anaphylaxis inservice

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  • 1. Managing Allergies & Anaphylaxis At School Use of the EpiPen at school Punxsutawney Area School District
  • 2. Allergies occur when your immune system becomes unusually sensitive and overreacts to common substances such as pollen, mould, dust or food. When these substances cause an allergic reaction, they are called allergens.
  • 3. Allergens enter the body through: The Mouth The Nose Touch Injection
  • 4. Allergic reactions can occur in the:
    • upper respiratory system
    • lower respiratory system
    • skin
    • digestive system
    • as a generalized reaction called anaphylaxis
  • 5. Anaphylaxis is a sudden, severe, potentially life-threatening allergic reaction that may involve the skin, respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract and/or cardiovascular system.
  • 6. Common Causes of Anaphylaxis Food Medications Insect Venom Exercise Latex EpiPen
  • 7. Symptoms of An Anaphylactic Reaction
    • Symptoms usually occur within several minutes following contact with the allergen & proceed rapidly
    • The most distinctive symptoms include:
    • hives
    • swelling of the throat, lips, tongue or around the eyes
    • difficulty breathing or
    • swallowing
    • Hives may be entirely absent, especially in severe
    • or near-fatal cases of anaphylaxis.
  • 8. Symptoms of An Anaphylactic Reaction
    • Other common symptoms include:
    • a metallic taste or tingling in the mouth
    • flushing, itching, or redness of the skin
    • nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea
    • dizziness or lightheadedness
    • increased heart rate
    • feelings of fear or panic
    • loss of consciousness
  • 9. Remember It takes only 1 to 2 minutes for a mild allergic reaction to escalate to anaphylaxis
  • 10. When is anaphylaxis most likely to occur?
    • New situations
    • Normal daily routines are interrupted eg. birthday parties and school trips
    • During teenage years
    • (increasing independence,
    • relaxed precautions,
    • reluctance to carry
    • medication)
  • 11. Preventing Anaphylaxis
    • 1. Awareness
      • Know causes and triggers
      • Know emergency plan
    • 2. Avoidance
      • Do not let student come in contact with allergen
      • Check ingredients every time
        • if unsure, do not let student eat it
        • offer students an alternative choice in food
      • Do not let students share lunches, snacks, containers or utensils
      • Avoid bulk foods
      • Be aware of cross-contamination - wash surfaces with board approved solutions
    • 3. Action
      • Administer EpiPen & Call 911
  • 12. Have An Emergency Plan
    • A child with a life-threatening allergy should carry an EpiPen at all times.
    • An additional EpiPen(s) should be easily accessible
    • It is important to have one EpiPen available for every 10 -20 minutes
  • 13. What is an EpiPen?
    • An EpiPen is a disposable drug delivery system with a spring-activated, concealed needle designed for emergency administration.
    • EpiPens are available in 2 strengths:
      • EpiPen Jr Smaller amount of epinephrine
      • EpiPen Larger amount of epinephrine
  • 14. What is in an EpiPen?
    • EpiPens are an effective way to administer a drug called Epinephrine (Adrenaline)
    • Epinephrine by injection is the treatment of choice for anaphylactic reactions.
    • Epinephrine works quickly to:
      • constrict blood vessels
      • relax smooth muscles in the lungs to improve breathing
      • stimulate the heart beat
      • reverse hives and swelling around the face and lips.
    • Adrenalin may cause some tremor & increased heart rate, but does not have major adverse reaction
    • Play it safe. Administer the adrenalin. The child will not be harmed if it is not a genuine allergic reaction.
  • 15. Using an Epi-Pen
    • Grasp EpiPen with the black tip pointing down( 911 is being called at same time)
    • With your other hand
    • pull off the blue safety cap.
  • 16. Using an Epi-Pen
    • Hold the black tip near the outer thigh.
    • Swing and jab firmly into the outer thigh.
    • Hold firmly in thigh for approx. 10 seconds (Count to 10).
    • Remove Epi-Pen and massage injection area.
  • 17. After the Administration of the EpiPen
    • Seek emergency medical attention as EpiPen is being administered
    • If symptoms return or there is no improvement in 10-20 minutes a second dose may be required.
    • Side effects of Epinephrine include:
      • Nervousness
      • Increased heart rate
      • Sweating
      • Nausea / Vomiting
      • Headache
      • Dizziness
  • 18. Special Tips About Using EpiPens
    • If you suspect an anaphylactic emergency, administer the EpiPen and call 911
    • The effects of epinephrine when not needed:
      • Increased Heart Rate
      • Nervousness
    • The possible effect of not administering epinephrine in anaphylaxis:
      • Death
    • * Always seek medical attention
    • after the administration of an EpiPen
  • 19. Special Tips About Using EpiPens
    • Never put fingers over the black tip when removing the safety cap, or after the safety cap has been removed.
    • Periodically check the expiry date and condition of stored EpiPens.
    • Keep EpiPens at room temperature. Do not expose them to extreme cold, heat or direct sunlight.
    • Place the EpiPen on bare skin if possible. In an emergency, the EpiPen can be used directly through clothing.
  • 20. References
    • Anaphylaxis Canada
    • 416 Moore Ave., Suite 306, Toronto, Ontario
    • M4G 1C9 Telephone: 416-85-566
    • E-mail: [email_address]
    • www.gosafe.ca
    • Canadian School Boards Association
    • 130 Slater Street, Suite 350, Ottawa, Ontario
    • K1P 6E2 Telephone: 613-235-3724
    • E-mail: admin@cdsnsba.org
    • Allergy Asthma Information Association
    • (National Offic