Anaerobic respiration 2

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<ul><li>1.Anaerobic respiration<br />Respiration without oxygen<br /></li></ul> <p>2. 3. 2 different types of Respirationmake up all of Cellular Respiration<br />4. What happens if there is no available electron acceptor?<br />Glucose<br />2 ADP<br />2 NAD+<br />glycolysis<br />2 ATP<br />2 NADH<br />2 pyruvate <br />Aerobic respiration: The NADH then passes its high energy e- to the<br /> electron transport chain (becoming NAD+ again) and eventually to O2<br />Anaerobic respiration: Without O2, NADH has nowhere to donate its e- to, NAD+ cannot be regenerated, and glycolysis stops<br />5. Anaerobic respiration<br />With no oxygen oxidative phosphorylation and Krebs cycle cannot take place. (Cells without mitochondria cannot respire aerobically e.g. red blood cells)<br />In anaerobic respiration glycolysis takes place as usual yielding pyruvate and a small amount of ATP.<br />If pyruvate levels were allowed to build up it stop glycolysis and inhibit ATP production, also the reduced NAD produced must be oxidised back or else the cell would run out of it again stopping ATP production.<br />6. Process of Cellular Respiration<br />7. Anaerobic respiration<br />All living organisms break down sugars to get energy. In humans this breakdown usually occurs with oxygen.<br />8. 25<br />energy <br />C6H12O62C2H5OH + 2CO2<br /> glucose alcohol<br /> Anaerobic respiration can be represented by the equation<br />The energy released by anaerobic respiration is considerably <br />less than the energy from aerobic respiration. <br />Anaerobic respiration takes place at some stage in the cells <br />of most living organisms.<br />For example, our own muscles resort to anaerobic respiration when oxygen is not delivered to them fast enough.<br />9. Micro-organisms<br />26<br />Anaerobic respiration is widely used by many micro-organisms<br />such as bacteria and yeasts.<br />Bacteria and yeasts are microscopic single-celled organisms.<br />Bacteria are to be found everywhere, in or on organisms,<br />in water, air and soil <br />Yeasts are usually found in close association with vegetable matter such as fruit<br />10. 1. In Muscle Cells - During extraneous<br />activities, the oxygen in the muscle tissue is<br />decreased to an extent that aerobic<br />respiration does not occur at a sufficient<br />rate. Hence, there is a buildup of lactic acid<br />and your muscles get tired<br />2. In Yeast - The fermentation end product is<br />ethyl alcohol, and CO2<br />11. Anaerobic respiration<br />glucose<br />Producing ethanol from pyruvate regenerates oxidised NAD and allows glycolysis to continue<br />triosephosphate<br />oxidised<br />NAD<br />reduced<br />NAD<br />pyruvate<br />reducedoxidised<br />NADNAD<br />ethanal ethanol<br />alcohol dehydrogenase<br />12. Anaerobic respiration<br />glucose<br />Producing lactate from pyruvate regenerates oxidised NAD and allows glycolysis to continue<br />triosephosphate<br />oxidised<br />NAD<br />reduced<br />NAD<br />pyruvate<br />reducedoxidised<br />NADNAD<br /> lactate<br />lactate<br />dehydrogenase<br />13. Anaerobic respiration<br />First CO2 is removed from pyruvate to produce ethanal.<br />Alcohol dehydrogenase converts ethanal to ethanol by adding hydrogen taken from reduced NAD. <br />Process used by humans for many thousands of years to produced risen breads and alcohol for drinking.<br />14. Anaerobic Respiration refers to the<br />oxidation of molecules in the<br />absence of oxygen to produce energy<br />It is also known<br />As Fermentation<br />15. Anaerobic fermentation<br />Fermentation: An alternative set of reactions that can follow glycolysis in the absence of oxygen as a final electron acceptor. <br />Extremely inefficient: no Krebs cycle, no ETC.Glycolysis produces a net of 2 ATPs per glucose molecule<br />16. FERMENTATION PATHWAYS ALLOWS CELLS TO REGENERATE NAD+FOR GLYCOLSIS<br />Fermentation<br />by-product<br />Intermediate accepts <br />electrons from NADH<br />2 NAD+<br />2 NADH<br />2 <br />Pyruvate<br />Glucose<br />2 ATP<br />2 ADP<br />17. 2 types of fermentation <br />Fermentation <br />Lactic Acid Fermentation<br />Alcohol Fermentation<br />18. 2 types of fermentation <br />19. LACTIC ACID FERMENTATION OCCURS IN HUMANS<br />Pyruvate accepts <br />electrons from NADH<br />2 NAD+<br />2 Lactate<br />2 NADH<br />Glucose<br />2 ATP<br />2 ADP<br />2 Pyruvate<br />20. ALCOHOL FERMENTATION OCCURS IN YEAST<br />2 CO2<br />2 Acetylaldehyde<br />2 Ethanol<br />2 NAD+<br />2 NADH<br />Glucose<br />2 ATP<br />2 ADP<br />2 Pyruvate<br /></p>


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