anatomy and physiology


Upload: hall

Post on 22-Feb-2016




0 download


Anatomy and Physiology. Chapter 14. Introduction The lymphatic system is comprised of a network of vessels, cells, organs, and glands that produce and transport body fluids. Lymphatic vessels collect and carry away excess fluid from interstitial spaces - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Page 1: Anatomy  and  Physiology
Page 2: Anatomy  and  Physiology

Introduction • The lymphatic system is comprised of a network of vessels,

cells, organs, and glands that produce and transport body fluids.

• Lymphatic vessels collect and carry away excess fluid from interstitial spaces

• The organs of the lymphatic system help defend against disease.

• Lymphatic capillaries are tiny, closed-ended tubes that extend into interstitial spaces.• They receive fluid through their thin walls and once inside,

tissue fluid is called lymph.• The walls of lymphatic vessels are like veins but with

thinner walls.• Larger lymphatic vessels pass through lymph nodes and

merge to form lymphatic trunks.

Page 3: Anatomy  and  Physiology
Page 4: Anatomy  and  Physiology
Page 5: Anatomy  and  Physiology

Lymphatic Trunks and Collecting Ducts • The lymphatic trunks drain lymph from the body and are named

for the regions they drain.• These trunks join one of two collecting ducts - either the thoracic

duct or right lymphatic duct.• The fluid is eventually returned to the subclavian vein.

Page 6: Anatomy  and  Physiology

Lymph Fluid• Lymph is made up of water and dissolved substances that

leave blood capillaries by filtration and diffusion.• Most of the small molecules are returned to the

capillaries by diffusion.• Lymph then transports small foreign particles (bacteria,

viruses, etc.) to lymph nodes.• Forces that move blood in veins are the forces that propel

lymph through lymphatic vessels.

Page 7: Anatomy  and  Physiology

Lymph Nodes • Lymph nodes are located along lymphatic pathways.• They are bean-shaped, with two important parts:

• The hilum – area where blood vessels and nerves join a node• The medulla – inner area where macrophages and T-cells are.

• They are covered with connective tissue that extends inside the node and divides it into nodules and spaces called sinuses.

• These contain both lymphocytes and macrophages which clean the lymph as it flows through the node. • Lymph nodes are centers of lymphocyte production, which function

in immune surveillance. • The macrophages and lymphocytes within lymph nodes filter

lymph and remove bacteria and cellular debris before lymph is returned to the blood.

• The lymph nodes generally occur in chains along the parts of the larger lymphatic vessels.

Page 8: Anatomy  and  Physiology
Page 9: Anatomy  and  Physiology
Page 10: Anatomy  and  Physiology
Page 11: Anatomy  and  Physiology

Thymus • The thymus is a soft, bi-lobed organ located behind the sternum• It shrinks in size during the lifetime (large in children,

microscopic in the elderly).• The thymus gland is divided into lobules, which are small

clusters of thymus cells.• Lobules contain lymphocytes, some of which mature into T

lymphocytes (T cells) that leave the thymus to provide immunity.

• The thymus secretes the hormone thymosin, which influences the maturation of T lymphocytes once they leave the thymus.

Page 12: Anatomy  and  Physiology
Page 13: Anatomy  and  Physiology
Page 14: Anatomy  and  Physiology

Spleen• The spleen lies in the upper left abdominal cavity and is the

body’s largest lymphatic organ.• The spleen resembles a large lymph node except that it

contains blood instead of lymph.• Inside the spleen lies white pulp (containing many

lymphocytes) and red pulp (containing red blood cells, macrophages, and lymphocytes).

• The spleen filters the blood and removes damaged blood cells and bacteria.

Page 15: Anatomy  and  Physiology
Page 16: Anatomy  and  Physiology

Body Defenses Against Infection• Disease-causing agents, also called pathogens, can

produce infections within the body.• The body has two lines of defense against

pathogens: • Nonspecific defenses that guard against any

pathogen• Specific defenses (immunity) that mount a

response against a very specific target.• Specific defenses are carried out by

lymphocytes that recognize a specific invader.• Nonspecific and specific defenses work together

to protect the body against infection.

Page 17: Anatomy  and  Physiology

Innate (Nonspecific) DefensesSpecies Resistance

• A species is resistant to diseases that affect other species because it has a unique environment.

• Pathogens from dogs tend not to infect humans.• Doesn’t always work – H5N1 (Bird Flu)

Mechanical Barriers • The unbroken skin and mucous membranes of the body create

mechanical barriers that prevent the entry of certain pathogens.• Mechanical barriers represent the body’s first line of defense.

Chemical Barriers• Chemical barriers, such as the highly acidic and caustic

environment of the stomach.• Interferons are produced by cells when they are infected with

viruses and induce nearby cells to produce antiviral enzymes that protect them from infection.

Page 18: Anatomy  and  Physiology

Fever• Fever offers powerful protection against infection by interfering with

the proper conditions that promote bacterial growth.• During fever, the amount of iron in the blood is reduced

• Fewer nutrients are available to support the growth of pathogens.• Phagocytic cells attack with greater vigor when the temperature


• Inflammation, a tissue response to a pathogen, is characterized by redness, swelling, heat, and pain.

• Major actions that occur during an inflammatory response include:• Dilation of blood vessels• Increase of blood volume in affected areas • Invasion of white blood cells into the affected area• Appearance of fibroblasts and their production of a sac around

the area.

Page 19: Anatomy  and  Physiology

Adaptive (Specific) Defenses or Immunity• The response mounted by the body against specific, recognized

foreign molecules.Antigens

• Before birth, the body makes an inventory of "self" proteins and other large molecules.

• Antigens are generally larger molecules that elicit an immune response.

Lymphocyte Origins • During fetal development, red bone marrow releases lymphocytes

into circulation• 70-80% become T lymphocytes (T cells) • The remainder become B lymphocytes (B cells).

• Undifferentiated lymphocytes that reach the thymus become T cells and B cells are thought to mature in the bone marrow.

• Both B and T cells reside in lymphatic organs.

Page 20: Anatomy  and  Physiology
Page 21: Anatomy  and  Physiology

Lymphocyte Functions • T cells attack foreign, antigen-bearing cells, such as bacteria,

by direct cell-to-cell contact, providing cell-mediated immunity.

• T cells also secrete cytokines that enhance cellular response to antigens.

• T cells may also secrete toxins that kill target cells • Compliment Proteins puncture bacterial cells• They can also produce growth-inhibiting factors or interferon

to interfere with viruses and tumor cells.• B cells attack pathogens by differentiating into plasma cells

that secrete antibodies (immunoglobulins).

Page 22: Anatomy  and  Physiology

There are three main types of T-Cells.1. Helper T-Cells are cells that help activate B-cells to produce

antibodies.• They must come in contact with a cell that has already

encountered the antigen.• Macrophages contain Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC)

proteins that act as both ID badges AND antigen presenting proteins.

• If a Helper T-Cell comes in contact with a macrophage which is presenting an antigen, it becomes activated.

• Once activated, the Helper T-Cell then tells other B-cells to produce antibodies to the antigen.

2. Cytotoxic T cells monitor the body's cells, recognizing and eliminating tumor cells and virus-infected cells.• Cytotoxic T cells become activated when a antigen binds to its

receptors.3. Memory T cells provide a no-delay response to any future

exposure to the same antigen.

Page 23: Anatomy  and  Physiology
Page 24: Anatomy  and  Physiology

B Cells and the Humoral Immune Response • Most B cells need helper T cells for activation.

• The helper T cell releases cytokines that activate the B cell so that it can divide and form a clone.

• B cells may become activated and produce a clone of cells when its antigen receptor encounters its matching antigen.

• Some of the B cells become plasma cells, producing and secreting antibodies.

• Like T cells, some of the B cells become memory cells to respond to future encounters with the antigen.

Page 25: Anatomy  and  Physiology
Page 26: Anatomy  and  Physiology

Types of Antibodies • There are five major types of antibodies (immunoglobulins)

that constitute the gamma globulin fraction of the plasma.• IgG is in tissue fluid and plasma and defends against

bacterial cells, viruses, and toxins and activates complement.

• IgA is in exocrine gland secretions (breast milk, saliva, tears) and defends against bacteria and viruses.

• IgM is found in plasma and activates complement and reacts with blood cells during transfusions.

• IgD is found on the surface of most B lymphocytes and functions in B cell activation.

• IgE is found in exocrine gland secretions and promotes allergic reactions

Page 27: Anatomy  and  Physiology

Antibody Actions• Antibodies can react to antigens in three ways:

• Direct attack• Direct attack methods include agglutination,

precipitation, and neutralization of antigens.• Activation of complement

• This can produce inflammation or lysis in target cells or antigens.

• Stimulation of changes in areas that help prevent the spread of the pathogens.

Page 28: Anatomy  and  Physiology
Page 29: Anatomy  and  Physiology

Immune Responses• When B or T cells become activated the first time, their actions

constitute a primary immune response• This is when the cells acquire information about the pathogen

and the antigens it contains.• After this, some cells remain as memory cells.

• If the same antigen is encountered again, more numerous memory cells can mount a more rapid response, known as the secondary immune response.• The ability to produce a secondary immune response may be

long-lasting. • Immunity is gained in an Active or Passive manner.

• Active immunity involves actual infection with pathogen.• Allows body to produce its own antibodies.

• Passive immunity involves injection of actual antibodies.• Short lived

Page 30: Anatomy  and  Physiology
Page 31: Anatomy  and  Physiology

Allergic Reactions• Allergic reactions to allergens are excessive immune

responses that may lead to tissue damage.• Delayed-reaction allergy results from repeated exposure to

substances that cause inflammatory reactions in the skin.• Immediate-reaction allergy is an inherited ability to

overproduce IgE.• During allergic reactions, mast cells release histamine and

leukotrienes, producing a variety of effects.• Allergy mediators sometimes flood the body, resulting in

anaphylactic shock, a severe form of immediate reaction allergy.

Page 32: Anatomy  and  Physiology

HIV• HIV virus infects macrophages through special

receptors on the cell surface• Once virus is inside cell, it replicates and produces

thousands of copies of itself.• It then begins infecting the Helper T-Cells and they

begin to die at a rapid rate.• This affects B-Cell activation and thus antibody

production.• Eventually HIV begins binding to cytotoxic T-cells

• This lowers the body’s ability to patrol itself and prevent bacterial infections and cancers.

Page 33: Anatomy  and  Physiology