Ancient Civilizations History Study Guide

Download Ancient Civilizations History Study Guide

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Part 1 of the Ancient Civ. study guide for history (goes up till Hittites)

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11:HumanOriginsinAfrica 1970s:archeologistMaryLeakeyfoundprehistoricfootprintslikethatofmodernhumansinTanzania(East Africa) o madebyaustralopithecines(typeofhominidwalksupright) InEthiopia,completeskeletonofadultfemalehominidLucyfrom3.5millionyrsago Earlyhominidshadopposablethumbsandwalkinguprighthelpedtraveldistancesandcarrythings Inventionoftools,masteryoverfire,developmentoflanguagesalloccurredduringtheStoneAge EarlierandlongerpartofStoneAgecalledPaleolithicAge(2,500,0008000BCE) o Oldeststonechoppingtoolsdatebacktothisera;duringtheIceAge o Religiousbeliefscenteredaroundnature;believedinafterlive NeolithicAge(80003000BCE/datesvaryinplaces) o Peoplelearnedtopolishstonetools,makepottery,growcrops,raiseanimals Beforeaustralopithecinesvanished,newhominids(Homohabilis)appearedinEastAfrica o Usedlavarocktoolstocutmeatandcrackopenbones=madesurvivaleasier 1.6millionyrsago,beforeHomohabilisleft,Homoerectusappeared o moreintelligentandadaptablethanHomohabilis;usedintelligencetodeveloptechnology;skillful hunterswithsophisticatedtools;firsthominidstomigratetoIndia,China,SEAsia,EU o developedbeginningofspokenlanguage;firsttousefire HomoerectusevolvedtoHomosapiens o Hadlargerbrains NeanderthalsinSWAsiaandEuropesurvivedfor170,000yrsandvanished30,000yrsago o Religiousbeliefs;shelters CroMagnonsemerge40,0008,000BCE:identicaltomodernhumans o N.Africa>Europe,Asia;madetoolswithspecializeduses;plannedhunts;spokenlanguage= cooperation Cavepaintingsbyprimitivepeople:EuropeanandAsianshowhuntinganddailyactivities;Americanand Australianmoresymbolic=sympatheticmagic

12:HumansTrytoControlNature 40,000yrsago,CroMagnonssameasmodernman Paleolithicera,mostlynomads=huntergatherers;craftedcrudetoolsi.e.sharpenedstickstoaidhunting/gathering Madeartisticcreations:jewelry,sculptures,cavepaintings NeolithicRevolution:10,000yrsago,=agriculturalrevolution(climatechangewaskeyreason) Earlyfarmingmethods:slashandburn,domesticationofanimals TookplaceinFertileCrescent(NEIraq/Mesopotamia) FarmingdevelopsindependentlyinAfrica,China,CentralAmerica o CatalHuyukandJarmoimportantagri.sitesforstudyingNeolithicAge Permanentsettlementscreated,benefits=surplusfood,specializedworkers Disadvantages=floods/fire/drought/diseasedestroyvillage;invasionbyneighbors 13:Civilization Villagesbecomecities: o Economicchanges:morecultivation>elaborateirrigationsystemsbuilt;foodsurplus=specialization; wheelandsailimprovedtrade o Social:socialclassesformed;religionmoreorganized>worshippedgodswithpowerovernature Civilizationcharacteristics:1.Advancedcities2.Specializedworkers3.Complexinstitutions4.Recordkeeping 5.Advancedtechnology6.ArtandArchitecture Sumer(Urinbold): Advancedcities:centeroftradeforlargerarea;largepopulation o Definedsocialclasses:rulers/priestsontop;tradew.bartering Spec.workers:artisans;merchants;scribes;soldiers;teachers;metalworkers;priests;gov.officials;peasants Complexinst.:formalgov.withlaws;priestswithreligious/politicalpower;educationsystem(forscribes) Recordkeeping:cuneiformtabletswithbusinesstransactions,hist.events,customs,traditions;calendar Adv.Tech:oxdrawnplows;irrigationsystems;potteryeatingsupplies;bronzeweapons;bodyarmor o Roads,pottery ArtandArchitecture:ziggurat(massivepyramidtemple),temples,templegates,storageforgrain 21:Mesopotamia

Mesopotamia=landbetweentheriversTigrisandEuphrates

o Environmentalchallenge;unpredictableflooding;nonaturalbarriers;limitednaturalresources o Solutions:irrigationditches;citywalls;tradedworkedmaterialsforrawmaterials Sumerianshadcitystateseachwithowngov.(Uruk,Kish,Lagaash,Umma,Ur) o Eachhadownziggurat o Rulers(militaryleaders)andpriestssharecontrol:priestsmostly(demandedcroptaxes) Militaryleadershaddynasties;shiftfromprieststomilitaryrulers Culturaldiffusion:newideasspreadtoothercities Sumerians=polytheistic(seeEnglish) o Nojoyafterdeathafterworldisbadplace o Womenpriests,womenhadmanyrights:landholding,read,write,scribes Technology:inventedwheel,sail,plow,firsttousebronze,arithmetic,geometry,base60numbersystem, moderntimeunitscomefromit Architecturalinnovations:arches,columns,ramps,pyramidziggurat Firsttodevelopsystemofwriting(cuneiform)ontablets:writtenwithpointytriangulartippedreeds 30002000BCE,Sumercitystatesconstantlyatwarwitheachotherandcouldnolongerwardofattacksof peopleofsurroundinghills/deserts SumerneverrecoveredfromattacksandsucceedingrulersadoptedSumerianculturetotheirownneeds c.2350BCE,conquerorSargonwitharmyfromAkkad(citystateN.ofSumer)defeatedSumer o AkkadiansalreadyhadadoptedmostofSumerianculture;Sargonsconquestsspreadtheculture furtherbeyondTigrisEuphratesValley BytakingcontrolofN.andS.Mesopotamia,Sargoncreated1stempire o Atpeak,AkkadianEmpirecontrolledMediterraneanCoastinthewesttoIran(today)intheeast o Lastedonly200yrsbeforedecline c.2000BCE,nomadicwarriors(Amorites)invadedMesopotamiaandoverwhelmedSumerians establishedcapitalatBabylonalongEuphratesRiver BabylonianEmpirereachedpeakduringreignofHammurabi(17921750BCE) o HammurabisCodeoflaws:firstsingle,uniformcodeoflawswrittendowninstonealloverempire o 282specificlawsmanyrelatedtopropertyissues;protectedwomenandchildrenfromunfairtreatment o diff.punishmentfordiff.socialclasses;principleofretaliation(eyeforaneye) o gov.responsibleforsocietysactions 2centuriesafterHammurabisreign,BabylonianempirefelltoKassites 23:PyramidsontheNile Egyptunitedintosinglekingdomearlyon NileflowsN.:civilizationarosealongfertileNilebanks Nilefloodedregularly:necessaryforlife;desertsasnaturalbarriers Rivertravelcommonendedat1stcataract(rapids) windsblowupstream(NtoS)soyoucantravelbysailboatupriveranddown 5000BCEfarmingvillageswithownrituals,god,ruler 3200BCE2separatekingdoms:lowerandupperEgypt eventuallyunited(mostlikely)byKingNarmer

OldKingdom:inMesopotamia,kingsrepresentgods;inEgypt,kings=gods=pharaohs o Theocracy:pharaoh@centerofreligionandgov. o Pharaohhadeternallifeforce(ka):pyramidstoprotectpharaohinafterlife Didntusewheel EarlyEgyptianspolytheistic:Re(sungod),Osiris(dead),Isis(mother/wifegoddess) Believedinanafterlifewhereyouwouldbejudged Mummificationofelitesledtoadvancedmedicaltechniques King,queen,royalsattopofsoc.Pyramid o Priests,wealthylandowners,gov.officials,armycommanders Peasantsandlaborersslaverycamelater Egyptiansnotlockedintosocialclasscouplemoveupesp.ifknowtoread/write o Womenhadmanyofthesamerightsasmen Innovations: o Scribesdevelopedflexiblewritingsystem=hieroglyphics(picschangedfromrepresentingideasto letters) Wroteonpapyrusreeds o Developedcalendarforplantingw/365daysinayear o Arithmeticfortaxes o Geometryforpyramidbuilding o Medicineforhealingbones,surgery,checkheartrate DeclineofOldKingdom o StrongpharaohsregainedcontrolduringMiddleKingdom(20401640BCE) o HyksosfromPalestineinvadedandruledEgypt(16301523BCE) o NewKingdomEgyptroseagain 3.1TheIndoEuropeans o GroupofNomadicpplfromSteppesdrygrasslands o Primarilypastoral(herded) o Tamedhorsesandroselight2wheeledchariots o Livedintribesthatspokeformsofindoeuropeanlanguages o ancestorofmanymodernlanguages o Nomadsmigratedinalldirections(17001200BCE) o By2000BCEtheHittitesoccupiedAnatolia(Turkey) o Highrockyplateaurichinmineralstimberagriculture o SeparateHittitecitystatesformedempirein1650 o CapitalHattusas o AdoptedAkkadian(tospeakw/foreigners)afterconqueringAkkadianBabylon

o HittitesdominatedSWAsia450yrs(occupiedBabylonandfoughtw/Assyria) o Signedtreatyw/Assyrianstohelpeachother o Excelledinwartechnologychariots,ironweapons,armor o Fellin1190BCaspartofagreatwaveofinvasionsfromN.(capitalburned)

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