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The Greek World 500-440 BC

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Ancient History Assessment Task 3 The Greek World 500-440 BC Due Date: Wednesday 15th August Assessment Task Weighting: 20%

H.S.C STUDY GUIDE

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A HISTORY study guide to help you through the HSC and beyond

Alexandra Seifertova

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ContentsMain Characters ................................................................................................................................................................ 8 Persians: ........................................................................................................................................................................ 8 Geography of Greece: ....................................................................................................................................................... 9 Basic Overview .............................................................................................................................................................. 9 The Effects of Land Forms ............................................................................................................................................. 9 The States (Polis): ........................................................................................................................................................... 10 The Persian Wars: Persian Empire.................................................................................................................................. 10 Main sources used ...................................................................................................................................................... 10 The causes for the Persian Wars ................................................................................................................................. 11 The Scythian Campaign ............................................................................................................................................... 11 The Ionian Revolt: 499 BC ............................................................................................................................................. 12 Reasons for the Revolt ................................................................................................................................................ 12 What happened .......................................................................................................................................................... 12 Course of the Ionian Revolt ........................................................................................................................................ 12 The invasion of 490 BC: The Battle of Marathon........................................................................................................... 14 Reasons for Attack ...................................................................................................................................................... 14 Background: ................................................................................................................................................................ 14 Use of Calvary ............................................................................................................................................................. 15 The Battle .................................................................................................................................................................... 16 Athenian win ............................................................................................................................................................... 16 Inter-war Period: preparation and developments in Persia and Greece .......................................................................... 18 Events after the Persian loss at Marathon/ Development ......................................................................................... 18 Athens- Aegina War .................................................................................................................................................... 19 Developments in Greece and the rise of Themistocle ................................................................................................ 20 Greek preparations for war ........................................................................................................................................ 20 Invasion of 480- 479 BC: Thermopylae, Artemisium, Salamis, Plataea and Mycale ..................................................... 22 Greek Strategy ............................................................................................................................................................ 22 Battle of Thermopylae: 480 BC ................................................................................................................................... 22 Battle of Artemisium: 480 BC...................................................................................................................................... 23 Results from Thermopylae and Artemesium .............................................................................................................. 24 Battle of Salamis ......................................................................................................................................................... 25 The Battle of Plataea: 479 BC...................................................................................................................................... 26 The Battle of Mycale: 479 BC ...................................................................................................................................... 28 Role and Contribution of Themistocles, Leonidas, Eurybiades, Pausanias .................................................................... 29 Themistocles ............................................................................................................................................................... 29

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Leonidas ...................................................................................................................................................................... 30 Eurybiades ................................................................................................................................................................... 30 Pausanias .................................................................................................................................................................... 31 Reasons for Greek Victory and Persian Defeat............................................................................................................... 32 Leadership ................................................................................................................................................................... 32 Geography and the natural elements ......................................................................................................................... 32 Armour, equipment and tactics .................................................................................................................................. 33 Greek Unity ................................................................................................................................................................. 33 Development of Athens and the Athenian Empire: The Delian League ......................................................................... 34 Origins ......................................................................................................................................................................... 34 Aims............................................................................................................................................................................. 34 Organisation ................................................................................................................................................................ 35 Membership ............................................................................................................................................................ 35 Finances .................................................................................................................................................................. 35 Delos........................................................................................................................................................................ 35 Voting and Autonomy ............................................................................................................................................. 35 Activities until the Battle at Euryumedon River .......................................................................................................... 36 Athens Power .............................................................................................................................................................. 36 The Battle of Eurymedon 467 BC ................................................................................................................................ 36 What the Athens and allies gained and lost from the Delian League ......................................................................... 37 Allied States: ........................................................................................................................................................... 37 Athens: .................................................................................................................................................................... 37 Role and Contribution of Cimon and Aristides the Just .....................................................