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AN ANALYSIS OF IMPOLITENESS STRATEGIES IN FILM THE FAULT IN OUR STARS FILM A Thesis Submitted to Letters and Humanity Faculty In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Strata One RENITA ROSA 1110026000012 ENGLISH LETTERS DEPARTMENT LETTERS AND HUMANITIES FACULTY STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY SYARIF HIDAYATULLAH JAKARTA 2017

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  • AN ANALYSIS OF IMPOLITENESS STRATEGIES

    IN FILM THE FAULT IN OUR STARS FILM

    A Thesis

    Submitted to Letters and Humanity Faculty

    In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Strata One

    RENITA ROSA

    1110026000012

    ENGLISH LETTERS DEPARTMENT

    LETTERS AND HUMANITIES FACULTY

    STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY SYARIF HIDAYATULLAH

    JAKARTA

    2017

  • i

    ABSTRACT

    Renita Rosa, An Analysis of Impoliteness Stretegies in the Film the Fault in Our Stars Film. Thesis:

    English Letters Department, Letters and Humanities Faculty, State Islamic University Syarif

    Hidayatullah Jakarta, August 2016.

    Impoliteness strategies are used to create social disruption in the closed social-distance

    among speaker and hearer. This research endeavors to analyze kinds of the impoliteness strategies

    that occur in the film The Fault in Our Stars film, to classify the type of counter strategies used in

    film, and to analyze the relation between power level difference and the choice of strategies.

    Using Jonathan Culpeper theory in Impoliteness, the writers knows that the choices of the

    strategies in some cases are different from the notion given that participant with lower power level

    shouldnt perform impoliteness strategies. It was found too that some characters used the strategies

    as the notion explained. The strategies and the notion were compatible each other. Here, power

    level did not really influence the choice of impoliteness strategies.

    To sum up, the impoliteness strategies is not a static matter in communication that is used

    to create social disruption, but depends on the speaker and the hearer consideration and goals.

    Furthermore, many factor influenced the use of impoliteness strategies in communication although

    the power difference of the speaker and the hearer is evident

    Keywords: Pragmatics, Impoliteness, Jonathan Culpeper, Politeness, Brown and Levinson,

    communication strategies.

  • ii

    APPROVEMENT

    AN ANALYSIS OF IMPOLITENESS STRATEGIES

    IN THE FILM THE FAULT IN OUR STARS

    A Thesis

    Submitted to Letters and Humanities Faculty

    In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for

    The Degree of Strata One

    RENITA ROSA

    NIM. 1110026000012

    Approved by

    Advisor 1 Advisor 2

    Hilmi,M.Hum Rima Muryantina, S.Hum., M.ling.

    19760918 100801 1 009

    ENGLISH LETTERS DEPARTMENT

    LETTERS AND HUMANITIES FACULTY

    STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY SYARIF HIDAYATULLAH

    JAKARTA

    2017

  • iii

    LEGALIZATION

    Name : Renita Rosa

    NIM : 1110026000012

    Title : An Analysis of Impoliteness Stretegies in the Transcript of the Fault in Our Stars

    Film.

    The thesis entitled above has been defended before the Letters and Humanities Facultys

    Examination Committee on {April 12th, 2017}. It has been accepted as a partial fulfillment of the

    requirements for the degree of strata one.

    Jakarta, April 12th, 2017

    Examination Committee

    Signature Date

    1. Drs. Saefudin, M.Pd. 19640710 199303 1 006

    (Chair Person) ________ ________

    2. Elve Oktafiyani, M.Hum.

    19781003 200112 2 002

    (Secretary) ________ ________

    3. Hilmi, M.Hum. 19760918 200801 1 009

    (Advisor I) ________ ________

    4. Rima Muryantina,S.Hum., M.Ling.

    5. Dr. H. Muhammad Farkhan, M.Pd. 19650919 200003 1 002

    (Advisor II) ________ ________

    6. Drs. Saefudin, M.Pd. 19640710 199303 1 006

    (Examiner II) ________ ________

    (Examiner I)

  • iv

    DECLARATION

    I hereby declare that this submission is my own words and that, to the best of my knowledge

    and belief. It contains no material previously published or written by another person nor material

    which to a substantial extent has been accepted for the award of any other degree or diploma of

    the university or other institute of higher learning, except where due acknowledgment has been

    made in the text.

    Jakarta, 12 Aprilth 2017

    Renita Rosa

  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT

    In the Name of Allah; the Merciful, the Compassionate. Pray, O Allah, for our Lord Muhammad

    and his Family and the Men around him.

    The present study never be completed without any helps, supports, advices, and

    encouragements from many parties. The writer would like to express her honor for people in

    department who gave massive helps in finishing this thesis, they are:

    1. Mr. Prof. Dr. Sukron Kamil, M.Ag, as the Dean of Adab and Humanities Faculty, State

    Islamic University Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta.

    2. Mr. Drs. Saefudin, M.Pd, as the Head of English Letters Department.

    3. Mrs. Elve Oktafiani, M.Hum, as the Secretary of English Letters Department.

    4. Mr. Hilmi, M.Hum and Ms. Rima Muryantina, S.Hum., M.Ling., as,the smartest and

    kindest advisor. With their provisions, it is an ease to do this work.

    5. All the lectures who sincerely (learned with and) taught the writer from the first semester

    until she accomplished the study.

    6. All the staff of English Letters Department, especially the kind-hearted Ka Jess.

    The utmost gratitude goes to the writers parents Wilda Binti Sanusi and Sutan Panduko

    Sati who always pray and believe for the writers success.. Although this thesis is none of perfect

    but it is especially dedicated to them, hopefully it will make both of them proud. Special

    appreciation and love to Melia Rizka and Dedi Surya; the writers best siblings all over the world.

  • Throughout all the ups and downs in finishing the undergraduate study, they are always there to

    give support in their special way. Love you to the moon and back, sis and bro.

    Warmest hug to the craziest best friend; Nisa Fitria Ansori, Inas Ghina, Asri Sukowati,

    Saidah Turrahmah, Dewi Afrianti. To lovely friends: Nuriz Maya Mufti, Hafidzha Adha, Ujang

    Juhari, Ilham Putra, Fiky Firmansyah and Rifky Nugraha. Thank you so much for paying a lot of

    attention to the writer, experiences we had together are perfectly divine memory that she will never

    forget.

    The writers appreciation also goes to all friends in Elbie Family, KKN Carano Syahid,

    Linguistics A class, RATLABindo, IRMAFA, GYPSY Volunteer, KSR PMI UIN, and other who

    cant be mentioned one by one. The writers will always remember all of them, thank you for the

    priceless experiences.

  • vii

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    ABSTRACT.......... i

    APPROVEMENT... iii

    LEGALIZATION iv

    DECLARATION.. v

    ACKNOWLEDGMENT.... vi

    LIST OF FIGURES viii

    LIST OF TABLES ix

    TABLE OF CONTENTS.......... x

    CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION... 1

    A. Background of The Study... 1

    B. Focus of The Study. 5

    C. Research Questions. 5

    D. Objective of The Study...... 6

    E. Significance of the Study.... 6

    F. Research Methodology.. 7

    a. Method of The Study ... 7

    b. Technique of Collecting Data and Data Analysis ...... 7

  • viii

    c. Instrument of the research..... 8

    d. Unit of Analysis. 9

    CHAPTER II THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK... 10

    A. Previous Research. 10

    B. The Concept of pragmatics and Discourse Analysis..... 14

    C. The Concept of Context in Pragmatics and Discourse,

    and its Relation to Impoliteness ...... 15

    D. The Concept of Face in Politeness and

    Impoliteness Theory ............ 17

    E. Types of Politeness and Impoliteness Theory........... 18

    1. Brown and Levinson Politeness Theory....... 18

    2. Politeness

    Strategies............. 19

    2.a. Bald on record politeness.......... 19

    2.b. Offrecord....... 19

    2.c. Positive politeness..

    20

    2.d. Negative Politeness.... 20

    3. Jonathan Culpeper Impoliteness Strategy.... 20

    4. The Impoliteness Strategy..... 21

    4.a. Bald on record impoliteness...... 22

  • ix

    4.b. Positive Impoliteness ...... 23

    4.b.1. Ignore, snub the other..... 23

    4.b.2 Disassociate from other . 23

    4.b.3 Be disinterest, unconcerned,

    and unsympathetic..... 24

    4.b.4. Use inappropriate identity

    marker ........... 24

    4.b.5 Use obscure or secretive Language.... 25

    4.b.6 Seek Disagreement..... 25

    4.b.7 Make the other feel uncomfortable... 26

    4.b.8. Use taboo words..... 26

    4.b.7. Call the other names....... 26

    4.c. Negative Impol iteness. 27

    4.c.1 Frighten.. 27

    4.c.2 Condescend, scorn, ridicule .. 27

    4.c.3. Invade the others space .... 27

    4.c.4. Explicity associate the other with

    a negative aspect.... 27

    4.c.5. Put the other indebtness in record...... 27

    4.d. Off record Impoliteness..... 27

    4.e Withold Impoliteness ........ 28

    4.f. Sarcasm or mock politeness ...... 28

  • x

    5. The strategies to Counter the Face Attack ...... 28

    5.a. Offensive Encounter Strategies...... 29

    5.a.1 Escalation......... 29

    5.a.2. Repetition....... 29

    5.b. Defensive encounter strategies........ 29

    5.b.1 Inversion........ 29

    5.b.2. Abrogation.... 30

    5.b.3. Opt out record.... 30

    5.b.4 Insincere Agreement......... 30

    5.b.5 Ignore the implied face attack... 31

    F. Social Distance Scale and the Choice of

    Impoliteness Strategy.... 31

    CHAPTER III RESEARCH FINDINGS... 33

    A. Data Description... 33

    B. Data Analysis 40

    1. Datum 1... 40

    2. Datum 2.... 42

    3. Datum 3 ......... 44

    4. Datum 4... 47

    5. Datum 5........ 48

    6. Datum 6 49

  • xi

    7. Datum 7 51

    8. Datum 8.... 53

    9. Datum 9.... 55

    10. Datum 10 . 56

    11. Datum 11 . 57

    CHAPTER IV CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS. 59

    A. Conclusions... 59

    B. Suggestions... 60

    BIBLIOGRAPHY... 61

    APPENDICES. 64

  • xii

  • 1

    CHAPTER 1

    INTRODUCTION

    A. Background of the Study

    Communication through languages can not be separated with many rules.

    The concept of politeness is one of many communication rules which is existed

    universal in all society. Everyone who communicates ideally pays attention to

    politeness when he is speaking. Politeness is a border to make both speaker and

    hearer comfortable with one another in order to keep the social relationship well. In

    Pragmatics, politeness means affability in utterance (linguistic action) when

    conveying the communication to express the relational function.1

    A number of scholars have carried out research on linguistic politeness in a

    wide range of culture. According to Goffman, the speaker and the addressee should

    feel as member of a same society whose wants and personality traits are known and

    liked, so that the positive image can be realized.2 Brown and Levinson propose

    politeness principles as conflict avoidance; it is the strategy to maintain public self-

    image when the public self-image attack happens, the public self-image then known

    as term face.3

    Brown Levinsons theory of politeness first appeared in 1978. Their theory

    of Politeness is certainly the most influential since it has witnessed innumerable

    1 George Yule. Pragmatics. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996). p. 60.

    2Erving Goffman, Interaction Ritual: Essay on Face-to-face Behaviour (New York:

    Anchor Book, 1967), p.5.

    3 Penelope Brown and Stephen C. Levinson, Politeness: Some Universals in Language

    Usage. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987), p. 61 et seq.

  • 2

    reactions, applications, critiques, modifications, and revision. The names of Brown

    and Levinson have become almost synonymous with the word politeness as it is

    impossible to talk about politeness without referring to them. They see politeness

    in terms of conflict avoidance; thus, politeness makes possible communication

    between potentially aggressive parties.4

    While hardly we do maintain the face we may trip over of politeness

    inversion, because not all of people pay attention of the politeness principle

    whenever they are speaking. There are, however, still other times in which people

    consciously making an impolite remark to attack face, later the strategy known as

    linguistic impoliteness.5 Impoliteness can be said as an extension of Brown and

    Levinsons theory of politeness; they write that it is intuitively the case that certain

    kinds of acts intrinsically threaten face.6

    The first scholar to mention when talking about impoliteness is Jonathan

    Culpeper (1996). He uses the term impoliteness to refer communicative strategies

    designed to attack face, and thereby cause social conflict and disharmony. 7

    Another scholar is Bousfield who claimed that impoliteness is not seen as failed

    politeness but strategy to attack face. It is the reason why impoliteness has become

    increasingly popular object of study in recent years. Locher and Bousfield define

    impoliteness as behavior that is aggravating in particular context. To account for

    the aspect of impoliteness, Culpeper proposes an impoliteness framework which is

    4 Ibid. p. 5.

    5 Richard J Watt, Politeness: Key Topics in Sociolinguistics, (Cambridge: Cambridge

    University Press, 2003), p. 5.

    6Penelope Brown and Stephen C. Levinson, op. cit., p. 65.

    7 Jonathan Culpeper, Toward an Anatomy of Impoliteness, in Journal of Pragmatics,

    vol. 25 (Oxford: Elsevier, 1996), p. 349.

  • 3

    parallel but opposite to Brown and Levinsons theory of politeness.8 Thus, the key

    difference between politeness and impoliteness is a matter of intention: whether it

    is the speakers intention to support face (politeness) or to attack face

    (impoliteness).9 In summary, in particular contexts, certain impoliteness activity is

    not regarded as marginal activity but actually an essential part of communication

    process.

    Linguistic impoliteness has not received closely as much attention as

    linguistic politeness, in Journal of Pragmatics only few of scholars have carried out

    research on it. On the other hand, there are amount of individual journal papers

    about politeness are written by renowned researcher such as in 1990 Bruce Fraser

    wrote Perspective on Politeness10, in 2003 Geoffrey Leech wrote Toward an

    Anatomy of Politeness in Communication,11 in 2004 Miriam A. Locher wrote Power

    and Politeness in Action: Disagreement in Oral Communication12. Fortunately,

    several well-known scholars have begun diminished the imbalance since the

    beginning of 20th century. Jonathan Culpeper started in 1996 wrote Toward an

    Anatomy of Impolitenesse13, in 2003 he together with Dereck Bousfield and Anne

    8 Derreck Bousfield, Impoliteness in Interaction, (Amsterdam: John Benjamins

    Publishing Co., 2008)., p.2.

    9 Jonathan Culpeper, (Im) Politeness in Dramatic Dialogue in Exploring the Language

    of Drama: From Text to Context eds. Jonathan Culpeper, M. Short, and P. Verdonk, (London and

    New York: Routledge, 1998), p. 86.

    10 Bruce Fraser, Perspective on Politeness in Journal of Pragmatics 14 (Oxford:

    Elsevier, 1990), p. 219-236.

    11 Jonathan Culpeper, Toward an Anatomy of Impoliteness in International Journal of

    Pragmatics 14 (Oxford: Elsevier, 2003), pp. 101-123.

    12 Miriam A. Locher, Power and Politeness in Action: Disagreement in Oral

    Communication (Berlin, Mouton De Gruyer, 2004)

    13 Jonathan Culpeper (1996), op. cit., pp. 349-367.

  • 4

    Wichmann wrote Impoliteness revisited: With special reference to dynamic and

    prosodic aspects.14

    This study established because the impolite behavior in communication is

    more likely to be commented and judged by wide range of culture, the judgment

    often refers impoliteness as rudeness, abusive language or aggravating language

    whereas none of that term is the notion of impoliteness.15 Moreover, this study is

    contributed to increase the number of research in linguistic impoliteness although

    there are other studies about linguistic impoliteness but still the amount of research

    on linguistic impoliteness lesser than linguistic politeness. Last but not the least, it

    is expected could add some understanding for linguistic student who wants to learn

    linguistic impoliteness.

    Film is chosen as the object of the study because it can reflect the linguistic

    phenomena in general. There are many conflictive conversations in the film which

    trigger the threats of the face. This film tells about Hazel Grace Lancester, an

    intelligent girl who has terminal thyroid cancer that spread to her lungs and

    Augustus Waters who has lost a leg from bone cancer. Those characters were

    discredited by their families and friends because they suffer cancer.

    In communication, both of characters above communicate with utterances

    and/or expressions which are implicitly licensed to attack the addressee face only

    because they are cancer patients. The situation makes them emotionally intractable.

    14 Jonathan Culpeper, Derek Bousfield, and Anne Wichman, Impoliteness revisited:

    With Special Reference to Dynamic and Prosodic Aspects in Journal of Pragmatic 35 (London:

    Elsevier, 2003), p. 1545.

    15 Ibid. p. 38.

  • 5

    Although they were seriously ill, but there are some times they frustrated with their

    family and snap them all.

    The climax of the film started when they frustrated with an abrupt novel

    ending and wanted to ask about it personally to the author. The situation

    unexpectedly worsens when they intentionally flew from the USA to Netherland to

    have direct explanation from the author yet they were shocked to find the author is

    a mean-spirited alcoholic.

    Film the Fault from Our Stars is a film based on novel of the same title; the

    Fault in Our Stars and the corpus of this research use transcript of the film.

    Transcript is one of discourse forms; therefore the analysis of this research

    performed using discourse analysis with pragmatic approach. 16 Furthermore, one

    of purposes of this research is to analyze the unity, meaning and purpose of the

    transcript. Referring to Joan Cutting, both of discourse analysis and pragmatics

    study the meaning in context about how the interaction creates more information

    than the word use in communication.17

    B. Focus of the Study

    The study is limited to pragmatic analysis of impoliteness communicative

    strategies on struggle for authority, which is applied in the main characters dialogue

    with other characters film transcript entitled The Fault in Our Stars.

    C. Research Question

    16 David Nunan, Introducing Discorse Analysis, (London: Penguin Book, 1993), p. 7. 17 Joan Cutting, Pragmatics and Discourse: A Resource Book for Students, (Florence:

    Rouledge, 2002), p. 1.

  • 6

    According to background of the study, the research questions are formulated

    as follows:

    1. What impoliteness strategies that are used by characters in film The

    Fault in Our Stars?

    2. What encounter strategies used to respond the impoliteness strategies?

    3. How power level difference affects the using of impoliteness strategies

    in the film The Fault in Our Stars?

    D. Significances of the Study

    This research is expected to be beneficial in enriching an insight about

    impoliteness concept in the approaches of pragmatics. It is also expected to be

    useful in providing better understanding that there are different ways to use the

    impoliteness strategy or the encounter strategy specifically in the Fault in Our Stars

    film, so the audience will appreciate the movie in diverse perspective. It also

    expected to be beneficial in enriching the perceptivity that the social distance and

    the emotional closeness can influence the use of the encounter strategy.

    E. Research Methodology

    1. Objective of the Study

    The research objectives are stated as follow:

    1. To analyze the types of the impoliteness strategy used by characters in

    The Fault in Our Stars film.

    2. To analyze variety encountered strategies used by hearer to respond

    impoliteness strategies used by speaker in the film.

  • 7

    To analyze how the main characters power affects the using of

    impoliteness strategies in The Fault in Our Stars.

    2. Method of the Study

    This research is qualitative research. Qualitative research is relied

    on verbal and non-numerical data as the basis of analysis and solving the

    problem appears.18 Qualitative research is descriptive, the writer

    meticulously the data in the from of words, in this case is the film

    transcript.19 This study is the description of impoliteness strategies in The

    Fault in Our Stars film transcript, to get understanding and deep

    information without any statistical equipment on how impoliteness and

    closeness are interact in the transcript.

    3. Technique of Data Collecting and Data Analysis

    The writer is the primary instrument for data collection and analysis. 20 Data

    have been obtained by the author are written into a card called data card, the data

    cards contains data that has been take in the script of the film.21 Then, the data card

    also used as instrument beside the writer herselfg.The data is collected in the

    following steps:

    18 David Nunan, Research Methods in Language Learning, (Cambridge:Cambridge

    University Press, 1992) p. 77 19 Edi Subroto, Pengantar Metoda Penelitian Linguistik Struktural (Surakarta:Sebelas

    Maret University Press, 1992) p. 77 20 Sharan B. Miriam, Qualitative research: A Guide to Design and Implementation (San

    Fransisco: Jossey Bass, 2009) p. 15

    21 Subroto. P. 42

  • 8

    1. To download the transcript of the Fault in Our Stars film;

    2. To read the transcript;

    3. To mark the utterances that might be contained the impoliteness

    strategies;

    4. To classify it by using Jonathan Culpepers impoliteness strategy22;

    5. To write the chosen data onto a data card

    6. To number the dialogue.

    After the data has been collected, the next step is the data analysis. It is to

    gain the specific data that concerned to analyze. The steps run as follows:

    1. To categorize the utterances using Culpepers impoliteness

    strategies

    2. To access the relation between impoliteness strategies and the

    characters closeness.

    3. To assign how the addressees encountered the characters

    impoliteness strategies.

    4. To ake conclusions based on the description analysis.

    4. Instrument of the research

    To analyze the corpus, data card is used as instrument of research. Data card

    is cards in certain shape and size where the object of the study is written as the

    entry, it is used in order to write, to identify and to classify the data which is

    22 Jonathan Culpeper (1996), op. cit., pp. 349-367.

  • 9

    contained the face attack and other impoliteness strategies from the transcript. 23

    The data that is collected in the data card then can be analyzed.

    5. Unit Analysis.

    The unit analysis of this study is the transcript of The Fault in Our Stars

    film, which is taken from www.imdbs.com24

    23 Edi Subroto, op. cit. 77

    24 The transcript accessed on January 21, 2015, from

    http://www.imsdb.com/scripts/Fault-in-Our-Stars,-The.html

    http://www.imdbs.com/

  • 10

    CHAPTER II

    THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

    A. Previous Research

    Research about linguistic impoliteness is still new in Indonesia because only

    few of study about linguistic impoliteness found in some repository among some

    state universities. It had not been studied specifically as the main topic of study yet

    its theory is stated explicitly or implicitly in some politeness research as follows:

    In repository of UIN Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta, one of the studies about

    Politeness is An Analysis of Politeness Strategy in Putra Nababans Interview with

    Barack Obama written by Muh. Shohibussirri. This research used pragmatic

    politeness approaches based from an interview between Putra Nababan and Barack

    Obama. This qualitative research used Brown and Levinsons politeness strategy

    and supported by other theories such as Jonathan Culpepers impoliteness strategy

    and Spencer-Oateys rapport management to analyse the data.

    The politeness strategy and the relation between power level difference and

    the choices of strategy are analysed in the research. In this research, it is mentioned

    that impoliteness is parasite of politeness. It is defined as the language act that is

    oriented towards face attacking in particular context which is desinged to create

    social disharmony.25

    25 Muh. Shohibussiri, An Analysis of Politeness Strategy in Putra Nababans Interview

    with Barack Obama, the thesis is accessed on April 1st 2015 from

    http://repository.uinjkt.ac.id/dspace/handle/123456789/3830

    http://repository.uinjkt.ac.id/dspace/handle/123456789/3830

  • 11

    However, impoliteness studies are already within many e-journals. There

    are some researchers who had already analysed linguistic impoliteness which also

    discuss the relation of impoliteness and some behavioural context. In this section,

    some previous studies will be listed compared to this research, those are:

    The very first study about impoliteness is established by Jonathan

    Culpepers journal in 1996 titled Towards an Anatomy of Impoliteness. It focused

    on communicative strategies with orientation to attack ones interlocutor and to

    cause disharmony on the discourse of an army training camp and the discourse of

    drama. Culpeper builds an impoliteness framework which is parallel but opposite

    to Brown and Levinsons theory of politeness, then his study becomes the first

    reference of impoliteness theory. He started by considering inherent impoliteness

    and mock impoliteness, and then discussed the contextual factors that are associated

    with impoliteness and the last he proposed a list of impoliteness strategies. He found

    that in some circumstances impoliteness plays the main role in communication.26

    In 2003, he and his friends; Derek Bousfield and Anne Wichmann, posted

    another journal entitled Impoliteness Revisited: with Sspecial Reference to Dynamic

    and Prosodic Aspects, this paper using television documentary recordings of

    disputes between traffic wardens and car owners as the data. They revisit the

    impoliteness framework mapped out in Culpepers paper in 1996.27

    They explore the notion of impoliteness and consider whether the

    impoliteness strategies identified in Culpeper can be found in another discourse

    26 Jonathan Culpeper (1996), loc. cit.

    27 Jonathan Culpeper, Derek Bousfield, Anna Wichmann, loc. cit.

  • 12

    type. They argue that for impoliteness to be fully appreciated they need to move

    beyond the single strategy (lexically and grammatically defined) and examine both

    how impoliteness pans out in extended discourse and the role of prosody in

    conveying impoliteness. Their paper has important implications for politeness

    theory and discourse studies in general, and the role of prosody in discourse in

    particular.28

    Derek Bousfield then released a book Impoliteness in Interaction in 2008.

    In this book, he hypothesised some strategies of issuing and countering

    impoliteness or even accepts impolite face attacks in certain discourse and certain

    contexts in which impolite utterance may occur, when one is placed in a

    confrontational, non-harmonious situation, such as military and civilian police

    training, vehicle parking disputes, metropolitan and motorway policing and a

    restaurant kitchen. This book showed how impoliteness may potentially be

    countered, controlled and managed.29

    Another book is edited by Derek Bousfield and Miriam A. Locher entitled

    Impoliteness in Language: Studies on Its Interplay with Power in Theory and

    Practice. This book contains collection of papers on impoliteness after the

    conference Politeness: Multidisciplinary Perspective on Language and Culture in

    Nottingham in March 2005. This collection of papers on impoliteness and power in

    language seeks to look at impoliteness systematically by discussing the different

    28 Ibid. 29Derek Bousfield, (2008), op. cit., p. 4.

  • 13

    theoretical stances towards the study of impoliteness and the connection between

    exercise of power and impoliteness.30

    There is also an article written in 2013 by Grace P. Wibowo and Esther

    Kuntjara, student of English Department Faculty of Letters at Petra Christian

    University in Surabaya. They investigate how impoliteness strategies are used on

    online comments in Okezone, an Indonesian football website, and what strategy is

    mostly used. From 50 utterances collected for a month through the Okezone

    website, they tabulate the findings of impoliteness strategies used and percentage

    them to get the mostly used strategy. They also found that more than one strategies

    can be used in one utterance.31

    Referring from the previous studies and some resource book, this research

    is conducted based on Culpepers impoliteness theory. His impoliteness strategies

    are used to know how the hearer reacts toward impolite utterances and also to

    indicate the distance relationship between characters dialogue in The Fault in Our

    Stars film transcript.

    30 Derek Bousfield, Miriam A.Locher , eds., Impoliteness in Language: Studies on its

    Interplay with Power in Theory and Practice (Berlin: Walter De Gruyter GmbH & Co., 2008), p.

    2. 31Grace P. Wibowo and Esther Kuntjara, Impoliteness Strategies Used on Online

    Comments in an Indonesian Football Website, the article is accessed on June 24th, 2015, from

    http://studentjournal.petra.ac.id/index.php/sastra-iggris/article/view/418

    http://studentjournal.petra.ac.id/index.php/sastra-iggris/article/view/418

  • 14

    B. The Concept of Pragmatics

    This research is based on impoliteness theory from pragmatics study.

    Pragmatics is one of approaches to studying languages relation to the contextual

    background features.32 It is concerned with the study of meaning as communicated

    by a speaker and/or writer that is interpreted by a listener and/or reader. This study

    necessarily involves the interpretation of what people mean in a particular context

    and how the context influences what is said. This type of study explores how a

    great deal of what is unsaid is recognized as part of what is communicated.33

    Pragmatics largely emphasized on the meaning analysis of speaker at the

    level of speech in a sentence. However, since one speech, trough defenition,

    detracted in context (including linguistic contexct, for example the text),

    pragmatics often ended with discourse analysis and sometimes it completely gives

    the meaning of discourse analysis. If simplified, pragmatics analyses focuse on

    the meaning, context and communication..34

    Pragmatics approaches focus on the meaning of words interaction and how

    interactions communicate more information than the word they use.35 Besides,

    pragmatics look at the use of language, text, or pieces of spoken or written

    discourse, concentrating on how stretches of language become meaningful and

    unified for their user.36 Pragmatics also discuss interactional sociolinguistics and

    32 Joan Cutting, Pragmaticss and Discourse: A Resource Book for Student (London and

    New York: Routledge, 2002) p.1 33George Yule, op.cit., p. 3. 34 Deborah Schiffrin, Ancangan Kajian Wacana, terj. Unang, Sunatri, Majid, et. al., ed.

    Prof. Dr. Abd. Syukur Ibrahim (Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar, 2007), p. 270 35 Ibid. 36 Ibid.

  • 15

    finally it has fact that pragmatics concerned with function: the speakers short-

    term purposes in speaking, and long-term goals in interacting verbally.37

    C. The Concept of Context in Pragmatics and Its Relation to Impoliteness.

    Pragmatics study the meaning of words in context, the analysis of the

    speakers meaning is dependent on assumptions of knowledge that are shared by

    both speaker and hearer.38 Take a look at this example, SAVE WATER, the

    sentence will make sense whenever it has connection with the writer/reader of the

    sentence, time and place. The sentence will create solid discourse if it was putted

    on the top of sink, wash basin and toilet. Function of the sentence will be clear in

    that as a warning for everyone to use water wisely.39

    Another example is a famous word by Queen Victoria We are not

    amused.. Pragmaticss would consider the contextual background features; why

    Queen Victoria said this, and it was said to whom, where was she say it.

    Pragmaticss and discourse analysis would take into the fact that, Victoria had been

    in prolonged depression because of her husband death, and the words is shown to

    her court.

    While If we analyse what the word mean by themselves as they are in the

    dictionary the word we indicates the person speaking, are identifies a state

    rather than action, amused has a sense synonymous with entertained or

    37 Ibid. 38 Ibid 39Untung Yuwono, Wacana in Pesona Bahasa , eds. Kushartanti, Untung Yuwono,

    Multamia RMT Lauder, (Jakarta: PT. Gramedia Pustaka Utama, 2007), p. 93.

  • 16

    distraced, this way is semantic analysis. Semantics is out of context, the analysis

    would not consider who said it to whom, where and why.40

    The context in which somebody says something has an effect on how people

    understand it. Smiling may seem a straightforwardly nice thing to do, but imagine

    if it was respond to a friend who has announced personal tragedy. The context is

    also crucial in influencing the degree of suffering you experience as a result of

    impoliteness.

    Context may prime face components that are highly emotionally sensitive

    or not, for example comments on somebodys shoe who is fashion conscious.

    Moreover, context may affect the extent of perceived face exposure and face in

    not an issue if it has no exposure. To sum up, the potential for face loss is related

    to the degree of sensitivity of the face component at issue and also the perceived

    degree of exposure.

    D. The Concept of Face in Politeness and Impoliteness Theory.

    The term face is a central concept in studying linguistic politeness and

    impoliteness. Face is a concept that was first coined by Goffman.41 The best-

    known figures that take the concept of face into the realm of pragmatics are Brown

    and Levinson who derived the concept of face in their politeness theory.42 They

    40 Joan Cutting (2002), loc. cit. 41 Endang Fauziati, Linguistic Impoliteness: A Brief Literature Review in Markhamah,

    Agus Wijayanto, Miftakhul Hudaa, eds., Prosiding Seminar Nasional: Ketidaksantunan

    Berbahasa dan Dampaknya Dalam Pembentukan Karakter, Surakarta 25 Januari 2014

    (Surakarta: Muhamadiyah University Press, 2014), p. 12. 42 Penelope Brown and Strepen J. Levinson (1987), loc. cit.

  • 17

    define face as an individuals feeling of selfworth or self-image, reputation or

    good names that everyone has and expects everyone else to recognize.43

    Such self-image can be damaged, maintained or enhanced through

    interaction with others such as warning, threatening, commanding, ordering, etc.

    Brown and Lavinson then introduced the term FTA; Face Threatening Act to refer

    acts that damage the self-image. The purpose of politeness, therefore, is to soften

    the FTA since it is in everyones mutual interest to do so.44 . However, there are

    other times in some particular context where face threatening is not regarded as

    marginal activity but actually an essential part of communication so through

    communication the damage toward self-image cant always be avoided. Sometimes,

    people intend to attack face to cause social disruption and the purpose of

    impoliteness is to strengthen the face threat of a linguistic act.45

    E. The Concept of Politeness Theory and Impoliteness Theory

    1. Brown and Levinsons Politeness Theory

    In social relation, it is common for people to use linguistic strategies to

    maintain or promote harmonious relations. Brown Levinsons theory of politeness

    first appeared in 1978, their theory of politeness is certainly the most influential

    since it has witnessed innumerable reactions, applications, critiques,

    modifications, and revision.46

    43 Ibid. 44 Ibid., pp.59-60 45 Endang Fauziati (2014), loc cit. 46 Ibid.

  • 18

    The names of Brown and Levinson have become almost synonymous with

    the word politeness as it is impossible to talk about politeness without referring to

    Brown and Levinson.47 They see politeness in terms of conflict avoidance; thus,

    politeness makes possible communication between potentially aggressive

    parties.48

    2. The Politeness Strategies

    Any rational speaker wants to avoid FTAs and therefore uses certain

    strategies to mitigate the threat. Brown and Levinson strategies for performing

    FTA, namely:

    a. Bald On-record politeness

    This strategy is used in situations where people know each other well or in

    a situation of urgency.49 For example, when face concerns are suspended in an

    emergency, when the threat to the hearers face is very smal;

    [01] Close the door!

    [02] I want some beer.

    or when the speaker is much more powerful than the hearer;

    [03] You there, gimme beer said by a boss to his servant.

    b. Positive Politeness

    47 Penelope Brown and Strepen J. Levinson (1987), loc. cit.

    48 Ibid. 49 Penelope Brown and Stephen C Levinson, Politeness: Some Universals in Language

    Usage (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992), p. 65.

  • 19

    This strategy tries to minimize the threat to the audiences positive face. The

    speaker recognizes that the hearer has desire to be respected. The strategy also

    confirms that the relationship is friendly and expresses group reciprocity.This can

    be done by attending to the audiences needs, hedging or indirectness, avoiding

    disagreement, using humor and optimism, making offers and promises, and

    invoking equality and feelings of belonging to the group. 50

    [04] Could you please close the door?

    [05] Is it OK for me to have a beer?

    c. Negative Politeness

    This strategy tries to minimize threats to the audiences negative face. Here,

    the speaker recognizes the hearers face but in the same time also recognizes that in

    some way the speaker imposing the hearer. An example of when negative politeness

    would be used is when the speaker requires something from the audience, but

    intends to maintain the herarers right to refuse.This can be done by being indirect,

    using hedges or questions, minimizing imposition and apologizing.51

    [06] I dont want to bother you but would you mind to close the door?

    [07] I hope its not too forward, but would it be possible for me to have

    a beer?

    d. Offrecord

    50 Ibid. pp. 101-129.

    51 Ibid.pp. 129-210

  • 20

    This strategy is more indirect. The speaker does not impose on the hearer.

    As a result, face is not directly threatened. By using this strategy, the speaker is

    trying to asking for something. Instead the speaker would rather it be offered to

    himself once the hearer sees that the speaker want one. This strategy often requires

    the hearer to interpret what the speaker is saying.52

    When you give hints to your friend to close the door:

    [08] I feel cold. The weather is windy.

    When you indirectly want your friend to offer you some beer

    [09] Its so hot. It makes you really thirsty.

    3. Jonathan Culpeper Impoliteness Theory

    Politeness strategies are seen as a presumptive strategy; it is unmarked and

    socially neutral, the natural presupposition underlying all communication.

    However, there are other times in which people use linguistic strategies to attack

    face or to strengthen the face threat of an act, i.e. they tend to be impolite. For this

    reason, there comes the emergence of the theory of impoliteness.53

    The first scholar to mention when talking about impoliteness is Culpeper.

    He uses the term impoliteness to refer communicative strategies designed to attack

    face, and thereby cause social conflict and disharmony54. Another scholar is

    Bousfield who claimed that impoliteness is not seen as failed politeness but strategy

    52 Ibid. pp. 213-227. 53 Endang Fauziati (2014), loc. cit.

    54 Jonathan Culpeper (1996), op. cit., p. 350.

  • 21

    to attack face.55 It is the reason why impoliteness has become increasingly popular

    object of study in recent years.

    Bousfield states that impoliteness constitutes the communication of

    intentionally gratuitous and conflictive verbal facethreatening acts (FTAs) which

    are purposefully delivered: (1) unmitigated, in contexts where mitigation is

    required, and/or, (2) with deliberate aggression, that is, with the face threat

    exacerbated, boosted, or maximized in some way to heighten the face damage

    inflicted56.

    Thus, the key difference between politeness and impoliteness is a matter of

    intention: whether it is the speakers intention to support face (politeness) or to

    attack face (impoliteness).57 To account for the aspect of impoliteness, Culpeper

    proposes an impoliteness framework which is parallel but opposite to Brown and

    Levinsons theory of politeness. In summary, in particular contexts certain

    impoliteness activity is not regarded as marginal activity but actually an essential

    part of communication process.

    4. The Impoliteness Strategy

    Based on Brown and Lavinsons model of politeness strategy Culpeper

    wrote a seminal article on impoliteness. He identified impoliteness as the parasite

    of politeness and the politeness strategies are the opposite of impoliteness

    strategies.58 The opposite here refers to its orientation to face. Politeness strategy is

    utilized to enhance or support face which can avoid conflict while impoliteness

    55 Derek Bousfield (2008), op. cit., p. 72.

    56 Ibid.

    57 Jonathan Culpeper (1998), op. cit., p. 86.

    58 Jonathan Culpeper (1996), op.cit. p. 8.

  • 22

    strategies are used to attack face which cause social disharmony. As Culpeper

    defines impoliteness as the use of strategies to attack the interlocutor's face and

    create social disruption. For this Culpeper proposes five super strategies that

    speaker use to make impolite utterances as follows:

    a. Bald on record impoliteness

    Bald on Record impoliteness strategy directly produced FTAs and

    impositions of the same kind as in the politeness strategy. The FTA is performed in

    a direct, clear, unambiguous and conciseway in circumstances where face is not

    irrelevant or minimised. More importantly it is the intention of the speaker to attack

    the face of the hearer.59

    When you offer some food to you brokenhearted friend:

    [10] Eat! Starve wont bring him back!

    This is a command without any regressive action, and therefore, it is a

    typical bald on record FTA

    b. Positive impoliteness

    The use of strategies designed to damage the addressees positive face

    wants. An individual positive face is reflected in his desire to be liked, approved of,

    respected and appreciated by other. This can be done through the following ways,

    such as:

    1. Ignore, snub the other

    Fail to acknowledge the other's presence.

    59 Jonathan Culpeper, Derek Bousfield, Anne Wichmann (2003), op. cit., pp.1553 -1554.

  • 23

    [09] Witness: And I note for the record that in my deposition I Clarified

    that Lawyer: Thank you, Sir.

    This example is from a courtroom setting where the lawyer interrups the

    witness and ignores what he is about to say

    2. Disassociate from the other

    For example, deny association or common ground with the other; avoid

    sitting together.

    [11] GUS: I am not going anywhere with that monster.

    LIDEWIJ: He is not invited.

    August not allow himself to going around with Van Houten by saying that

    he is monster. August keeps away the distance between them, the contact among

    them is constrained by him who refused to go together with Van Houten

    3. Be disinterested, unconcerned, unsympathetic

    [11] HAZEL: ugh you cant make me.

    MICHAEL: Of course we can. Were your parent

    Data [11] gives an example about having no personal involvement of or

    receiving no personal advantage of something,. In this situation, Hazel should be

    worried or interested with her dad, but she is not. She is not showing that she

    understands or cares about his father attention, and therefore Hazel feels free to act

    fairly.

    4. Use inappropriate identity markers.

  • 24

    For example, use title and surname when a close relationship pertains, or

    a nickname when a distant relationship pertains.

    [12] GUS: Tell me you did not go to Disney World. Hazel Grace!

    HAZEL: And Epcot Center.

    Calling someones full name is not suitable for the situation in example

    [12] above, because the way between Hazel and Gus feel and behave toward each

    other is very close. They know each other very well, like each other a lot and they

    see and talk each other a lot. Using full name makes their relationship look awkward

    and makes them seem like strange to each other.

    5. Use obscure or secretive language

    For example, mystify the other with jargon, or use a code known to others

    in the group, but not the target.

    [13] HAZEL: Hey listen douchepants. Youre not gonna tell me

    anything I dont know about illness.

    Hazel is talking to Van Houten and she doesnt call him by his name but

    with an unclear, difficult to understand and undefined name. In the [13] example,

    the word douchepants is not known to many people which is like rude and

    offensive name and it expresses that she is very angry to Van Houten and shows

    that she doesnt respect him.

    6. Seek disagreement

    The criterion of the strategy is to select a sensitive topic in conversation.

    [14] MICHAEL: Hazel, you need to get out of the house. Make friends.

    Be a teenager.

    HAZEL: ugh you cant make me.

    MICHEL: Of course we can. Were your parents. Hazel you need to

    get out of the house. Make friends. Be a teenager.

  • 25

    The FTA performed in the example [14] is seek disagreement where

    Hazel gives argument in which she doesnt have the same opinion with her father.

    By giving that argument or opinion, she wanted to cause his father to be upset or

    angry so he wont ask her to go outside home.

    7. Make the other feel uncomfortable

    For example, do not avoid silence, joke, or use small talk.

    [15] HAZEL: If you want me to be a teenager, dont send me to

    support group, make me a fake ID so I can go to clubs and drink

    gimlets and take pot.

    MICHEL: You dont take pot

    Hazel tries to frighten her dad to stop forces her hanging out because her

    father always get a bit anxious if she does not go outside home for a while. She

    wants her dad to know that problems or unpleasant things may happen if she

    hanging around with other teenager.

    8. Use taboo words

    Swear, or use abusive or profane language.

    [16] Im doing good. I get to knock off an hour early today. You

    know why? because I kissed my boss ass.

    It is not appropriate for someone to use such as kiss someones ass.

    Furthermore, it is not appropriate to tell about personal problem with the boss to

    other.

    9. Call the other names - use derogatory nominations.

    [17] Youre yellow, you Moron.

  • 26

    c. Negative impoliteness

    The use of strategies designed to damage the addressees negative face

    wants60. This can be done through the following ways, such as:

    1. Frighten - instill a belief that action detrimental to the other will occur.

    2. Condescend, scorn or ridicule - emphasize your relative power. Be

    contemptuous. Do not treat the other seriously. Belittle the other (e.g. use

    diminutives).

    [18] In those two minutes that you spent actually looking at the book that

    was the center of this controversy, was there anything in that two-

    minutes review that you saw that you objected to?

    The speaker is a lawyer who is ridiculing the witness, he is belittling the

    witness knowledge about the matter at hand.

    3. Invade the other's space - literally (e.g. position yourself closer to the

    other than the relationship permits) or metaphorically (e.g. ask for or

    speak about information which is too intimate given the relationship).

    4. Explicitly associate the other with a negative aspect - use the pronouns

    'I' and 'you'. Personalize someone.

    [19] You should have told me about that at the time, shouldnt you

    be truthful?

    The situation above is about a lawyer that is implying that the witness

    has not been truthful earlier.

    60Ibid. p. 1555.

  • 27

    5. Put the other's indebtedness on record.

    d. Off Record Impoliteness

    The FTA is performed by means of an implicates but in such a way that one

    attributable intention clearly outweighs any others.

    e. Withhold Impoliteness

    This refers to the absence of politeness work where it would be expected.

    For example, failing to thank somebody for a present may be taken as deliberate

    impoliteness.61 To Culpeper, Brown and Levinson touch on the face-damaging

    implications of withholding politeness work by saying that ...politeness has to be

    communicated, and the absence of communicated politeness may be taken as the

    absence of a polite attitude62

    f. Sarcasm or mock politeness

    Culpepers sarcasm or mock politeness is of course the opposite of Brown

    and Levinson's social harmony that is achieved through off-record politeness. The

    FTA is performed with the use of politeness strategies that are obviously insincere,

    and thus remain surface realisations.63

    [20] PATIENT : I had a couple headaches last month and I have trouble

    concentrating. I was also thinking it might be fibromyalgia.

    DOCTOR : Excellent diagnosis.

    61 Jonathan Culpeper (1996), op. cit., pp. 356-357.

    62 Ibid. 63 Jonathan Culpeper (1996), op.cit, p. 356.

  • 28

    As the patient thinks he is an expert on diagnosing himself with the hekp of

    internet, the doctor decides to play along and agree with the patient.

    5. The Strategies to Counter the Face Attack

    Both politeness and impoliteness study tended to overlook what the

    recepient of face threat or attack does because the replay to an utterance can reveal

    much about how utteranceis to be taken.64 Theoritically, when recepient of an

    utterance perceive a strategic impoliteness act they have two choices to open to

    them; they can either respond or not respon to it (i.e. stay silent).65

    Participant who choose to respond to the impoliteness act have a further

    theoritical set of choices to open to them; accept (apology) or they can counter it

    (offensive and difensive).66 Offensive strategies primarily counter face attack with

    face attack, and defensive strategies primarily counter face attack by defending

    ones own face.67

    Further, offensive strategies are listed as follows:

    a. Escalation

    Where each speaker uses a stronger strategy than previous speaker.

    [21] Vallerie: Ill slap you on the face

    Jerry : Ill kick you on the face, you gonna have bloody nose

    b. Repetition

    [22] Boy : Shut up you beer belly.

    Girl : Go to hell.

    Boy : Go on diet.

    64 Jonathan Culpeper, Derek Bousfield, Anne Wichmann, op. cit., pp.1562. 65 Ibid. 66 Ibid. 67 Ibid. p. 1563.

  • 29

    Girl : Go to hell.

    Turning now to defensive counter strategies, they are:

    a. Inversion

    Direct contradiction of what was said.

    [23] Tamtam : Eat that you dodo!

    Kiki : I am not dodo, you dumb-dumb.

    Tamtam : Absolutely yes, you are.

    Kiki : Automatically no, I am not.

    b. Abrogation

    Personal responsibility for the action or event that caused the interlocutor to

    issue a face damaging utterance in the first place.

    [24] Alpha : Dont you think this is a bit ridiculous?

    Beta : Well, I am jus doing what is ordered.

    Alpha : Yeah well I am asking you as your best friend dont you

    think this is a bit stupid?

    Beta : Well, yes and no.

    c. Opt Out on Record

    This strategy attempts to seal off the face threathening and attack act.

    [25] Mom: Dee, explain to me how can you get F on English?

    Child: Mom, I am hungry.

    Mom: Let me know why, first.

    Child: Can I have a plate of blueberry pancake?

    Mom: Dewi Lestari, I am asking you!

    Child: Mom, I am starving and diying here.

    d. Insincere Agreement

    To allow the locutor express his anger by surface agreement with the face attack.

    [26] X: Youll get problem, you create it.

    Y: Yeah.

    X: No banned sign but you ticketed me for ilegal parking. Take the

    cars off and bar the cars.

  • 30

    Y: Allright Sir, too many cars on road.

    e. Ignore the implied face attack

    The hearer accept the surface meaning of the utterance not the implied sarcastic

    barb.

    [27] A: Now you can go.

    B: (sarcastically) Have a nice day.

    A: I will do.

    F. Social Distance Scale and the Choice of Impoliteness Strategy

    There are factors in communication process which influence the choice of

    politeness and impoliteness strategies and these factors become scale to measure

    politeness and impoliteness level.68 Brown and Levinson list three sociological

    variables that speaker employ in choosing the degree of politeness to use and in

    calculating the amount of threat to their own face:

    (1) The social distance of speaker and hearer

    (2) The relative power of speaker

    (3) The degree of imposition associated with the required expenditure of

    goods or services.69

    The greater the social distance between speaker and hearer or if they know

    each other very little, the more politeness is generally expected. The greater the

    perceived relative power of hearer over speaker, the more politeness is

    recommended. The heavier the imposition made on the hearer or the more of their

    68 Brown and Levinson (1987), op.cit. p. 74. 69 Ibid.

  • 31

    time required, or the greater the favor requested, the more politeness will generally

    have to be used.

    According to Leech, every interpersonal maxim has scale which defines the

    utterances politeness level. Leechs scales are:

    (1) Cost-benefit scale : Representing the cost or benefit of an act to speaker

    and hearer

    (2) Optionally scale : Indicating the degree of choice permitted to speaker

    and/or hearer by a specific language act.

    (3) Indirectness scale : Indicating the amount n of inferencing required of

    the hearer in order to establish the intended speaker meaning

    (4) Authority scale : Representing the status relation between speaker

    and hearer.

    (5) Social distance scale : Indicating the familiarity between speaker

    and hearer.70

    Referring to both scale above, politeness serves to both reflect and regulate

    social distance, it is an integral part of life in human society; it may affect social

    distance only within an acceptable range of politeness.71

    Social norms specify the acceptable range of politeness in a specific

    situation, within which the speaker may choose to be more or less polite and

    thereby reduce or increase the sense of interpersonal closeness72

    70 Geoffery N. Leech, Principle of Pragmatics, ( London: Longman, 1983), p. 13. 71 R. Kunjana Rahardi, Pragmatik: Kesantunan Imperatif Bahasa Indonesia, (Jakarta:

    Erlangga, 2005), p. 231. 72 Ibid.

  • 32

    Obviously, Brown and Levinson scale and Leech scale above complete one

    and another. Both reflect the potential for doing politeness and impoliteness is

    related to specific situation, and social norm and social distance. Those scales will

    be combined in analyzing the relation between impoliteness and social distance.

  • 32

    CHAPTER III

    RESEARCH FINDINGS

    A. Data Description

    Bibliography technique is used to find the source of this research. 139 The

    Fault In Our Starts film transcript was downloaded on the internet.140After the

    corpus is found, it is read carefully to find the data that implied impoliteness

    strategies and the strategies to encounter impoliteness by using Jonathan Culpeper

    Impoliteness theory. The found strategies then marked, numbered, and total there

    are about 43 (fourty three) strategies compiled into data card.141

    Table 1. Data Finding of Impoliteness Strategies in Data Card

    No. Impoliteness Strategy Data Findings

    1. Bald on Record 08

    2. Positive Impoliteness 13

    3. Negative Impoliteness 12

    4. Sarcasm or Mock Politeness 10

    5. Withhold Politeness -

    Total 43

    Furthermore, the data obtained then classified using purposive sampling, to

    gain only the impoliteness strategies that encountered by the encounter impoliteness

    139 Edi Subroto, Op. Cit. p.77 140 IMSDB, The Fault in Our Stars, the transcript accessesd on January 21, 2015, from

    http://www.imsdb.com/scripts/Fault-in-Our-Stars,-The.html. 141 Edi Subroto, Loc. Cit.

    http://www.imsdb.com/scripts/Fault-in-Our-Stars,-The.html

  • 33

    strategies, then the data reduced into only 24 number of data to be analyzed.142

    Some strategies from the same sequence of time and place are combined into one

    analysis, in accordance to create a clear context of the dialogue. Based on that

    condition, the data became into 12 (twelve ) dialogues of countered impoliteness.

    Table 2. List of dialogues contain impoliteness strategies that encountered by

    encounter impoliteness strategy

    (NB: Bold utterances show impoliteness strategy, Italic utterances show the

    strategy to encounter impoliteness)

    No. Utterances Impoliteness

    Strategies

    Encounter

    Strategies

    1. FRANNIE: she reads the same book over and over...

    DOCTOR: Shes depressed.

    HAZEL: Im not depressed!

    (Page 2.)

    Bald on record

    impoliteness

    Defensive

    (Inversion)

    2. DOCTOR: If youre depressed

    HAZEL: (exasperated) Im not

    de

    DOCTOR: (ignoring her) --

    support Groups are a great way

    to connect with people who are...

    HAZEL: What?

    DOCTOR: (beat) On the same

    journey.

    HAZEL: Journey? Really?

    FRANNIE : Hazel.

    DOCTOR : Just give it a chance,

    ok? For me.(Page 4.)

    Negative

    Impoliteness

    (Challenging)

    Negative

    Impoliteness

    (Scorn)

    Defensive

    (Ignore implied

    face attack)

    Defensive

    (Ignore implied

    face attack)

    142 T Plays, Purposive Sampling in The Sage Encyclopedia of Qualitative Research

    Methods, (vol.2), ed. L, M. Given (Los Angeles: Sage, 2008), pp. 697-698.

  • 34

    3. HAZEL: ugh you cant make me.

    MICHAEL: Of course we can.

    Were your parent

    HAZEL: If you want me to be a

    teenager, dont send me to

    support group, make me a fake

    ID so I can go to clubs and

    drink gimlets and take pot.

    MICHAEL: You dont take pot.

    (Page 7.)

    Positive

    Impoliteness

    (be disinterest)

    Positive

    Impoliteness

    Ofensive

    (Escalation)

    Defensive

    (Inversion)

    4. HAZEL: Are you gonna sit

    here and wait the whole time?

    FRANNIE: Of course not, no. I..

    I have errands to run.

    (Page 8.)

    Negative

    Impoliteness

    (Condescend)

    Defensive

    (Inversion)

    5. HAZEL: Why are you looking at me like that? GUS: Because you are beautiful

    (Page 13.)

    Bald on Record

    Impoliteness

    Defensive

    (Ignore the

    implied face

    attack)

    6. GUS: No I mean now. HAZEL: What?

    GUS : Hmm?

    HAZEL : What do you mean

    now? GUS: Ive got a car.

    HAZEL: You could be an axe

    murderer

    GUS: There is that possibility.

    Come on Hazel Grace take a

    risk. (Page 14.)

    Positive

    Impoliteness

    (Disbelief)

    Positive

    Impoliteness

    (Disbelief)

    Bald on Record

    Impoliteness

    Defensive

    (Escalation)

    Defensive

    (Abrogation)

    Bald on Record

    7. HAZEL: Oh my God. Oh my God. Youre kidding right?

    You just ruined the whole

    thing

    GUS: Whole thing?

    HAZEL: What you think thats

    cool? Oh you idiot! What you

    think thats cool? Oh you idiot! : Theres always Hamartia,

    isnt there? And yours is

    even though you had

    FREAKING CANCER you

    give money to a corporation

    for the chance to acquire

    EVEN MORE CANCER!?

    Overlapping

    Strategies:

    Positive Impoliteness

    (Taboo word)

    Negative Impoliteness

    (Frighten)

    Overlapping

    strategies:

    Negative Impoliteness

    (Frighten)

    Defensive

    (Ignore the

    implied face

    attack)

    Defensive

    (Ignore the

    implied face

    attack)

  • 35

    Ugh you were doing so well.

    Let me tell you not being

    able to breathe? Suck. Totally

    sucks.

    GUS: Hamartia?

    (Page 14-15.)

    Bald on Record Impoliteness

    Negative Impoliteness

    (Frighten)

    (Condescend)

    (Frighten)

    8. GUS: Dont tell me youre the one of those people who

    becomes their disease

    HAZEL: No. I am just I dont

    know un-extraordinary

    GUS: I reject that out of hand.

    (beat, Hazel shrugs) Think of

    something you love. First thing

    that comes to mind.

    HAZEL: An Imperial

    Affliction. (Page 21.)

    Negative

    Impoliteness

    (Condescend)

    Defensive

    (Abrogation)

    9. HAZEL: (laughing) What? No. GUS: Stormtroopers?

    HAZEL: Seriously? (he shrugs)

    Its not that kind of book.

    GUS: Sounds horrible.

    (Page 22.)

    Positive

    Impoliteness

    (Condescend)

    Defensive

    (Inversion)

    10. GUS: Tell me you did not go to Disney World. Hazel Grace!

    You did not use your one dying

    wish to go to Disney World!

    HAZEL: And Epcot Center.

    GUS: Oh my God!

    HAZEL: We had fun on that trip.

    GUS: That is the saddest thing

    Ive ever heard!

    HAZEL: I met goofy

    GUS: Now Im embarrassed.

    HAZEL: Why are you

    embarrassed? (Page 37.)

    Positive

    Impoliteness

    (underestimate)

    Positive

    Impoliteness

    (Swear)

    Positive

    impoliteness

    (underestimate)

    Positive

    impoliteness

    (deploring)

    Defensive

    (Ignore the

    implied face

    attack)

    Defensive

    (Abrogation)

    Defensive

    (Ignore the

    implied face

    attack)

    Defensive

    (Inversion)

    11. GUS : Hazel Grace, like so many before you - and I say this

    with great affection - you spent

    your Wish... moronically.

    Negative

    Impoliteness

    (Ridicule)

    Defensive

    (Ignore the

    implied face

    attack)

  • 36

    HAZEL: I was thir

    GUS: Hush! Im in the midst of

    a grand soliloquy here.

    HAZEL: Sorry. Please,

    continue...

    GUS: If you were smart, you

    would have saved your wish till

    the time in your life when you

    really knew your true self.

    HAZEL: But I didnt save

    it.(Page 42.)

    12. FRANNIE: Are you out of your mind? Its too much, Haze. We

    cant accept something like

    that from a virtual stranger. HAZEL: Hes not stranger.

    (Page 43.)

    Negative

    Impoliteness

    (Disbelief)

    and (Explicitly

    associate the

    other with a

    negative aspect)

    Defensive

    (Inversion)

    A. Data Analysis

    As the main purpose of the research, the impoliteness and encountered

    impoliteness strategies which are extracted from The Fault in Our Stars film

    transcript are examined, then social distance among characters in the dialogue also

    examined by using social distance scale in Leechs theory and also Brown and

    Levinsons theory.

    Datum 1:

    Hazels mother, Frannie, thought that Hazel was depressed because of her

    sickness then she brought hazel to meet Doctor. To prove what she thinking was

    right, she reported Hazels habit to Doctor.

    HAZEL : Im not depressed.

  • 37

    Hazels legs dangle over the side of an exam table. Her mother FRANNIE (early

    40s, younger than she feels) explains to the DOCTOR

    FRANNIE : she eats like a bird. She barely leaves the house

    HAZEL : Im not depressed.

    FRANNIE : she reads the same book over and over...

    DOCTOR : Shes depressed.

    HAZEL : Im not depressed! (Page 2.)

    The Doctors conclusion reflects Bald on record impoliteness strategy

    because he diagnose without any effort to build effective communication with the

    patient by examining further to Hazel.

    There are steps in communication technique that should be followed by

    doctor in order to build effective communication with patient. The communication

    steps are giving attention, starting dialogue, finding solution or giving alternative

    solution and concluding the result.143 However Hazels doctor misses that

    procedure and the lack of such interaction seems like he has not given diagnosis but

    judgement.

    Hazel refused both of what Frannie and the Doctor taught using inversion

    defensive strategy, she still insists that she is not depressed. Hazel knows she is not

    depressed because she is just very ill. Hazel suffers stage IV thyroid cancer, she is

    too sick to play outside, so she barely leaves the house and to kill the time she likes

    reading her favorite book.

    The relationship among Hazel, Frannie and Doctor is close enough. Frannie

    is Hazels mother and they live together while the doctor is the one who evaluate

    Hazels frailty every time Hazel comes for consulting or regular controlling. Since

    143 Mulyohadi ali, Ieda Poernomo Sigit Sidi, eds., Komunikasi Efektif Dokter-Pasien

    (Jakarta: Konsil Kedokteran Indonesia, 2006), p. vii.

  • 38

    they have quite a lot interaction, the Doctor can make diagnosis of Hazels condition

    based on her record during her regular controlling plus with her mother report of

    her daily in house. He can summarize up Frannies report into a diagnosis without

    asking any further to Hazel.

    However, Hazels refutation is also affect by their closeness. The repetition

    of her refusing similar with kid when they believe of something then the kid will

    insist about it all the times. She doesnt want to be labelled as depressed one by her

    own mother and her doctor yet she wants their understanding that it is normal to be

    sad when someone is too sick.

    Datum 2

    Still in the Doctors office, Frannie keep continue reporting to the Doctor.

    While Hazel keep dangling her feet, the Doctor asking to Hazel whether she ever

    come to Support Group that he advised once. Support Group is a community where

    many of cancer survivors gathered to share story.

    DOCTOR : Have you been going to that Support Group I suggested?

    Instead of answering, Hazel looks at her Mom.

    FRANNIE : Shes gone a few times.

    HAZEL : Im not sure its for me.

    DOCTOR : If youre depressed

    HAZEL : (exasperated) Im not de

    DOCTOR : (ignoring her) -- support Groups are a great way to connect

    with people who are...

    HAZEL : What?

    DOCTOR : (beat) On the same journey.

    HAZEL : Journey? Really?

    FRANNIE : Hazel.

    DOCTOR : Just give it a chance, ok? For me.

    Hazel rolls her eyes, knows shes lost this battle.

    DOCTOR : Who knows? You might even find it... enlightening. (Page

    4.)

  • 39

    Hazel doing Negative Impoliteness by challenging the doctor, whether the

    support group that he advised is a community the fighter of cancer survivor or a

    community where the hopeless cancer survivor gather. However, Hazel doesnt

    want to be labeled as a depressed cancer survivor, and she thinks that the Support

    Group is not suitable with her because it is a place where lose hope cancer survivors

    are gather.

    The Doctor replied hazels challenge using defensive strategy, he ignored

    the face attack then explained that Support Group is a place where cancer survivor

    as her are gather. Here, the same journey which is mentioned by the doctor means,

    same effort to fight and to struggle over cancer disease.

    The doctor wants Hazel to positive thinking about that support group. The

    Doctor believes that Hazel need to meet other cancer survivor. By joining that group

    she wont feel as the only unlucky person who suffers over cancer and she can share

    her story to empower and embrace each other, then she will not be over thinking

    about dying and ended up in depression.

    However, Hazel still doesnt believe with the doctors answer then she

    replied using negative impoliteness strategy by requoting the doctors answer

    Same journey with different intonation and she continued to ask Really? to

    show her doubt as if the doctors answer is not something he really mean.

    The doctor replied still using defensive strategy; he ignored the implied face

    attack by Hazel and answered Just give it a chance, ok? For me which is mean

    that he understand for Hazels disbelief of that group but Hazel need to believe him

    as her personal doctor and his advice is for the sakes of Hazel best condition.

  • 40

    In this dialogue illustrates that the doctor gave suggestion for hazel to visit

    a support group of cancer survivor. He gave the suggestion based on his monitoring

    and examination in every Hazels controlling schedule, and he knows that someday

    Hazel would feel depressed whenever her cancer gets worst. It is not the first time

    he suggest Hazel to visit the support group because he concern with Hazels health

    progress. This kind of attention shows their closeness, thats why the doctor keeps

    being patient by ignoring the face attack and at last Hazel becomes soften and want

    to follow his suggestion.

    Datum 3

    Hazels routines make her feels bored; watching reality shows, going to

    doctors appointments, taking three times a day eight prescription drugs and worst

    of all is attending support group. She thinks that Support group is something useless

    because she doesnt get it helpful but wasting of time. Hazel always feels lazy to go

    there and every Support Group schedule is coming Hazel parents have to force her

    to go there.

    HAZEL : ugh you cant make me.

    MICHEL : Of course we can. Were your parents. Hazel you need to get

    out of the house. Make friends. Be a teenager.

    HAZEL : If you want me to be a teenager, dont send me to support

    group, make me a fake ID so I can go to clubs and drink gimlets and take

    pot.

    MICHEL : You dont take pot (Page 7.)

    Positive Impoliteness strategy appears when Hazel refuses her parents

    persuasion to go to Support Group. Although she knows that her personal doctor

    suggests and forces her to go, yet she wont to go there. Going to Support Group

  • 41

    becomes Hazels obligation since her personal doctor said it so, and Hazels refusal

    to her parents persuasion means that she opposes and disobeys not only her parents

    but also the doctor. By disagreeing with her parents, she expresses Positive

    Impoliteness strategy because Hazel seeks disagreement of something urgent

    related to her health and it causes her parents feels tired.

    Michel replies Hazels Impoliteness strategy using escalation offensive

    strategy whenever he says of course we can. His statement shows his will for

    Hazel to obey him because he wants and knows what the best is for his daughter.

    Moreover, when Michel continues to say were your parent, it reflects his power

    as a father toward Hazel and it gives him authority to control and order what should

    Hazel does. As a father, whenever he wants Hazel to go to Support Group for her

    good, so she should go there without any excuse. He is worry about Hazels

    psychological condition because he sees that Hazel always stay at home. He thinks

    that she should to socialize like the other teenager at her age do. And going to

    support group can help her to make some friends and also can help her to decimate

    her stress.

    Hazel comes again with Positive Impoliteness by seeking disagreement

    toward his dad when her dad gives a piece of advice about being teenager. Michel

    wants Hazel to go to Support Group where other cancer survivors on her age are

    gathered. She confronts her dad that going to support group wont make her

    becomes a teenager. For her, become teenager is about having fun or doing some

    juvenile delinquencies like going to clubs, drinking gimlets and taking pot. By

  • 42

    making her dad feel uncomfortable, she wants Michel to stop forces her attend to

    Support Group and let her stay at home.

    In reply, Michel expresses inversion offensive strategy by changing Hazel

    last statement into negative form. Hazel says she would take pot, Michel replies that

    she wouldnt take pot. He knows Hazel is trying to threaten him, and he wont fall

    into it.

    The relationship among Hazel and her parents is very close and private, they

    live in the same home, they look after one and another and they are family. Since

    Hazel diagnosed with cancer, her parents become a bit possessive to her. Therefore

    Michel often regulating, trammeling, and imposing his will to protect her and get

    the best for her.

    Datum 4

    Finally, Hazel wants to go to Support Group, but not because she wanted to

    or because she thought it would help. She decides to go there only to make her

    parents happy. Outside the Support Group church which is a small Episcopalian

    sanctuary in suburban Indianapolis, Frannies car pulls up to the back entrance. She

    is dropping Hazel for her first attendance in the group. As Hazel shuts the cars

    door, she asks her mom whether she will have an activity to do while shes waiting

    for her.

    HAZEL : Are you gonna sit here and wait the whole time?

    FRANNIE : Of course not, no. I.. I have errands to run. (Page 8.)

  • 43

    Negative Impoliteness is expressed by Hazel when she asking her mother,

    whether she will wait without anything to do or go back home and then come again

    to pick her up. Hazel doesnt want to go to then Support Group because she thinks

    there are other important things that her parents can do rather than accompany her

    to the group.

    Inversion offensive strategy is occurred when Frannie changing Hazel last

    statement into negative form. Frannie denies that she would do nothing while

    waiting for Hazel. She knows Hazel is trying to ease her but she wont make her

    worry by saying she has nothing to do except waiting for her. Waiting for Hazel is

    a kind of responsibilities for her; it is a kind of her duty.

    Datum 5

    Hazel is waiting for her moms car to appear in the parking lot when

    Augustus comes to greet her. They arent yet to be friend in the Support Group, but

    Augustus already amazed with Hazel when she gave her opinion to respond

    Augustus answer about his biggest fear in the middle of discussion on the group.

    From that moment, Augustus interest with Hazel and he try to be her friend and get

    closer to her.

    HAZEL : Why are you looking at me like that?

    GUS : Because you are beautiful (Page 13.)

    Bald on record,is performed by Hazel in the form of short and clear,

    expressing what needs to be said without unnecessary words. She does not like to

    be starred by August, her uncomfortable feeling is expressed in a way which makes

  • 44

    it completely clear as what it is meant. She says what she thinks in a very honest

    way without worrying about August respons.

    August replies in defensive encounter strategy to ignore the implied face

    attack is showed by Hazel, he just react toward the surface meaning of statement

    why as a question and he doesnt matter with the implied meaning that question.

    He seriously amazed with Hazels beauty at that time, and when he says that he

    really meant it.

    Datum6

    Still in the parking lot, Gus is asking Hazel to hang out with him.

    GUS : Lets watch a movie.

    HAZEL : Oh. Um. Uh... (yes!) Sure. Yeah. Im... pretty free this week

    GUS : No I mean now.

    HAZEL : What?

    GUS : Hmm?

    HAZEL : What do you mean now?

    GUS : Ive got a car.

    He shrugs. Hazel has never seen someone so confident.

    HAZEL : You could be an axe murderer.

    GUS : There is that possibility. (beat) Come on Hazel Grace... take

    a risk. (Page 14.)

    When Hazel says what?, she is expressing disbelief instead of merely

    posing a question. Her disbelief of August intention shows positive impoliteness

    because she damage August desire to be approved by other in communication. She

    cant go with August because she is barely knows him and his invitation is too

    sudden. She couldnt make any consideration toward sudden invitation from

    stranger.

  • 45

    Defensive encounter strategy to ignore the implied face attack is showed by

    Augusts speechless response, he just react toward the surface meaning of statement

    what as a question and he doesnt matter with the implied meaning that question.

    He seriously wants to go the cinema at that time. He waits for Hazel answer and he

    want her to decide immediately.

    Positive impoliteness appears once again when hazel asking and giving

    emphasis on the word now what do you mean now? She still disbelief with

    August and she refuses to answer before she makes sure whether August is serious

    or not. She also perform Bald on Record Impoliteness by giving that question, the

    question reflects that she cant go at that time, yet she want to go in other time or

    moment.

    Once again Gus performs ignore the implied face attack from defensive

    strategies. He insists with his intention to go with hazel and still doesnt care much

    with Hazel disbelieve of him. He has confident to ask her no matter what her

    response is. He offer his car to make hazel sure that they can go wherever they can

    at the time.

    Hazel can accept that Gus has car, but she still cant go with him because

    she barely know him. Then, she performs bald on record impoliteness strategies

    when she said You could be an axe murderer which mean she couldnt go with

    August because they has just meet, introduce and talk for a moment.

    Offensive strategy comes up when Gus replied that Hazel must take the

    challenge to go with stranger like him. He still tries to make her want to go with

  • 46

    him. He is not the only stranger, for him Hazel is also a stranger but he dares to ask

    her to watch a movie. His challenge to Hazel makes Hazel look like a coward and

    timid person.

    Datum 7

    It is still in the parking lot, and Augustus is still trying to make appointment

    with hazel. As Hazel mulls this over, Gus reaches into his pocket and pulls out a

    pack of cigarettes. He flips the box open, put a cigarette between his lips, it makes

    Hazel in disbelieve.

    HAZEL : What you think thats cool? Oh you idiot! What you think

    thats cool? Oh you idiot! : Theres always Hamartia, isnt

    there? And yours is even though you had FREAKING

    CANCER you give money to a corporation for the chance

    to acquire EVEN MORE CANCER!? Ugh you were doing

    so well. Let me tell you not being able to breathe? Suck.

    Totally sucks.

    GUS : Hamartia?

    Hazel folds her arms and turns away from him.

    HAZEL : A fatal flaw.

    Gus takes a beat and then moves to face her, the smile still etched on his face.

    GUS : They dont hurt you unless you light them.

    HAZEL : Sorry?

    GUS : Ive never lit one.

    Hazel turns back to him.

    GUS : Its a metaphor. See? You put the thing that kills you between

    your teeth. But you dont give it the power to do the killing.

    Hazel is floored and impressed.

    HAZEL : Metaphor. (Page 15.)

    Overlapping strategies released when Hazel mumbling. First, she shows

    mock impoliteness when she say idiot more than once, she also performs Bald on

    record impoliteness when she say freaking cancer that describes August condition

    that has bone cancer. Negative impoliteness also appears when she tells Oh youre

  • 47

    doing so well to frighten him that something bad will happen and condescend him

    as if he does not know anything.

    Gus doesnt response to all Hazels statement; he just ask question about a

    word that attached in his ear, the hamartia. His short answer that asking back to

    Hazel performs one of the defensive strategies, opt out on record where he tries to

    seal off Hazels threatening act.

    Short answer from Hazel shows bald on record impoliteness. She only

    answers what hamartia is. That direct answer reflects that she is upset with Gus. It

    is clear that she doesnt want to talk any further with him.

    Gus knows Hazel is upset then he explains that he never smokes. He also

    tells it is just a symbol when he put the cigarette on his lips but he never lit one. His

    explanation that ignores that face attack act from hazel shows defensive strategy,

    ignore implied face attack.

    Datum 8

    Finally, Hazel accept Gus invitation to hang out with him, he invites Hazel

    to nowhere but his home. Hazel and Gus are sitting in Gus basement which already

    turned into Gus bedroom while talking about their normal life, the life

    experience without their cancer.

    GUS : So whats your story?

    HAZEL : I already told you my story. I was diagnosed

    GUS : Not your cancer story. Your story. Interests, hobbies, passions,

    weird fetishes...

    HAZEL : Um...

    GUS : Dont tell me youre the one of those people who become

    their disease

    HAZEL : No. I am just I dont know un-extraordinary

  • 48

    GUS : I reject that out of hand. (beat, Hazel shrugs) Think of

    something you love. First thing that comes to mind.

    HAZEL : An Imperial Affliction.

    GUS : Ok. Whats that?

    HAZEL : Its a novel. My favorite novel.

    GUS : Does it have zombies?

    HAZEL : (laughing) What? No.

    GUS : Stormtroopers?