Anaerobic Digestion Low Resolution

Download Anaerobic Digestion Low Resolution

Post on 02-Nov-2014

39 views

Category:

Documents

5 download

Embed Size (px)

DESCRIPTION

Anaerobic Digestion Low Resolution

TRANSCRIPT

<p>Eawag berlandstrasse 133 Postfach 611 8600 Dbendorf Schweiz Telefon +41 (0)44 823 55 11 Telefax +41 (0)44 823 50 28 www.eawag.ch</p> <p>Anaerobic Digestion of Biodegradable Solid Waste in Low- and Middle-Income CountriesOverview over existing technologies and relevant case studiesChristian Mller Dbendorf, May 2007</p> <p>Table of ContentsAbbreviations ...........................................................................................................................4 Summary ..................................................................................................................................5 Introduction ..............................................................................................................................6 SWM Concerns in Low- and Middle Income Countries........................................................6 Approach Composting and Anaerobic Digestion..................................................................6 Objectives ................................................................................................................................7 Methodology.............................................................................................................................7 Anaerobic Digestion of Biodegradable Solid Waste.................................................................8 Historical background...........................................................................................................8 Technical aspects.................................................................................................................9 Economic aspects ..............................................................................................................11 Social aspects ....................................................................................................................12 Assessment of Anaerobic Digesters for Biodegradable Solid Waste in Developing Countries .........................................................................................................13 Situation in India.....................................................................................................................13 The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI), New Delhi ....................................................14 Centre for Sustainable Technologies (formerly ASTRA Centre), Bangalore......................16 Appropriate Rural Technology Institute (ARTI), Pune ........................................................20 Sardar Patel Renewable Energy Research Institute (SPRERI) .........................................23 Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Mumbai...........................................................25 BIOTECH, Trivandrum .......................................................................................................29 Mailhem Engineering Pvt Ldt. / GIT Associates, Pune.......................................................31 Renewable Energy Centre Mithradham / BME BiomasseEnergie GmbH..........................34 Situation in Sri Lanka .............................................................................................................36 National Engineering Research Development Centre (NERD) ..........................................36 Situation in China ...................................................................................................................39 Shenzhen Puxin Science &amp; Technology Co. Ltd................................................................39 Situation in Thailand...............................................................................................................43 Asian Institute of Technology (AIT) ....................................................................................43 International Office of Technical Assistance (Thailand) Ltd. ..............................................45 Situation in South-Africa.........................................................................................................46 University of KwaZulu-Natal ...............................................................................................46 AR Process Projects (Pty) Ldt............................................................................................46 Situation in Kenya ..................................................................................................................47 JuaNguvu Ldt. ....................................................................................................................47 Situation in Nepal ...................................................................................................................48 Sustainable Agriculture Development Program (SADP) ....................................................48</p> <p>2/63</p> <p>Assessment of Biogas Projects for Agricultural Applications in Low- and Middle-Income Countries ................................................................................................................................49 Lesotho...............................................................................................................................49 Rwanda ..............................................................................................................................49 Republic of Benin ...............................................................................................................50 Shonghai Centre.................................................................................................................50 Ghana.................................................................................................................................50 India....................................................................................................................................50 Nepal ..................................................................................................................................50 Thailand..............................................................................................................................51 Columbia ............................................................................................................................51 Costa Rica ..........................................................................................................................51 Honduras ............................................................................................................................51 Assessment of Biogas Projects treating Organic Solid Waste in Industrial Countries ................................................................................................................52 Batch Dry Fermentation Systems: Bioferm GmbH and Bekon GmbH ...............................52 Conclusions............................................................................................................................56 Response to the research questions ..................................................................................56 State-of-the-art of anaerobic digestion ...............................................................................56 Anaerobic digestion in low- and middle income countries..................................................57 Promising low-tech AD technologies for organic solid waste treatment .............................59 Outlook ...................................................................................................................................60 References .............................................................................................................................61 Annex: Institutions and Researchers......................................................................................63</p> <p>3/63</p> <p>AbbreviationsAD AIT ARTI ASTRA BARC BMW CDM COD FSTP GTZ IISc LPG MBT MSW NARI OMSW PFR SPRERI SS SSB SWM TERI TEAM TIDE UASB USW VFA Anaerobic digestion Asian Institute of Technology (Thailand) Appropriate Rural Technology Institute (India) Centre for Application of Science and Technology to Rural Areas (India) Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (India) Bioorganic municipal waste Clean Development Mechanism Chemical Oxygen Demand Faecal Sludge Treatment Plant Gesellschaft fr Technische Zusammenarbeit Indian Institute of Science Liquified petroleum gas Mechanical biological treatment Municipal Solid Waste Nimbkar Agricultural Research Institute (India) Organic Municipal Solid Waste Plug Flow Reactor Sardar Patel Renewable Energy Research Institute (India) Sewage Sludge Solid-state Stratified Bed Solid Waste Management The Energy and Resources Institute (India) TERI enhanced acidification and methanation Technology Informatics Design Endeavour (India) Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (reactor) Urban Solid Waste Volatile Fatty Acids</p> <p>4/63</p> <p>SummaryIn many cities in developing countries, the most serious environmental and health problems are related with inadequate solid waste management (SWM). Urbanization or an increase in population, respectively, leads to increased waste generation in urban areas. Most problems are strongly related to inappropriate treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OMSW). Composting and anaerobic digestion (AD) are seen as the most favored options to deal with OMSW. Both treatment options reduce the environmental burden and enable the generation of a nutrient rich fertilizer. Furthermore, in the case of AD energy in form of biogas is produced. Nowadays, energy is scarce and its production out of biodegradable waste is willingly seen. Thus, AD is attaining more relevance in SWM. Anaerobic digestion of OMSW is commonly and successfully used in industrial countries. In some developing countries, such as China, India and Nepal AD already has a long tradition, but is almost exclusively used in rural areas mainly for the treatment of animal feces. Biomethanation of organic solid waste is considered as an issue that has only come up in the recent past. Various low-tech digesters have been developed in order to treat biodegradable solid waste. But information about the status-quo in that field is still missing. Thus, Sandec, the Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries at the Swiss Federal Institute for Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag), was conducting a research on biomethanation of biodegradable solid waste in low- and middle-income countries. The study was focused on case studies of currently working biogas plants that produce biogas mainly out of solid waste, such as kitchen waste, market waste etc. and was mainly based on an internet research and e-mail correspondence. The research revealed that mainly India and China have been making efforts to develop AD technologies applicable for organic solid waste treatment. Various institutes and NGOs have been trying to establish such kind of anaerobic digesters for the SWM on household, institutional or municipal level. Most of the anaerobic digesters implemented did or do not work properly. Many projects in that field failed, not only due to technical reasons, but also as operation and management has been done inadequately. Nevertheless there are successful projects mainly related to a few types of technologies. Based on this research the technologies being the most promising in the field of low-tech AD of biodegradable waste are BARC (developed by the Bhabha Atomic Research Institute, Mumbai), ARTI (Appropriate Rural Technology Institute, Pune), BIOTECH and Mailhem Engineering PVT Ltd, all of them located in India. Regardless of type of low-tech digester research needs to be continued in order to enable AD to be a successful and sustainable MSW treatment option in developing countries.</p> <p>5/63</p> <p>IntroductionSWM Concerns in Low- and Middle Income Countries In many cities in developing countries, the most serious environmental and health problems are related with inadequate solid waste management (SWM). Urbanization or an increase in population, respectively, leads to increased waste generation in urban areas. The service provided by municipal institutions and private companies is not keeping pace with the amount of waste generated. Several problems are due to the disposal of organic waste into still commonly used open dumps. The waste, mainly organic waste, dumped in open places causes heavy environmental pollution to soil, groundwater and surface waters (Veeken A., Hamminga P. et al., year unknown (after 2005)). Approach Composting and Anaerobic Digestion In order to tackle these problems the disposal of organic material needs to be avoided (as already done in some industrial countries). Aiming at sustainable development the organic waste as a source of nutrients and energy has to be reused. Nowadays, composting and anaerobic digestion (AD) are seen as the most favored options to deal with organic solid waste. Both treatment options reduce the environmental burden and enable the generation of a nutrient rich fertilizer. Furthermore, in the case of AD energy in form of biogas is produced. Nowadays, energy is scarce and their production out of biodegradable waste is willingly seen. Thus, AD is attaining more relevance in SWM sector. In the past, this approach was rarely considered as a feasible and sustainable solution for the SWM in developing countries. Only in industrial countries (especially Europe), as well as in China and India biogas production out of SW has become more and more popular. In some European countries political and economic frameworks changed so that biogas production became economically advantageous for agricultural and industrial applications. New systems have been developed and successfully implemented, also in the field of MSW. In many low- and middle-income countries, AD has been applied using manure or faecal sludge as main feedstock material. Especially in India, China and Nepal millions of biogas plants have been installed, but mainly in rural areas. The extraction of biogas out of solid waste is considered as an issue that has only come up in the recent past. Various low-tech digesters have been developed in order to treat biodegradable solid waste. But Information about the state-of-the-art of these digesters is scarce. Thus, Sandec, the Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries at the Swiss Federal Institute for Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag), was conducting a research on biomethanation of biodegradable solid waste in low- and middle-income countries. The research was focused on case studies of currently working biogas plants that produce biogas mainly out of solid waste, such as kitchen waste (food waste), market waste, coffee pulp (agricultural waste) etc. This report summarizes the case studies found. It gives an overview about existing biogas projects in the field of SWM in low- and middle-income countries. Besides that some other projects in context with...</p>