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Eawag berlandstrasse 133 Postfach 611 8600 Dbendorf Schweiz Telefon +41 (0)44 823 55 11 Telefax +41 (0)44 823 50 28 www.eawag.ch

Anaerobic Digestion of Biodegradable Solid Waste in Low- and Middle-Income CountriesOverview over existing technologies and relevant case studiesChristian Mller Dbendorf, May 2007

Table of ContentsAbbreviations ...........................................................................................................................4 Summary ..................................................................................................................................5 Introduction ..............................................................................................................................6 SWM Concerns in Low- and Middle Income Countries........................................................6 Approach Composting and Anaerobic Digestion..................................................................6 Objectives ................................................................................................................................7 Methodology.............................................................................................................................7 Anaerobic Digestion of Biodegradable Solid Waste.................................................................8 Historical background...........................................................................................................8 Technical aspects.................................................................................................................9 Economic aspects ..............................................................................................................11 Social aspects ....................................................................................................................12 Assessment of Anaerobic Digesters for Biodegradable Solid Waste in Developing Countries .........................................................................................................13 Situation in India.....................................................................................................................13 The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI), New Delhi ....................................................14 Centre for Sustainable Technologies (formerly ASTRA Centre), Bangalore......................16 Appropriate Rural Technology Institute (ARTI), Pune ........................................................20 Sardar Patel Renewable Energy Research Institute (SPRERI) .........................................23 Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Mumbai...........................................................25 BIOTECH, Trivandrum .......................................................................................................29 Mailhem Engineering Pvt Ldt. / GIT Associates, Pune.......................................................31 Renewable Energy Centre Mithradham / BME BiomasseEnergie GmbH..........................34 Situation in Sri Lanka .............................................................................................................36 National Engineering Research Development Centre (NERD) ..........................................36 Situation in China ...................................................................................................................39 Shenzhen Puxin Science & Technology Co. Ltd................................................................39 Situation in Thailand...............................................................................................................43 Asian Institute of Technology (AIT) ....................................................................................43 International Office of Technical Assistance (Thailand) Ltd. ..............................................45 Situation in South-Africa.........................................................................................................46 University of KwaZulu-Natal ...............................................................................................46 AR Process Projects (Pty) Ldt............................................................................................46 Situation in Kenya ..................................................................................................................47 JuaNguvu Ldt. ....................................................................................................................47 Situation in Nepal ...................................................................................................................48 Sustainable Agriculture Development Program (SADP) ....................................................48

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Assessment of Biogas Projects for Agricultural Applications in Low- and Middle-Income Countries ................................................................................................................................49 Lesotho...............................................................................................................................49 Rwanda ..............................................................................................................................49 Republic of Benin ...............................................................................................................50 Shonghai Centre.................................................................................................................50 Ghana.................................................................................................................................50 India....................................................................................................................................50 Nepal ..................................................................................................................................50 Thailand..............................................................................................................................51 Columbia ............................................................................................................................51 Costa Rica ..........................................................................................................................51 Honduras ............................................................................................................................51 Assessment of Biogas Projects treating Organic Solid Waste in Industrial Countries ................................................................................................................52 Batch Dry Fermentation Systems: Bioferm GmbH and Bekon GmbH ...............................52 Conclusions............................................................................................................................56 Response to the research questions ..................................................................................56 State-of-the-art of anaerobic digestion ...............................................................................56 Anaerobic digestion in low- and middle income countries..................................................57 Promising low-tech AD technologies for organic solid waste treatment .............................59 Outlook ...................................................................................................................................60 References .............................................................................................................................61 Annex: Institutions and Researchers......................................................................................63

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AbbreviationsAD AIT ARTI ASTRA BARC BMW CDM COD FSTP GTZ IISc LPG MBT MSW NARI OMSW PFR SPRERI SS SSB SWM TERI TEAM TIDE UASB USW VFA Anaerobic digestion Asian Institute of Technology (Thailand) Appropriate Rural Technology Institute (India) Centre for Application of Science and Technology to Rural Areas (India) Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (India) Bioorganic municipal waste Clean Development Mechanism Chemical Oxygen Demand Faecal Sludge Treatment Plant Gesellschaft fr Technische Zusammenarbeit Indian Institute of Science Liquified petroleum gas Mechanical biological treatment Municipal Solid Waste Nimbkar Agricultural Research Institute (India) Organic Municipal Solid Waste Plug Flow Reactor Sardar Patel Renewable Energy Research Institute (India) Sewage Sludge Solid-state Stratified Bed Solid Waste Management The Energy and Resources Institute (India) TERI enhanced acidification and methanation Technology Informatics Design Endeavour (India) Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (reactor) Urban Solid Waste Volatile Fatty Acids

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SummaryIn many cities in developing countries, the most serious environmental and health problems are related with inadequate solid waste management (SWM). Urbanization or an increase in population, respectively, leads to increased waste generation in urban areas. Most problems are strongly related to inappropriate treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OMSW). Composting and anaerobic digestion (AD) are seen as the most favored options to deal with OMSW. Both treatment options reduce the environmental burden and enable the generation of a nutrient rich fertilizer. Furthermore, in the case of AD energy in form of biogas is produced. Nowadays, energy is scarce and its production out of biodegradable waste is willingly seen. Thus, AD is attaining more relevance in SWM. Anaerobic digestion of OMSW is commonly and successfully used in industrial countries. In some developing countries, such as China, India and Nepal AD already has a long tradition, but is almost exclusively used in rural areas mainly for the treatment of