Ancient Civilizations History Study Guide

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Honors World Studies history ancient civ. study guide

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<p> 2009 Tara Balakrishnan &amp; Maya Balakrishnan11:HumanOriginsinAfrica 1970s:archeologistMaryLeakeyfoundprehistoricfootprintslikethatofmodernhumansinTanzania(EastAfrica) o madebyaustralopithecines(typeofhominidwalksupright) InEthiopia,completeskeletonofadultfemalehominidLucyfrom3.5millionyrsago Earlyhominidshadopposablethumbsandwalkinguprighthelpedtraveldistancesandcarrythings Inventionoftools,masteryoverfire,developmentoflanguagesalloccurredduringtheStoneAge EarlierandlongerpartofStoneAgecalledPaleolithicAge(2,500,0008000BCE) o Oldeststonechoppingtoolsdatebacktothisera;duringtheIceAge o Religiousbeliefscenteredaroundnature;believedinafterlive NeolithicAge(80003000BCE/datesvaryinplaces) o Peoplelearnedtopolishstonetools,makepottery,growcrops,raiseanimals Beforeaustralopithecinesvanished,newhominids(Homohabilis)appearedinEastAfrica o Usedlavarocktoolstocutmeatandcrackopenbones=madesurvivaleasier 1.6millionyrsago,beforeHomohabilisleft,Homoerectusappeared o moreintelligentandadaptablethanHomohabilis;usedintelligencetodeveloptechnology;skillfulhunterswith sophisticatedtools;firsthominidstomigratetoIndia,China,SEAsia,EU o developedbeginningofspokenlanguage;firsttousefire HomoerectusevolvedtoHomosapiens o Hadlargerbrains NeanderthalsinSWAsiaandEuropesurvivedfor170,000yrsandvanished30,000yrsago o Religiousbeliefs;shelters CroMagnonsemerge40,0008,000BCE:identicaltomodernhumans o N.Africa&gt;Europe,Asia;madetoolswithspecializeduses;plannedhunts;spokenlanguage=cooperation Cavepaintingsbyprimitivepeople:EuropeanandAsianshowhuntinganddailyactivities;AmericanandAustralian moresymbolic=sympatheticmagic</p> <p>12:HumansTrytoControlNature 40,000yrsago,CroMagnonssameasmodernman Paleolithicera,mostlynomads=huntergatherers;craftedcrudetoolsi.e.sharpenedstickstoaidhunting/gathering Madeartisticcreations:jewelry,sculptures,cavepaintings NeolithicRevolution:10,000yrsago,=agriculturalrevolution(climatechangewaskeyreason) Earlyfarmingmethods:slashandburn,domesticationofanimals TookplaceinFertileCrescent(NEIraq/Mesopotamia)</p> <p> 2009 Tara Balakrishnan &amp; Maya BalakrishnanFarmingdevelopsindependentlyinAfrica,China,CentralAmerica o CatalHuyukandJarmoimportantagri.sitesforstudyingNeolithicAge Permanentsettlementscreated,benefits=surplusfood,specializedworkers Disadvantages=floods/fire/drought/diseasedestroyvillage;invasionbyneighbors 13:Civilization Villagesbecomecities: o Economicchanges:morecultivation&gt;elaborateirrigationsystemsbuilt;foodsurplus=specialization;wheelandsail improvedtrade o Social:socialclassesformed;religionmoreorganized&gt;worshippedgodswithpowerovernature Civilizationcharacteristics:1.Advancedcities2.Specializedworkers3.Complexinstitutions4.Recordkeeping5. Advancedtechnology6.ArtandArchitecture Sumer(Urinbold): Advancedcities:centeroftradeforlargerarea;largepopulation o Definedsocialclasses:rulers/priestsontop;tradew.bartering Spec.workers:artisans;merchants;scribes;soldiers;teachers;metalworkers;priests;gov.officials;peasants Complexinst.:formalgov.withlaws;priestswithreligious/politicalpower;educationsystem(forscribes) Recordkeeping:cuneiformtabletswithbusinesstransactions,hist.events,customs,traditions;calendar Adv.Tech:oxdrawnplows;irrigationsystems;potteryeatingsupplies;bronzeweapons;bodyarmor o Roads,pottery ArtandArchitecture:ziggurat(massivepyramidtemple),temples,templegates,storageforgrain 21:Mesopotamia </p> <p>Mesopotamia=landbetweentheriversTigrisandEuphrates o Environmentalchallenge;unpredictableflooding;nonaturalbarriers;limitednaturalresources o Solutions:irrigationditches;citywalls;tradedworkedmaterialsforrawmaterials Sumerianshadcitystateseachwithowngov.(Uruk,Kish,Lagaash,Umma,Ur) o Eachhadownziggurat o Rulers(militaryleaders)andpriestssharecontrol:priestsmostly(demandedcroptaxes) Militaryleadershaddynasties;shiftfromprieststomilitaryrulers Culturaldiffusion:newideasspreadtoothercities Sumerians=polytheistic(seeEnglish) o Nojoyafterdeathafterworldisbadplace o Womenpriests,womenhadmanyrights:landholding,read,write,scribes Technology:inventedwheel,sail,plow,firsttousebronze,arithmetic,geometry,base60numbersystem,moderntime unitscomefromit Architecturalinnovations:arches,columns,ramps,pyramidziggurat Firsttodevelopsystemofwriting(cuneiform)ontablets:writtenwithpointytriangulartippedreeds</p> <p> 2009 Tara Balakrishnan &amp; Maya Balakrishnan30002000BCE,Sumercitystatesconstantlyatwarwitheachotherandcouldnolongerwardofattacksofpeopleof surroundinghills/deserts SumerneverrecoveredfromattacksandsucceedingrulersadoptedSumerianculturetotheirownneeds c.2350BCE,conquerorSargonwitharmyfromAkkad(citystateN.ofSumer)defeatedSumer o AkkadiansalreadyhadadoptedmostofSumerianculture;Sargonsconquestsspreadtheculturefurtherbeyond TigrisEuphratesValley BytakingcontrolofN.andS.Mesopotamia,Sargoncreated1stempire o Atpeak,AkkadianEmpirecontrolledMediterraneanCoastinthewesttoIran(today)intheeast o Lastedonly200yrsbeforedecline c.2000BCE,nomadicwarriors(Amorites)invadedMesopotamiaandoverwhelmedSumerians establishedcapitalatBabylonalongEuphratesRiver BabylonianEmpirereachedpeakduringreignofHammurabi(17921750BCE) o HammurabisCodeoflaws:firstsingle,uniformcodeoflawswrittendowninstonealloverempire o 282specificlawsmanyrelatedtopropertyissues;protectedwomenandchildrenfromunfairtreatment o diff.punishmentfordiff.socialclasses;principleofretaliation(eyeforaneye) o gov.responsibleforsocietysactions 2centuriesafterHammurabisreign,BabylonianempirefelltoKassites 23:PyramidsontheNile Egyptunitedintosinglekingdomearlyon NileflowsN.:civilizationarosealongfertileNilebanks Nilefloodedregularly:necessaryforlife;desertsasnaturalbarriers Rivertravelcommonendedat1stcataract(rapids) windsblowupstream(NtoS)soyoucantravelbysailboatupriveranddown 5000BCEfarmingvillageswithownrituals,god,ruler 3200BCE2separatekingdoms:lowerandupperEgypt eventuallyunited(mostlikely)byKingNarmer </p> <p>OldKingdom:inMesopotamia,kingsrepresentgods;inEgypt,kings=gods=pharaohs o Theocracy:pharaoh@centerofreligionandgov. o Pharaohhadeternallifeforce(ka):pyramidstoprotectpharaohinafterlife Didntusewheel EarlyEgyptianspolytheistic:Re(sungod),Osiris(dead),Isis(mother/wifegoddess) Believedinanafterlifewhereyouwouldbejudged Mummificationofelitesledtoadvancedmedicaltechniques King,queen,royalsattopofsoc.Pyramid o Priests,wealthylandowners,gov.officials,armycommanders Peasantsandlaborersslaverycamelater Egyptiansnotlockedintosocialclasscouplemoveupesp.ifknowtoread/write o Womenhadmanyofthesamerightsasmen Innovations: o Scribesdevelopedflexiblewritingsystem=hieroglyphics(picschangedfromrepresentingideastoletters) Wroteonpapyrusreeds</p> <p> 2009 Tara Balakrishnan &amp; Maya Balakrishnano Developedcalendarforplantingw/365daysinayear o Arithmeticfortaxes o Geometryforpyramidbuilding o Medicineforhealingbones,surgery,checkheartrate DeclineofOldKingdom o StrongpharaohsregainedcontrolduringMiddleKingdom(20401640BCE) o HyksosfromPalestineinvadedandruledEgypt(16301523BCE) o NewKingdomEgyptroseagain 3.1TheIndoEuropeans o GroupofNomadicpplfromSteppesdrygrasslands o Primarilypastoral(herded) o Tamedhorsesandroselight2wheeledchariots o Livedintribesthatspokeformsofindoeuropeanlanguages o ancestorofmanymodernlanguages o Nomadsmigratedinalldirections(17001200BCE) o By2000BCEtheHittitesoccupiedAnatolia(Turkey) o Highrockyplateaurichinmineralstimberagriculture o SeparateHittitecitystatesformedempirein1650 o CapitalHattusas o AdoptedAkkadian(tospeakw/foreigners)afterconqueringAkkadianBabylon o HittitesdominatedSWAsia450yrs(occupiedBabylonandfoughtw/Assyria) o Signedtreatyw/Assyrianstohelpeachother o Excelledinwartechnologychariots,ironweapons,armor o Fellin1190BCaspartofagreatwaveofinvasionsfromN.(capitalburned) 33SeafaringTraders o Minoans:powerfulseatradersintheeasternMediterranean o Exportedgoods,artandculture(incl.architecture,burialcustoms,religiousrituals):majorinfluenceonGreece o Minoansseemtobepeaceful o NamedafterKingMinoswhoownedaminotaurwhichhekeptinalabyrinth o Womenheldahigherrankthaninmostneighboringlands o GreatMotherEarthGoddessrulerofgodsofCrete(Minoanisland);manypriestesses o Sacrificedmostlyanimalsbutalsoacouplehumans o Mysteriousend:giantquakesin1500sBCEsrebuiltpalacetwice,thenvolcano;neverquiterecovered Phoenicians o AfterMinoandecline,mostpowerfultraders o Neverunitedintocountry;onlycitystates(e.x.SidonandTyre);citiesweregreattradingcenters o Remarkableshipbuildersandseafarers:wentaroundAfricaandAsia o Producedfamousandexpensiveredpurpledye,papyrus,builtcoloniesalongN.AfricancoastandS.Europecoast o GreatestPhoeniciancolony=CarthageinN.Africa o Developedphoneticwritingsystemwithletters(wordalphabetfrom1st2Phoenicianletters) o Introducedwritingsystemtotradingpartners o EasterncitieswerecapturedbytheAssyriansthenPhoenicianscameundercontroloftheBabyloniansandPersians 34TheOriginsofJudaism o PhoenicianslivedinaregionlatercalledPalestinealongwithPhilistines o CanaanancienthomeoftheHebrews(Jews)inthisarea.LandpromisedbyGodtotheHebrewppl o AncientPalestineslocation=culturalcrossroadsofancientworld. o GodchooseAbrahamtobefatherofJews,hewasashepherdinUr,Mesopotamiaandwasorderedbygodtomovew/ ppltoCanaanin1800BCE o DescendantsofAbemovetoEgyptin1600BCEb/cofdroughtandfamine.GivenplacesofhonoratfirstinEgyptian</p> <p> 2009 Tara Balakrishnan &amp; Maya Balakrishnankingdombutlaterforcedintoslavery.FleeEgyptbtw13001200BCEduringtheEXODUSrememberedeachyr.during Passover. o TorahsaysthatMoses(allJewmalebabiesweresupposedtobekilled@thistimebuthismomhidhimandhewas adoptedbyanEgyptianprincess)ledHebrewsoutofslavery o JewstraveledacrossofSinaiPeninsulaandMoseswenttotopofMt.Sinaitopray.Yahweh(God)spoketohimand gavehimthe10commandmentstheyformedanewcovenant=godprotectedHebrewswhoprotectedhis commandments. o HebrewsreturntoCanaanafterdeathofMoses+changedfromNomadstosettledppl. o Looselyorganizedinto12selfgoverningtribes,theywoulduniteintimesofemergencyandgodwouldsend themajudge(1wasawoman) o Womenonlyraisedchildren o 10commandedresembledHammurabiscodebutpunishmentssoftenedbygodsmercy. o EthicalMonotheism:emphasisonrightconductandworshipof1god. o HebrewsaftersettlementinCanaan/Palestineexpandednorthandsouth. o TribeofJudah(lasttribeleftoforiginal12)HebrewscametobeJewsandthereligionJudaism o 1000BCEHebrewsunitedunderKings(KingdomofIsrael) o Saul:chosenfordrivingoutaPhilistineinvasion,butbecamegreedy/jealous o David:soninlawofSaul,verypopular,unitedtribes,Jerusalem=capital,establisheddynasty o Solomon:sonofDavid,mostpowerfulHebrewKing,builttradingempirew/HiramKingofTyre(Phoenician city),beautifiedJerusalemw/greattemple AfterdeathrevoltinN.partofkingdom IsraelbecomesIsraelinN.andJudahinS.(sometimesfriendssometimesenemies) BothbeganpayingtributetoAssyriatoensurepeacew/them 725BCEAssyriansseizeSamariacapitalofIsrael,andIsraelfallstoAssyrians AssyrianslosepowertoNeoBabylonians NebuchadnezzargetsSyriaandPalestineandIsraelandseizesJudah(destroysSolomons templemanysurvivorsexiledtoBabylon) PersianKingCyrusconquersBabylonandletsexilesreturntoJudah/rebuildtemple 4.1EgyptianandNubianEmpires o AfterprosperityofMiddleKingdomEgyptlosescontrolHyksostakeoverandHebrewssettlethereduringthistime o EgyptiansresentJewsbutHyksoswantthem o 1600BCEPharaohskickoutHyksosandrestorepower.HebrewsenslaveduntilExodus o NubianKingdomofKushemergesasapower o PharaohsofNewKingdom15001000BCEbuiltthebiggest/powerfulest/wealthiestempirethanbefore o HatshepsutqueenPharaohencouragedtraderatherthanwar o Stepson,Thutmoseverywarlike:invadedPalestine,Syria,andpartofNubia o EgyptiansandHittitesfightoverPalestinebutPharaohRamsesIImadepeacetreatyw/Hittitesfor1century o Buildmanyroyaltombstemplesandpalacesinthevalleyofkings. o RamsesIIcarvedgiantstatuesinredsandstonecliffs. o Decline:attackedbyseapplstribesofPalestinerebelagainstEgyptianoverlords,Libyanraidsinwest o Egyptneverregainspreviouspowerbreakapartandfell o 950730BCELibyanPharaohsruleEgyptadoptedEgyptianculture o KingdomofKushesp.capitalNapatabecomescenterofculturalspread o w/EgyptdeclineKushregainsindependence/powerandsoughttocaptureLibyanEgypt o KushKingPiyankioverthrewLibyandynastyandunitedentireNileValley. o ThenAssyriansconquerEgyptandKushitesretreatsouthtoMerowhichbecameactiveinTradeb/coflargeamtof naturalresourcesthenafter4centuriesbeginstodeclineafterAksumkindominN.takesovertrade. 4.2AssyrianEmpire o 850BCEAssyriaacquireslargeempirew/advancedmilitarysuppliesgreatestmilitarypowerinS.W.asiaforatime</p> <p> 2009 Tara Balakrishnan &amp; Maya Balakrishnanglorifiedmilitaryeverything(strengths,weapons,technology,strategy) by650BCEAssyriadefeatsSyria,Palestine,andBabylonia(notyetneo),hadlocalgovernorsreporttoacentral authority=modelofgov. o governorsbroughtintributeandtaxes o KingSennacherib(whoburntBabylon)alsoestablishedcapitalatNinevehalongTigrisRiver.Ninevehhad1ofancient worldslargestlibraries(KingAshurbanipals)incl.EpicofGilgamesh. o AfterAshurbanipalsdeathNinevehfelltoMedesandChaldeansandotherswhoburnedthecitybutmanytablets survived o Assyriansfall o ThenChaldeansmakeBabylontheircapitalandKingNebuchadnezzarrestorescitywithhanginggardensofBabylon,7 tieredziggurat,andastronomers,andwallaroundcity. 33PersianEmpire Cyrus,Persiankingbegantoconquer(butshowedmercyandhonoredlocalcustoms) o grandsonDariusbroughtstabilitytoempireandconqueredintoAfghanistanandIndiaandtoEgyptandAnatoliainthe West o Dariusdividedempireinto20provincestogovernit Brilliantadministratorbutdidntshowsamerespectforlocalculture o Installedgovernorcalledsatraptorulelocallyandappointedmilitaryleaders,taxcollectors,andspiestocheckonstuff o RoyalRoadranacrossempire o BorrowedcoinsfromtheLydians o ConqueredbyAlexandertheGreat o AfterAlexandersdeath(Early)splitinto3empires: Seleucid(largest),Parthian,andSassanid o ReligionofZoroastrianismfoundedbyZoroaster Teachesthattheearthisabattlegroundwithagreatstrugglebetweenspiritofgoodandevil Eachpersontakespartinthisstruggleandisjudgedindeathbyhowwelltheydo Monotheistic:AhuraMazda o AfterMuslimconquestofPersia,ZoroastrianismdeclinedsometookittoIndia o o</p>