to interfere with Athenian interests in those regions.

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The Revolt of Samos 440 BC Samos and Miletus had both come into conflict concerning Prience. Both states were members of the Athenian Alliance. Miletus appealed to Athens while Samos appealed to the Persian satrap of Sardis. Pericles, the Greek general immediately went into action sailing out to Samos with 60 vessels to blockade the Samos. Soon another 40 vessels from Athens and another 25 from Chios and Lesbos. There were rumours of an arrival of a Persian fleet so Pericles briefly moved his ships to the mainland coast but soon returned to Samos when more Athenian ships arrived. Now over 200 ships surrounded Samos. After nine months Samos surrendered. The punishment given to them by the Athenians was harsh. The walls surrounding Samos were pulled down, all their ships had to be surrendered, and indemnity of 1500 talents was paid and all hostages were handed over.

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Nature of Athenian Imperialism: Changing Relations with AlliesControl of Allies Changing Status of the Allies When the Delian League came into the being there were two class of ally. There were those that provided ships and then those who provided money. The state that donated ship[s would have been able to maintain their autonomy for they had a means to defend themselves against another larger power, Athens. A way of Athens gaining more power was to encourage states to give money rather then ships as the annual tribute. Meaning that Athens would take on full responsibility for the organising and manning of fleets. By the 460s BC there had devolved an extra class meaning there were 3 classes in total. The first being the non-tributary allies who provided ships, by this time there were only 3 states in this league: Samos, Lesbos and Chios. The second class were tributary allies who retained their independence, many of the Greek cities were here. Lastly there were tributary allies who were subject. Every time a new state joined the alliance they were immediately placed in the third class. Control over the Allied Fleet For this position it was the allies themselves who were to blame. Because of this reluctance of theirs to face military service, most of them, to avoid serving abroad, had assessments made by which, instead of producing ships, they were to pay a corresponding sum of money. The result was that the Athenian navy grew at their expense, and when they revolted they always found themselves inadequately armed and inexperienced in war. [Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian War, Book 1, 99]

Using Force against its Allies Allies who tried to leave the Alliance were forced to remain, a great example being Thasos in 46465 BC. Those states who looked beyond the alliance to further their interests were but back down, Samos in 440- 39 BC. Athens occasionally forced states that were not members to join the alliance, for example Carystus in 472 BC. Garrisons With Athens quickly suppressing any rebellious allies it was only a short while before military garrisons were placed in suspect states to keep them in check and to ensure future loyalty to Athens.

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And the Athenians choosing four men shall send them to the cities, issuing receipts to those who have paid the tribute, and demanding from the defaulters the unpaid portion [The Chalcis Decree, 447 BC] Cleruchies Cleruchies were established all across the allied states and helped Athens keep control over its empire. Some cleruchies were positioned in areas such as waterways, strategic locations. Pericles not only brought with him a thousand Athenians colonist and so provided the cities there with fresh strength and vigour, but he also secured the neck of the isthmus with a fortified line stretching from the sea to sea. [Plutarch, The Rise and Fall of Athens, Pericles, 19] Other cleruchies were positioned in Naxos and Andros. The cleruchies being useful for giving those unemployed with a job also enabled Athens to implant a fear of rebellion in states. The Never Ending Oath Every time a state joined the alliance an oath would be taken, once the oath was taken a bar or iron bars was thrown into the sea to as if sign the deal. It was said that a state could only leave the alliance once the iron bars floated to the surface of the sea. I will not revolt from the Atheniansand neither by word nor by deed will I obey anyone who has rebelled. If anyone does so, I will inform the Athenians, and I shall pay to the Athenians the tribute which I may persuade the Athenians and I will be, to the best of my ability a most good and just ally [The Chalcis Decree, 446- 45 BC] Judicial Control The control of legal affairs was another way that Athens had great control over their allies. Athenian legal interference used to only be concerned about political matters however from the Erythrae Dercree of 453- 52 BC it can be seen that the autonomy of local courts was being greatly limited, meaning Athens was holding more cases. in the case of exile, death, and loss of political rightsthere shall be reference to Athens [The Chalcis Decree, 446- 45 BC]

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Imposition of Democracies Athens also persuaded or forced their allies to adopt the same styles of government, democracy. A specific example of this is in 453- 52 BC with the Ionian city of Erythrae. Control of Finances From the start of the Delian League the treasury was held on Delos in the Temple of Apollo. However in 454 BC the treasury was moved to Athens and became part of the Athenian treasury. The league funds were now spent in any matter that Athens saw fit, meaning funds were used for the sacred treasury of Athena and building projects. Control of Trade and Resources Athenian weights and measurements were soon forced onto ever allied state. Local mints were close down and the states had to bring their money to Athens to be reminted. The minting of coins was seen as a sign of a states independence and individuality and by having to adopt Athens coins it showed who held the power. And for the future, the Secretary of the Council shall add to the oath of the Council (taken on entering office) the following: if anyone strikes silver coinage in cities, or does not employ Athenian currency, weights and measures, I will punish and penalize him in accordance with the previous decree [The Currency Decree, 450- 46 BC]

Control of Foreign Policy The foreign policy of Athens now became the policy of the member states, however because independent actions on part of the allies were now impossible a foreign policy did not exist. No moves towards Persia would be tolerated. Allies were not allowed to leave the alliance. Allies were not allowed to have relations with Sparta unless sanctioned by Athens herself. Allies trading rights were restricted. Allied states had to accept Athenian garrisons and cleruchies.

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Key Democratic Developments: Influence of the Thetes, Ostracism and Citizenship Law The development of democracy in Athens evolved around the 5th Century BC. It was referred to by Pericles as equality before law. The development of democracy within Athens was affected by several things. With Athens become more involved in military affairs the role of the strategoi/ general became more important. Athens leading political figures were all now one of the ten strategoi elected annually. Athens power now rested with its Navy which relied on the rowers of Athenian triremes. These men came from the lowest ranks in society however over time they became more recognised. With Athens becoming more democratic more citizens wanted a part in the government leading Pericles to limit the benefits to only Athenians thus creating the Athenian citizenship. Athenian Democracy In early Athenian history it was the Athens aristocracy that became dominant in all of the polis. The powers of the previous kings were shared between three magistrates called archons, each one had a different role. The archon polemarch had control over military power. The archon basileus had the religious function. While the archon eponymous was in charge of civil administration. As Athens grew so did the need for more officials. 6 additions officials were created called the thesmothetae who were linked to the chief magistrates, soon becoming a board of nice archons. The main centre of aristocratic power in Athens was the Areopagus which made the key decisions in the state. Only former archons could become member of the Areopagus only those who were born into the higher class were allowed to become archons. The peoples assembly, Ecclesia had no real power. In 594- 93 BC Solon was given powers to modify Athens system and stave off the possibility of political violence.

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Solon

The top class was called the pentacosiomedimnoi (500+ bushels).

The second class was called the hipperis (300- 500 bushels).

The third class was called the zeugitai (200- 300 bushels).

The bottom class was called the thetes (200 or less bushels).

The Thetes were now allowed into the assembly. All four class could attend the people's court set up to the judge government officals

Social and Political changes under Solon

Solon made a new class system were each society was divided into classes based on how bushels of grain a man could raise. Cleisthenes By 508- 07 Athens was now under the rule of Cleisthenes, a man who would introduce a series of political reforms under which Athens would turn into a much more democratic city. One of his main reforms was to reduce the power of the The procedure to give a general upper classes, this was done by introducing a deme account of it was as follows. Each system which is a small community/ area of land where voter took an ostrakon, or a piece of every citizen, regardless of their social class became an earthenware, wrote on it the name equal member of a dome. of the citizen he wished to be Changes to the democracy banished and carried it to a part of the market place which was fenced off with a circular paling. Then the One of the great changes to Athenian Democracy that archons first counted the number of happened after 500 BC was that the position of the archon votes cast, for if there were less was weakened. The post of the archon was now decided than 6000 the ostracism was void. by lot from the first two social class from among 500 men After this they sorted the votes and elected by men of the domes. The strategoi took over the the man who had the more recorded military power and now that archons were chosen by lot against his name was proclaimed to the composition of the Areopgaue was also changed, be exiled for ten years, with the always lowering its status and respect. right, however, to receive the The second major change occurred with ostracism. If a income from his estate. political fugure was seen as dangerous ostracism was used [Plutarch, The Rise and Fall of Athens, Aristides, 7] 47

to expel him. Over 6000 citizen votes would be needed for the man to be exiled from the city for a maximum of 10 years. Another major change was the weakening of the Areopagus. The Areopagus was the most conservative sections of the Athenian constitution. It comprised itself of ex- archons. In the 4602 Ephialtes organised an attack on and power and status held by this ancient group, all the members were accused of corruption and fraud. New laws were also created that ended the political power of the Areopagus. Ended the right of the group to punish public officials if they broke the law. Ended their right to supervise government administration and ensure the laws were obeyed. And ended their right of the Areopagus to investigate officials at the end of their term at office. The Areopagus status was even more lowerd in 458- 57 BC and onwards by letting third class citizens to be able to become archons and even some members of the fourth class could attain the job. Another great change was the paying of all officers, now the Council of 500 was paid not just the archonship. In 457 BC Pericles stated that the payment for jurors should be two obols a day and measure that did not increase his popularity. Lastly was the changes of citizenship law in 451 BC. With Athens becoming more rich and powerful the opportunities for people to participate in government and to paid rose. It was seen that restrictions needed to be made. In 451 BC Pericles introduced a tight citizenship law which made sure that anyone who had neither parent of Athenians heritage was forbidden to have an Athenian citizenship.

Members of the deme must be agreed that the candidate for the citizenship is at least 18 and is a freeborn.

Both parents had to be Athenian citizens and must be legally married.

A citizen had to be registered on the deme roll.

Had to spend over 2 years in the army to become a member of the assembly.

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Glossary of All Terms Acropolis- Is the stronghold of the community, centre of public life. Amalgamating- The action or process of combining or uniting Archon- Chief magistrate Autonomy- The right to self- govern Cavalry- Section of the army which use horses Cleruchies- Specialised form of colony Cuirass- Piece of armour consisting of a breastplate and back plate. Garrison- Troops stationed in a fortress or town to defend it. Greaves- Piece of armour to protect to shins. Helots- S member of social class in Sparta, between slave and citizen. Hellenotamiai- Public treasures. Immortals- Royal guard of the Persian army. Ostracism Banishment from a city by popular vote. Poleis- Poleis (plural) and polis (singular) is a city state in Ancient Greece. The word politics grew out of this word. Perioikoi- members of an autonomous group of free but non-citizen inhabitants of Sparta. Phalanx- A body of infantry with long spears, drawn up in close order with shields over lapping. Polemarch- Warlord Satrap- the local Persian governor, literally protector of the realm Secede- Withdraw formally from membership in a federal union, an alliance, or a political or religious organization. Strategoi- Military general. Tyrant- A ruler who seized power without legal right.

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Biography:- Web, K. The Greek World: 500- 440 BC. Get Smart Education. 2011 - Hurley. T, Medcalf. P, Murray. C, Rolph. J. Antiquity 2, interpreting the past. Third Edition. Oxford. 2008

Ancient Sources:

- Aristotle, Athenian Constitution - Aristotle, Athenian Constitution - The Currency Decree, 450- 46 BC - The Chalcis Decree, 446- 45 BC - Herodotus, the Histories - Plutarch, the Rise and Fall of Athens - Plutarch, Cimon - Plutarch, Aristides - Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian War, Book 1

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