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  • pir

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    . AMOUR? RESUME -

    ED 151 778'

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    CS 004 0187

    AUTHOR Frederiksen, John R. .r,

    TITLE A Chronosetric Study of Component Skills in Reading. .Technital Report No. 2. ? ,

    INSTITUTION- Bolt, Beranek and NevmanvInc.,1 Cambridge, Hass. SPONS AGENCY Office= of Naial Research, Arlington; Va..Personnel

    and Training Research.Programt Office. . PUB,DATE i 15 ,Jan, catta4cT N00014 -76-C -0461 NOTE -- , 45p.

    --J, ,-.

    . .

    EDRS PRICE HF=$0.83 HC-$2.06 Plus Postage. .

    . DESCRIPTORS *Cogniilie Processes; ICoaponential Analysis; 'High School Students; measurement TechiligmesiAlodels;

    ;.. *Reaction Time; *Reading Comprehension; : *Reading processes; *Reading Research; Reading Skills;. Tile

    BSTRACT 1 A'component skills model of reading is.'presetted. On

    the basis of the model, five, component factors are lypbthesized: grapheme encoding, encoding multiletter units, phonemic translation,' automaticity of articulationevad_depth otprocessing:in word

    .

    recognition. The'fit of the hipoifiesized,component factor model is tested Using coLariance data for 11chrodometric measures; chosen to

    ;reflect separate stages 'of processing..The fit of the Structural model:is found to be good (p=.2) : Three alternative models rare developed, ,each representing a siaplification of thee. general model; . in each case the alternative structural odel is rejected. The* coaponent skills model accounts. for nearly all ot the variance in subjects' general reading a4lity as ueasured by standard tests of reading cbmprehension. .(Author) , .

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    4*********4******?*****************A******************i**************'44 * Repodnctions supplied bfEDDS.are the best that-can be made *.

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    CO ./.. 1J S DePARTMENT Of HEALTILEllUCATION &WELFARE ,

    , NATIONAL INSTITUTE OP, 49 .

    BoA Be;ariek and Newman. Inc. 14... . - EDUCATION, .

    6".. \. R eport *N9. 3757,

    THIS 00CUMENT HAS ISE4N REPRO - DUCEDi ----' EXACTLY AS RECEIVED FROM .. ,

    1"4 THE PERiON OR ORGANIZATION OR IGI,N. i tin ATING IT POINTS OF VIEW OR OPINIONS A. STATED DO NOT NECESSARILY REPRE

    SENT OFFICIAL NATIONAL INSTITUTE OFri EDUCATION POSITION ORPOCICY 7

    C;) ' a# 4La

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    A Chronometric Study tit 4"Component Skills, Reaqing L

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    John R. Frederikaen'

    Technical Report No. 2

    JanuliiAy 1978 .

    N.

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    This research was sponsored by tile Personnel and Training Research Programs, Psychological Seiences, Division, Office of

    .Naval Research, 'undee' Contract No. N00014 -76 -C -0461, Contract.' ,Authority Identification /Number NR 154-386.

    17,

    - , Reproduction in *hole r in--part is permitted for any purpose of the 'United. States Gover ment.

    ApprOved fo'r public .re ease: Distribution unliMited.

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    UNCLASSIFIED

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE OW411 Dalea,Entm*9

    REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE .1. REPORT NUMBER

    T'chnical Report 4. TITLE Subtitle)

    S. GOVT ACCESSION NO

    A Chronometric Stu4yof Component Skills in Reading

    r

    READ INSTRUCTIONS ; BEFORE COMPLETING FORM

    3. RECIPIENT'S CATALOG NUMBER

    7. AUTHOR(s) / k

    John 1 Freddriksen

    S. PERFORMING,ORGANIZATION NAME AND °ADDRESS

    Bolt Beranek,and Newman Inc, 50 Moulton Street Cambridge, MA.02138 :

    S. TyPEor REPORT & PERIOD COVERED

    Technical Report (No. 2) (1 Dec.1,226-1.Jan:1978)

    PERFORMING ORG. REPORT Nut4BER TBN Report No. 3757

    ON-TRACT OR GRANT publip,ERPO

    NO Of4-76-C-6461 -

    O. P A

    II. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS

    Personnel and Training Research*Programs Office of Naval Research (Code 458) ArlingLaa_VA 22217

    14. MONITORING AGENCY NAME AODRESS(Ii Offhttont how Contro(lise. °Mot)

    GRAM ELEMEN T. PROJECT. TASK A WORK UNIT NOMBERS

    '54-386

    12. REPO DATE 15J nuary 1978

    13. NUMBER F PAGES 49

    IS. SECURITY LASS. Pet Ode report)

    Unclass fled

    ISA. DECLASSIFI T1ON/DOWNGRADING SCHEDULE

    IC DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (of this Report)

    "Approved for public release; distribution unlimited.

    fi

    17. otsTRieuirfok STATEMENT (et the Abstract entered le Meek 20, it ttlitereitt beet Report) <

    1'111 SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES

    IL; KEY WORDS (Contfnr on tome* ottio if 'vireo/0m ow) Manta, y ehtek www*1 - q .

    Reading Sk 1s,- Astesement'of,Component Skills, Individual Differences,

    % Ireormatio friocessing, Cognitive-Processes; Personnel Assessment.. ,

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    30. ABSTRACT

    A compon model, f (II)Encod Automati Recognit

    using go separate

    note on mows* elite it newsier, sod lieatIty by Woe* niothat) A

    t skins model of reading is'presented.,..On the basis of the ve coMpOnentfactors 4 hypothesized: (1) Grapheme Encoding, ng Multi7Ierter, Units,ITII) Phonemic Translation,(IV) it y of ArtiCulation,"alli (V)-Depth of Processing in Word on. -ir.he fit pfthe,*pbthesized componentfactor model is tested ariance:data fOreleven chronometric measures, chosen to refleCt: stages of processing. _The fit of the structural model is (over)

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    FAN 211

    SECIIRIlrY CLASSIFICATION OF TINS PAGE MINN/ DM" 1,10.10 re-

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    UNCLASSIFIED SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PACIE(Whon Dal. Mowed)

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    20. (cont)

    found to be good (p=.2). .Three alternative models are devitroped,each. representing a simplification of the general mosleVin each case the . alternative structural model is rejedted: The component skills model aceounts for nearly all of the'variance in subjects', general reading ability,as measured by standard tests of reading, comprehension.

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    SECURITY CI. ASSIFICATIO4 01' THIS PACE(Whon Data itnfond)

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    Report- No, '3,7 57 Bolt Beianek and Newman Inc.

    SUMMARY

    A component skills model-of reading is presented. On the #-.basis of the Model., five component fdbtors are hypothesized:

    Grapheme . Encoding,. (II) Encoding Multi - letter , Unite, _

    (III) Phonemic~ Translation, (IV) AbtoMaticity of A eiculation,

    and .(V) Depth of Processing in Word Rebognition. The fit of the.

    hypothesized component factor model is tested using covariance

    data for eleven ehronomdtric measures, chosen fio reflect separate

    stages 'of processing. The` fit of structural model is found , .

    to be good (p=.2). Three alternative models,,are developed, each

    represdnting a simplification,of the general model; in,each case

    the alternative strubturall'model pis rejected. The component,

    skills model accounts for nearly all of the variance in. subjects' . #

    general reading ab ity, as measured by standard, tests of ; r eading

    ibc5MprehensiOn. -4 I °

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  • Report No. 3757 Bolt'Bera60 and, Newman

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

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    .,,,-4This research was sponsored by ONR Contract' N00014-76-C-0461. -,

    of .,....."

    \The support and'encouragement 'Marshall,Farx and Iplity ..lialffi- .

    and of Joseph L. Young are gratefully acknowledged: i would like

    to thank -Marilyn Adams and Richard Pew for fruitful discussions

    and Jessica

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    during many phases of the work, and Barbara Freeman

    Kdrzon, who implimented the experimental design.

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  • , ) Report No,. 375g

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    SUMMARY

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    Bolt Beranek and Newman ,Inc.

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    TOLE OF CONTENTS

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ', . r

    LIST OF SABLES 0

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    v

    LIST OF FIGURES .. t vi. .

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    . ., , .

    I. INTRODUCTION 1 i

    Appro.aches to Validation 1 3 * .II. COMPONENT SKILL MEASURES 4

    Theoretical Model. 4 ';,. , 7 - Experimental Tasks :86.

    1. Letter Matching p \ 8

    24 2. Bigram Identification ' A 11 .I

    .1 p. . ,

    3. Psieudoword D oding . '12

    4. Word Nading. 13 .

    Relation'to .Hypothesized Component Skills 15 )

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    III. EVA UATION1OF THE COMPONENT SKILLS MODEL 18 .

    Metho 18. c,

    Sul ect 4 , . 19 .N.

    w 19Results

    \l. . 4%9Ev4 auation erAltnative Structural'Models 22

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    Testing .the Ex ernal iialidity of the Cbmponent-SkillS Model. 25

    Chronometr4.c, Measures ..( '27

    . =Reading Test Measures. .. 28. 4

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    IV. SUMMARY AND CONCLUS ONS .;) . %

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  • ReportReport No. 3757

    1 _Bolt' Beranek and NeWman Inc." °

    LIST OF- TABLES

    'table 1., Deqoding under.Two Levels of Perceptual Encoding...,.. .'9,

    Table 2. _Variables used in the ComponeAlt Skills Analysis ')\ 1

    of Covariancek Structures

    Table 3. De