anatomy & physiology ch. 1 : introduction to anatomy & physiology

12
Anatomy & Anatomy & Physiology Physiology Ch. 1 : In troduction to Anatomy & Physiology

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Page 1: Anatomy & Physiology Ch. 1 : Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology

Anatomy & Anatomy & Physiology Physiology

Ch. 1 : Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology

Page 2: Anatomy & Physiology Ch. 1 : Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology

Physiology

0 IF, THEN OBSERVATIONS, LOGICAL Connections0Cell physiology – cell functions at the chemical and

molecular levels0Organ physiology – specific organs ; cardiac function

0 Things like stroke volume and cardiac output0Systemic physiology – cardiovascular physiology

0 Blood pressure involves the heart, lungs and kidneys0Pathological physiology – effects of disease on the

function of organs or systems. Comparing normal functioning with that of disease state

Page 3: Anatomy & Physiology Ch. 1 : Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology

Good Study Strategies

0PARTICIPATE

0ASK QUESTIONS

0Read the book0Use the online resources0Make flash cards0Take ‘good’ notes – ones

that make sense to you0Use a variety of methods

– learn those that work for you

0Do the HW assignments

Page 4: Anatomy & Physiology Ch. 1 : Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology

Anatomy & Physiology 0 History back 1500 years0 “Structures and Functions” 0 Anatomy is Greek for ‘to cut open’; study structures and

their relationships to each other; both internal and external features.0 Which muscles attach to which bones, with what tendons and at

what points… who – what – where – size – shape – location, etc0 Physiology is also Greek. It refers to how functions are

performed. 0 How does a muscle actually contract (in order to move a bone)?

This would be how and why.0 “Specific functions are performed by specific structures.”

Separate MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY Hand Out

Page 5: Anatomy & Physiology Ch. 1 : Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology

Anatomy

0 DETAILS0 Gross Anatomy (aka Macroscopic) Gross means “large” or “whole”

0 Surface anatomy – general form0 Regional anatomy – spatial relationships0 Systemic anatomy – organs and organ systems * 0 Developmental anatomy - embryology0 Clinical anatomy – lots of areas used in medical field

0 Microscopic Anatomy0 Cytology – focus on cells0 Histology – focus on tissues

Page 6: Anatomy & Physiology Ch. 1 : Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology

Levels of Organization

0Chemical ( molecule) – even at this level form determines function… electrons, bond type and bond angle, 3D shapes of molecules like enzymes

0Cellular – phosphate and lipids give properties to things like CM and phospholipid bilayer

0Tissue – collection of cells working to perform one function

0Organ – two or more tissues working in combination0System * know 11 systems with organs and functions0Organism

Page 7: Anatomy & Physiology Ch. 1 : Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology

Spotlight figure 1.1 Levels of Organization

0Pgs. 8 -90Systems, organs and functions will be on quiz

Page 8: Anatomy & Physiology Ch. 1 : Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology

Homeostasis and Feedback0 Homeostasis => existence of a stable internal environment,

even when external conditions vary0 “Homeostatic regulation” is adjusting physiological

reactions so the body can respond to both normal and abnormal conditions. 0 Autoregulation: (aka intrinsic) if oxygen levels decrease in a

tissue, cells will release chemicals that cause local blood vessels to dilate (expand) - more blood = more O2

0 Extrinsic regulation: nervous and/or endocrine systems cause changes in other systems. After you eat blood is diverted to digestive system organs to absorb nutrients and away from other systems

0 Feedback loops ( pg. 11)

Page 9: Anatomy & Physiology Ch. 1 : Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology

More feedback

0Negative Feedback is a response used to counteract the current state0 Ex: runner is too hot ( body tem over 98.6) so you sweat

and dilate blood vessels – red skin; lots of blood near surface so heat can cause water to evaporate. Temp gets lower and lower and lower until it is normal.

0Positive Feedback is a response that keeps increasing the current state. Rarely used in everyday biological reactions0 Ex: clotting (pg 14) , labor and lactation

0State of Equilibrium or Dynamic Equilibrium

Page 10: Anatomy & Physiology Ch. 1 : Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology

Anatomical Terms - regions

0Superficial = near the surface0Landmarks used to relate terms; brachium means

arm, so brachial artery and brachialis muscle are both found in the arm

0Position – standard anatomical position is arms at side, palms forward, feet together. 0 Supine, laying face up0 Prone, laying face down

0Regions …. worksheets

Page 11: Anatomy & Physiology Ch. 1 : Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology

Anatomical Terms - sections

0Work sheets and pages16 – 210Vocab lists for Ch. 1 and Ch. 2

Page 12: Anatomy & Physiology Ch. 1 : Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology

Clinical Notes and Reading

0Read examples on pgs. 6 and 120And additional reading – summarize one article about

a disease condition related to organs, tissues or feedback. Use Gale through media center to get to academic journals

This will be part of turnitin.com assignment in December 0 Article about a disease/disorder/condition 0 Article about one way to treat (address) the disease0 2nd article about an alternative approach0 Paper that compares and contrasts the treatments; side effects;

success rates, costs, etc.