anatomy physiology

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ANATOMY PHYSIOLOGY

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ANATOMY PHYSIOLOGY. Anatomy- examines structures/morphology of body parts, forms, organization Physiology- function of body parts Human organism-is an organized unit. Levels of organization. Subatomic part(e−,p⁺, nⁿ )  atoms moleculesmacromolecules - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Page 1: ANATOMY PHYSIOLOGY

ANATOMY PHYSIOLOGY

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• Anatomy-examines structures/morphology of body parts,forms, organization

• Physiology- function of body parts

• Human organism-is an organized unit

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Levels of organizationSubatomic part(e−,p⁺,nⁿ)atomsmoleculesmacromolecules

Cells- basic unit of structure + functionTissues- cells organized into layers/masses w/ specific funct. Organs- groups of tissue

- complex structures w/ specialized functionOrgan system- groups of organs that function together Organism- interacting organ system

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atoms/molecules Cells small intestine tissue small intestine

Digestive system Human organism

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Characteristics of Life• Movement• Responsiveness• Growth• Reproduction• Respiration• Digestion• Absorption• Circulation• Assimilation• Excretion= metabolism- physical/chemical events that obtain, release, and utilize

energy

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Mental Mapping• I am walking to Mcdonalds (movement)• I stop at the traffic light (response)• My body is growing (growth)• I am breathing air (respiration)• I get a hamburger and eat it (digestion)• My body absorbs the hamburger (absorption)• The hamburger circulates in my body (circulation)• The hamburger is changed to things my body needs

(assimilation)• Eventually, I go to the bathroom (excretion)• Someday I may reproduce (reproduction)

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Requirements of Organisms

1. Water- most abundant subs. In body– Required for metabolic processes– Environment– Transport– Regulating body temp

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2. Food- provide nutrients

3. Oxygen-gas (1/5 of air)– Used in process of releasing energy from nutrients– Energy drives metabolic process

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4. Heat- energy in body– Product of metabolic processes– Controls rate which process occur– More heat= faster reaction

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5. Pressure-force– Plays an important role in

breathing– Hydrostatic Pressure- exerted

by liquid• EX: blood pressure

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Homeostasis

• Bodies maintenance of stable internal environment– Remains stable despite changing environment

- Takes most metabolic energy

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Homeostatic mechanisms

• Self regulating control systems (3)1. Receptors- give info about conditions in

internal envir. 2. Control center- set point

EX: body temp 98.6˚3. Effectors- response that alter conditions

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• Receptors measure deviations from set point effectors activated to return cond. to norm.

• Negative Feedback- deviation is corrected to set pointEx: Room temp 70˚F- air condition/furnace Set point= 70 ˚Air Condition/Furnace = effectorThermostat= Receptor

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• Body Homeostatic mechanisms -body temp -reg. of blood pressure-concentration of sugar/glucose

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• Positive Feedback – process which moves conditions away from normal state- Ex: blood clotting- chemicals stimulate increase clotting to decrease bleeding

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Organization of Human Body

• Axial portion- body, neck, trunk• Appendicular-arms/legs

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• Cranial cavity- brain• Vertebral canal- spinal

cord surrounded by backbone vertebrae

• Thoracic cavity and Abdominopelvic cavity– Viscera- organs within– Diaphragm separates

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• Thoracic cavity- lungs, mediastinum, heart, esophagus, trachea, thymus gland– Right Pleural- right lung– Left Pleural- left lung– Mediastinum- esophagus, trachea, thymus gland• pericardial cavity= heart

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• Abdominopelvic cavity- upper/lower pelvic portion– Abdominal Cavity-stomach, liver, spleen,

gallbladder, small intestine– Pelvic Cavity-lg. Intestine, urinary bladder, internal

reprod. organs

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Small head cavities

• Oral cavity- teeth + tongue• Nasal Cavity- divided into

right/left sect. By nasal septum– Sphenoidal + frontal sinuses

• Orbital cavity- eyes, skeletal muscles, nerves

• Mid Ear Cavity- mid ear bones

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• Serous Membrane - two layered, covers organs – Outer layer = parietal– Inner layer = visceral (lines the organs)

• Serous fluid – lubricating fluid

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• 3 Major Locations1. Pleura: lungs2. Pericardium: heart3. Peritoneal: abdominopelvic cavity

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Membrane Names

Parietal Pleura / Visceral PleuraParietal Pericardium / Visceral PericardiumParietal Peritoneum/ Visceral Peritoneum

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ORGAN SYSTEMS

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Body Covering

Integumentary system- skin, hair, nails, sweat glands- Protects tissues, regulate body temp., house

sensory receptors

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Support/Movement

Skeletal System- bones, ligaments, cartilage- framework, protective shields, movement

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Muscular System- Muscles- Contract/pull end together= movement,

maintain posture, source of body heat

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Integration/Coordination

Nervous System- brain, spinal cord, nerves, sense organs- detects inside/outside changes= body reacts

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Endocrine System- pituary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal gland,

pancreas, ovaries, testes, pineal gland, thymus- Glands that secrete hormones

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Transport

Cardiovascular system- heart, arteries, capillaries, veins, blood- Blood transports, gases, nutrients, hormones

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Lymphatic system- Lymphatic vessels, lymph fluid, lymph nodes,

thymus, spleen- Transports fluid- Lymphocytes-cells defend against pathogens

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Absorption/Excretion

Digestive System-mouth, tongue, teeth, salivary glands, pharynx,

esophagus, stomach, liver, gall bladder, pancreas, small/lg intestines

- breaks down food, absorbs nutrients, excretes waste

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Respiratory System- Nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi,

lungs- Exchanges gas b/w blood and air

- Oxy in, CO2 out

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Urinary System-kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra- Removes waste, stores/excretes urine

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Reproduction

Reproductive system (male/female)Male- scrotum, testes, urethra, penis- produce/maintain/transfer sperm

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Female- ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina- produce/transport eggs- Receive sperm- Supports embryo

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Anatomical Terminology

• Anatomical position: – Standing erect– Face forward– Upper limbs at sides– Palms forward

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• Superior- above• Inferior- below

• Anterior- toward front• Posterior- toward back

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• Lateral – toward side with respect to midlineIpsilateral-pertains to same sideContralateral- refers to opposite side

• Medial- midline divides into equal left/right sides, closer to line is medial

• Proximal-closer to the trunk of the body• Distal- farther from trunk of body

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Body Sections• Transverse- (horizontal) divides body into

inferior and superior portions• Coronal- divides body into anterior/posterior

portions• Sagittal- lengthwise cut right/left portions– Midsagittal- sagittal sect. Passes along midline– Parasagittal- sagittal sec passes parallel to midline

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• Cross section: cut across structure• Oblique section: angular cut• Longitudinal- lengthwise cut

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Body Regions

Pg 23

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Quadrants

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http://www.wisc-online.com/objects/index_tj.asp?objID=AP14904