An 80th Birthday Tribute for M. E. Berlyand

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    L. H. KHURSHUDYAN1 and R. E. MUNN21 A.I. Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory, Karbyshev Str. 7, 194021, St. Petersburg, Russia;2 Institute for Environmental Studies, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A4, Canada

    (Received in final form 29 October 1999)

    Mark E. Berlyand was born on 28 October 1919 in Kanev, Ukraine. In 1930, hisfamily moved to Kiev where he finished school and in 1937 began studies in KievUniversity at the Faculty of Physics and Mathematics. Because of World War II in1941 he was evacuated to Sverdlovsk (Urals) where he continued his studies in thelocal university, and graduated in 1942. Soon after that he joined the Main Geo-physical Observatory (MGO) which at that time had been moved from Leningradto Sverdlovsk due to war conditions.

    In 1944, the MGO, together with M. E. Berlyand, moved to Leningrad (now, asin old times, St. Petersburg). Since 1942 he has worked, without any break, in theObservatory, named in 1949 after A. I. Voeikov, an outstanding Russian climato-logist of the 19th and early 20th centuries. In 1945 he received a Ph.D. for workdevoted to problems of the theory of vertical wind profiles. In the 1950s, he paidespecial attention to theoretical studies of the thermal structure of the atmosphericsurface layer, its diurnal variation, and changes due to advection of air masseswith different characteristics. As a result he developed methods for the predictionof variations of air temperature and humidity in the atmospheric boundary layer(ABL) including such phenomena as frosts and fogs, and he suggested practicalmeasures for averting these unfavourable meteorological situations. These methodsbecame well-known and implemented in practice. In 1955 M. E. Berlyand receivedthe degree of Doctor of Science for this research. In 1956 he published the mono-graph Prediction and regulation of the thermal regime of the atmospheric surfacelayer, in which he presented the main results of these studies. In 1959 he receivedthe title of professor.

    In 1963, the MGO established a new department of atmospheric diffusion andair pollution investigations which was headed by Prof. Berlyand from the days ofits foundation until the autumn of 1995. In this position M. E. Berlyand showedhis great abilities to combine management work with scientific studies and wasthe scientific leader of practically all the work conducted in the department duringmore than 30 years. Here it should be noted that the department supervised by Prof.Berlyand was interdisciplinary because so is the problem of air protection frompollution. The research included development of models for pollutant dispersion in

    Boundary-Layer Meteorology 94: 14, 2000.


    Professor Berlyand addressing one of the many international congresses he has been involved with.Memories are fading but it was probably taken in 1986 in Leningrad at the WMO Conference on AirPollution.

    the ABL and field experiments to verify these models, work aimed at developingmethods for chemical analysis to detect the presence in the air of different pol-lutants, development of methodologies for data collection and assessment of bothair pollution and emission data throughout the country, and studies on short-termurban air pollution forecasts.

    Theoretical and field investigations of pollutant dispersion in the ABL wereespecially close to Prof. Berlyands interests as a scientist, but he also headedresearch in the many other areas for which the department was responsible. Theprincipal aim of these studies was the development of methods for estimating airpollution in towns and industrial regions of the country and elaborating measuresfor improving air quality.

    In 1975 Prof. Berlyand published the monograph Modern problems of atmo-spheric diffusion and air pollution. This well-known book became very popularin the Soviet Union among specialists in the field of air protection and it was latertranslated and published in the USA and Germany. In 1985 he published the bookForecast and regulation of air pollution, which was also later published in China.A rewritten and extended English-language version was published by Kluwer Aca-demic Publishers in 1991. During his long scientific career M. E. Berlyand hasso far published 275 works. Among them are 15 books, many of which have


    been translated into foreign languages such as English, German, Spanish, Chinese,Japanese, Bulgarian and Czech.

    M. E. Berlyand played an essential role in the organization of the nationalservice of air pollution monitoring in the Soviet Union. This service still usesthe methodological and regulatory documents developed on the initiative and withthe direct participation of Prof. Berlyand. Among them there is the fundamentalGuidelines on air pollution control published in 1991. Under his scientific su-pervision the main regulatory documents concerning air pollution calculation andemission standardization were elaborated. One of the most frequently read andapplied documents is Method for calculation of air pollutant concentrations arisingfrom emissions of industrial enterprises. This has the status of a national reg-ulatory document that is widely used not only in Russia but also in other NewIndependent States [formerly parts of the Soviet Union]. Annual national reportson air pollution in towns and analogous reports on emissions began to be publishedin the Soviet Union under his supervision and participation.

    International scientific relations and collaboration occupied a significant placein the activities of Prof. Berlyand as a scientist and scientific manager. In the fieldof air pollution Prof. M. E. Berlyand was, in the 1960s, 70s and 80s, one of thefew scientists from the former Soviet Union to make extensive foreign contactsand to establish a reputation as an outstanding researcher in this area. Also, asthe head of a department of the MGO, he organized and participated in manyinternational and bilateral conferences, meetings and workshops. He was invitedas a visiting professor to read lectures in universities in Belgium, China, Italy andAustralia. In recent times he has been invited to participate and make presentationsat international scientific conferences and symposia in France, Austria, Korea,Belgium, Finland and Australia. Over many years he was, or still is, a memberof the editorial boards of scientific journals such as Meteorology and Hydrology(Russian), Boundary-Layer Meteorology and Atmospheric Environment.

    Prof. Berlyand was awarded three gold medals of the Exhibition of achieve-ments in national economy (Soviet Union). In 1991, he received the title ofHonourable scientist of Russia. In connection with the celebration of the 150thanniversary of the foundation of the MGO, in 1999 he was awarded, by the decreeof the President of Russia, the Order of Honour for his great contribution in thedevelopment of meteorology and in monitoring of the environment.

    Prof. Berlyand, as a Chief Scientist of the MGO, still continues to work activelyin the field of atmospheric diffusion and air protection passing his great expertiseto his disciples and colleagues.

    Finally, the Canadian co-author of this tribute wishes to add some personal re-miniscences. I first heard of Mark Berlyand in the 1960s from the glowing accountsof Mrs. Selezneva of Leningrad. We both attended a couple of meetings in Genevaof a WMO Working Group on Air Pollution. Mrs. Selezneva repeated several timesthat Berlyands results were quite remarkable and that he had had a fundamental


    impact in the USSR on the direction of research and operational practices in thefield of air pollution. She was terribly disappointed that I could not read Russian.

    Later, beginning with the IAMAS General Assembly in Moscow in the 70s, Ihad the good fortune to become a close friend of Mark Berlyand, to learn about thehard times that he and all Russians had endured during the war years, and how thestudy of turbulent diffusion had brought him an inner sense of contentment, asdid his garden allotment, a short train trip outside of Leningrad. We saw each otherthereafter on various occasions in Leningrad, Moscow, even Tashkent, and eachtime I knew in advance that I would be his guest at an evening performance of thelocal circus. What happy days!

    On the occasion of his 80th birthday, we are delighted to be able to offer oursincere congratulations to Mark Berlyand for a remarkable scientific career.