ancient egypt. geography northeast africa – crossroads of 3 major continents
Post on 24-Dec-2015
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- Slide 1
- Ancient Egypt
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- Geography Northeast Africa Crossroads of 3 Major Continents
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- Geography (continued) Natural Barriers North: Med. Sea; South: Falls on the Nile; East: Red Sea; West: Desert Prevented frequent invasions Nile River (4100 miles, longest in world) Center of Egyptian economics and culture Annual predictable flooding irrigates and replenishes the soil; consistent harvest (Gift of the Nile Sometimes called Black Lands, for its rich soil. The surrounding desert is called Red Lands
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- Nile (continued) Originally only the lower Nile, near the Mediterranean, was known to Egyptians After 750 miles granite cliffs turned the waters into cataracts (rapids), that boats could not pass Lower Egypt was the last 100 miles into the sea; Upper Egypt was from that point back to the first cataract
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- Discussion What were the physical characteristics and processes of the ancient Nile River Valley? How did the physical characteristics of the place affect the human characteristics that developed? Would there be an Egypt without the Nile?
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- Old, Middle, and New Kingdoms 3100 BC King Menes unites Upper and Lower Egypt (kingdom was stable for nearly 3000 years) The Old Kingdom (2660-2180 BC) starts with the 3 rd dynasty of Egyptian rulers (Menes was first dynasty) Monarchs were called Pharaohs, and were considered divine There were 9 distinct periods, and many dynasties When things went poorly, it was believed to have been due to subjects not obeying gods representatives on earth
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- Pharaoh Literally means, Great House Considered Theocracy and were dynastic Pharaohs appointed a vizier, which is a steward of the land, and was responsible for running the bureaucracy There were 42 provinces, each with a governor
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- Religion Cult of the Dead Polytheistic belief in many gods Burial Practices Mummification Belief in 2 bodies: physical and spiritual (Ka) and they needed each other, even after death Elaborate 70 day process meant to preserve the body so that the Ka would be able to return to the body
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- Religion (continued) Pyramids (started in the Old Kingdom) Tombs to honor the Pharaohs Cities of the Dead: The pyramids were just part of the complex of the overall burial site
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- Religion (continued) Pyramids (continued) Engineering marvels Tallest structures on earth for 43 centuries Covers 13 football fields 2 million precisely cut 2-ton blocks Contents Buried with many (sometimes thousands) of items. Discovery of King Tuts tomb was important because it was intact.
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- Miscellaneous They used hieroglyphics and papyrus Use of chariots Old Kingdom begins decline around 2180 BC After The First Intermediate Period (a time of turmoil and unrest), the Middle Kingdom begins under strong Pharaohs (2080-1640 BC)
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- Miscellaneous (continued) Middle Kingdom ends around 1640 BC, as the Hyksos (nomadic Asian chariot riders) invaded. Ruled until 1570 BC This 70 year period that the Hyksos ruled is called the Second Intermediate period The New Kingdom would rise again, but we will discuss that at a later time.
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- Question How did natural barriers affect the development of the region, and its geographic patterns?
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