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history of egypt in the ancient times

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Activity: Paint me a picture

Burial

Royal Family

gods

Pyramids

Egyptian CivilizationThe Gift of the Nile

CIVILATIONA complex culture in which large number of people share a variety of common elements.

CHARACTERISTICS OF CIVILIZATION Urban focus New political and military structures Economic based structure Complexity in a material sense Distinct religious structure Development of writing New and significant artistic and intellectual activity

WHAT CAUSES CIVILIZATION?Material forces

Non-material forces

Nile Rivers Gift The longest river in the world Beginning from northward of Africa Considered to be the culprit of fertile lands, making abundant harvests Strategically located to bring life and prosperity to the Egyptians Unifying factor and benchmark

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TRANSPORTATION: The Nile River was the highway that joined the country together. Up until the nineteenth century, travel by land was virtually unknown.

Ancient Egyptian HistoryPeriodsNile Culture Begins Archaic Old Kingdom Middle Kingdom New KingdomLate Period Greek Ptolemaic Era Roman Period

Time Frame3900 B. C. E. 3100 2650 B. C. E. 2650 2134 B. C. E. 2040 1640 B. C. E. 1550 1070 B. C. E.750 332 B. C. E. 332 30 B. C. E. 30 B. C. E. 395 C. E.

NILE CULTURE Nomadic modern human huntergatherers began living in the Nile valley through the end of the Middle Pleistocene some 120 thousand years ago. By the late Paleolithic period, the arid climate of Northern Africa became increasingly hot and dry, forcing the populations of the area to concentrate along the region.

ARCHAIC PERIOD By about 5500 BC, small tribes living in the Nile valley had developed into a series of cultures demonstrating firm control of agriculture and animal husbandry, and identifiable by their pottery and personal items, such as combs, bracelets, and beads.

PHARAOHS

OLD KINGDOMAGE OF THE PYRAMIDS

King Menes First dynasty King Nahmer means angry catfish First to unify lower and upper Egypt Marked Memphis as head state

Abydos: City of Dead Burial site of pharoahs in honour of Osiris, the god of Death Sun baked mud bricks from Nile with treasures and lay or slaves to assist the king afterlife

King Djoser First king of the third dynasty Referred as dictator Pioneered pyramid building as replacement for mastaba Managed military expeditions at Sinai Peninsula for copper and turquoise Ra as his dominant god

Imhotep Leonardo da Vinci of Egypt Architect of Djoser High priest and concubine

Step pyramid Picture and description

Sneferu Brother or oldest Son of Djoser Set Dashur as new place of the dead Built the foremost phase in Egyptian architecture Conquered syria and nubia and enslaved men for pyramid building

Bent pyramid

Red Pyramid

Khufu Alleged with cruelty because of enforcing massive pyramid building and high taxes Initiated pyramids at Giza Contact with Byblos for copper and cedar wood

Djedfre First pharoah to adopt Sun name Literally means son of Ra, god of Sun

Khafre Succeeded second pyramid at Giza 30 years in reign Built the great sphinx

MIDDLE KINGDOMPERIOD OF ECONOMIC AND CULTURAL RENAISSANCE

Mentuhotep II 11th dynasty rule Stable Egyptian empire Set Thebes as new capital of the state

Amenemhet I Transferred the state capital at Itjtawy at Faiyum His reign was characterized by land reclamation, building projects for irrigation to increase agricultural output in the region

Amnemhat III Last great ruler of middle kingdom Allowed semitic speaking Caanites from the near east as labour and agricultural force. The severe nile floods and caanite settlers dominance led to kingdoms decline.

NEW KINGDOMGOLDEN AGE OF EGYPT

Hatshepsut First woman ruler of Egypt and the world Rebuilt economic trades, military expeditions and peace making Built Djeser-Djeseru, mortuary complex at Deir el Bahri

Mortuary complex of Hatshepsut

Tuthmosis III Stepson of Hatshepsut, Amenhotep II Diminished Hatshepsuts accomplishment and claimed as his Extended Egyptian Empire into Niya, north west point of Syria, to the fourth waterfall of the nile in nubia.

Amenhotep IV known as Akhenaten literally means horizon of the sun He wanted Egypt to worship Athen, the sun deity. Radically changed the religion of the state and inhibited other deities to be worshipped. First monotheist and referred as heretic. Made Akhetaten, modern day Amarna as new capital

Nefertiti Wife of Akhenaten

Queen Ti Akhenatens mother Regent of the kingdom and responsible for state affairs

Valley of the Kings Upon the start of 18th dynasty this valley located at the west bank of nile became the new place of the dead nobilities such as pharoahs.

Tuthankamun Tuthanketen literally means living image of Aten He had his throne at a very young age of 10 He returned Thebes now luxor as state capital and replenish the old traditions and beliefs of the people His reign was a period of rebirth and renewal

King tuthankamuns death Is he murdered? Is it just a natural death?

Pictures of exploration

Ay His name suggests father of the gods He had served in the Amarna period as deputy in military affairs To claim royalty he had married Anhkesenamun wife sister of Tutankhamun He abolished traces of amarna period and started the Ramesside Era.

Horemheb Depicted with hawk headed god horus Present in the four generations of new kingdom era No royal bloodline and married Nefertitis sister Destructed totally the Armana legacy

Ramesses II Dawn of 19th dynasty Repaired Abydos One of the best prepared pharaohs Conquered mediterranean pirates, and the hitittes in Syria, Nubia, etc. Greatest king in egyptian history who reigned for 66 years.

Ramses colleusus

GOVERNMENT and RELIGION were inseparable in ancient Egypt. The PHARAOH was the head of State and the divine representative of the gods on earth. Religion and government brought order to society through: The construction of TEMPLES The creation of LAWS TAXATION The ORGANIZATION OF LABOR TRADE with neighbors The DEFENCE of the countrys interests.

Ancient Egypt achieved stability through the co-operation of all levels of the population. The PHAROAH was at the top of the social hierarchy. Next to him, the most powerful officers were the VIZIERS, the executive heads of the bureaucracy. Under them were the HIGH PRIESTS, followed by ROYAL OVERSEERS (administrators) who ensured that the 42 DISTRICT GOVERNORS carried out the pharaoh's orders. At the bottom of the hierarchy were the SCRIBES, ARTISANS, FARMERS, and LABORERS.

Not all the pharaohs were men. Before the GraecoRoman period, at least three WOMEN ascended the throne, the most important being Queen HATSHEPSUT.

ROYAL WOMEN: Royal mothers, wives, and daughters derived their status from their relationship with the king.Kings had MANY WIVES and royal families were large. The most prolific was Rameses II, who had eight wives and over a hundred children.

To keep the royal bloodline pure, kings often MARRIED within their family, a SISTER or half sister, for example.In a few cases, they married their DAUGHTERS, although it is not clear whether or not these marriages were true conjugal unions.

Next to pharaoh, the most powerful officer in the hierarchy was the VIZIER, the EXECUTIVE HEAD of the bureaucracy.The position of vizier was filled by a prince or a person of exceptional ability. His title is translated as "superintendent of all works of the king. As the SUPREME JUDGE of the state, the vizier ruled on all petitions and grievances brought to the court. All ROYAL COMMANDS passed through his hands before being transmitted to the scribes in his office. They in turn dispatched orders to the heads of distant towns and villages, and dictated the rules and regulations related to the collection of taxes.

The ancient Egyptians remained very conscious of SOCIAL STRATIFICATION, and barriers between the classes were quite rigid. Climbing the social ladder was difficult, but it could be achieved through outstanding accomplishments in professions such as that of the scribes and the MILITARY. The military took part in WARFARE and TRADE missions, helping to maintain Egypt's sovereignty and expand its territories.

ARCHITECTURE: The ancient Egyptians built their pyramids, tombs, temples and palaces out of STONE, the most durable of all building materials. These building projects took a high degree of architectural and engineering SKILL, and the organization of a LARGE WORKFORCE consisting of highly trained craftsmen and laborers.

Apart from the pyramids, EGYPTIAN BUILDINGS were decorated with PAINTINGS, CARVED STONE IMAGES, HIEROGLYPHS, and THREE-DIMENSIONAL STATUES. The art tells the story of the pharaohs, the gods, the common people and the natural world of plants, birds and animals.

One of the oldest mysteries surrounding ancient Egypt concerns the building of the PYRAMIDS. How did humans move such massive blocks of stone using only Stone Age tools? The Egyptians left thousands of illustrations depicting daily life in the Old Kingdom. Curiously enough, none of them show how pyramids were built. SEVERAL THEORIES attempt to explain how pyramids were constructed, but for now, the mystery has yet to be solved.

Ramp on pyramid

Stone block on sled

Pouring water to lubricate the ramp

Rocking a block into position

The EGYPTIAN LANGUAGE was one of the earliest languages to be written down, perhaps only the Sumerian language is older. First appearing on stone and pottery dating from 3100 B.C. to 3000 B.C., it remained in use for almost 3,000