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,;iBllA^

IJOTTHI^^'^'

AMONG THE

PRIMITIVE BAKONGO

D^EfV

(5r*

XFCENT

'BOOKS

Through Jubaland to the LorianSwamp.Antion

Advenliitous Journey of Exploraand Sport in the Unknown African Foresis and Deserts of Jubaland to the Undiscovered Lorian Swamp. By With 44 I. N. Dkacoioi 1, F.R.G.S. Demy 8vo, i6s. net. Illui. b' a .M.Tp.

In Far

New

Guinea,

A Stirring krcorcj of Work and Obsrrvaiion AnioneU the Wedauan People of Ntw Guinea, with a Description of their Manners, Customs,and Religions, ^c. &'c.

By Hf.nrv

Newton,

B.A.

(Oxon.).

Illus. (Sr'a Miip.

Demy

With 47 8vo, i6s. net.

Pennell of the Afghan Frontier. The Life of Theodore Leighton PenC.S L, M.D., B.Sc, F.R.C.S. ByALiCK M. Pennkil, M.B., B.S. (Lond.), B.Sc. With 21 Illustrations &' 2 M.ips. With an Introduction by Field-Marshal Eari Roberts, V.C,nell,

K.G.

Demy

8vo, los. 6d. nrt.

The WaysSavage.

of the South

Sea

A

Record of Travel and Observation Amongst the .Sav.iges of the Solomon Islands and Primitive Coast and Mountain Peoples of New Guinea.

By RobektW. Williamson, M.Sc, Member of the Council of the Royal Anthropological Instiiuie, Author of "Thr Maiulu Mountain People of With4olUus. British New Guinea." Demy Bvo, i6s. net. dr' a ^L^p.

The LandPygmies.

of the

New

Guinea

An Account

of the British Expedition

despatched to Dutch New Guinea for the purpose of Exploration ami ZooBy Captain C. G. logical Research. Rawling, CLE., h.R.G.S., Somerset Light Infantry, Author of "The Great I'hieau," &'c. With 48 Illustrations fr" .Map.

DemySvo,

i6s.net.

" peculiarly vivid account of one of the least known regions of the

A

world." (-7o/r.Second Bliitum,

The

Tailed

Head-Hunters

of

Nigeria. An Account of an OflRcial's 7 Years' Experiences in the Northern Nigerian Pagan Bell, b" some Description of the Manners, Habits, &* Customs of the Native Tribes. By Major A. J. N. Tkkmbaknk, B.A. (Cantab.), F.R.G.S., F.R.A.L With ,8 Illus. *- Map. Demy 8vo, i6s. net." Brilliant.. ..

Written by a

scholar who knows how to handle a magic pen. ".'>/''iK(j greatly daring, sailed his vessel up the mysterious river for more than a hundred miles, and left his mark, only recently One would like to discovered, on the rocks above Matadi.have a detailed record of the impressions of theto do battle with the current of thefirst

white

man

Lower Congo

a current

which four hundred yearsand,if;

later

was to play with ocean steamers,

not persuadingly coerced, was to twist them about like

corks

but besides the strong current there were jagged rocks,grief)

sand-banks, and shallows (on which more than one steamer wasto

come to

which were veryThe estuary

difficult foris 1.5

a vessel dependent

of the ('ongo

miles.

STANLEY AND THE CONGO RIVER

297

on the wind and often fails when most needed. Nearly a hundred years ago, in 1816, Captain Tuckey sailed up the Congo as far as Diogo Cam, and there encountering the Yelala Rapids, he and his party travelled overland a few miles, only to meet such disaster and death as rendered the expedition Others followed like Owen, Hunt, and Richard impossible. Burton but none solved the problem of whence it came, or what The cataract region, stretching from tribes peopled its banks. Matadi to Kintamo Falls, a distance of over two hundredthat rarely blows up-river until the afternoon,

;

miles,

made

it

impracticable either to

sail

interior; "and the rugged, hilly, almost

or steam into the mountainous country,

peopled with wild savages, renderedsmall

it

impossible for any^but a

army

to penetrate

its secrets.

Meanwhile, far awaycrossing

in

the interior of the country, the

great and gentle Livingstone was, in his;

many

journeyings,

and recrossing its sources and while recuperating his toil-worn frame on the Lualaba he more than half guessed that the waters flowing at his feet broke their land bounds on the western coast under the well-known name of Congo. There was an attempt, unfortunately abortive, to call the river by his name a name truly worthy of the great river, and a river also worthy of the great name of Livingstone a fitting memorial of all he did and suffered for Africa. In 1877 H. M. Stanley, having entered Africa on the east, and making his dramatic reappearance on the west coast, set at Since his rest for ever the problem of the Congo waterway. day scarcely a square mile, certainly no square mile of impor-

tance, of the Congo''s vast watershed has been left untraversed

by a white man. Many reputations have been made in this work of exploration, and a few lost and the toll in life and money has been enormous but the map that we knew in our youth as the easiest to draw at school because of its great blank spaces is shunned to-day by school lads because of the intricacy of its river systems and the peculiarities of its numerous place; ;

names.

Why was this great river ever

called the

Congo

?

In a copy

:

;

298of an old

NAMES OF THE RIVER;

map in our possession dated 1591 it is named Rio de Congo, perhaps on account of it flowing through the ancient Kingdom of Congo but the Portuguese poet Camoens, in hisLusiads, canto" Therev.

13, calls it the Zaire

lies the Congo Kingdom great and strong, Already led by us to Christian ways Where flows the Zaire, river clear and long, A stream unseen by men of ancient days.";

This same word Zaireriver," in

is

but a softening of the native nameall

Nzadi, which obtains to this day, and simply means "thecontradistinction to

other rivers and streams,

which have separate names to distinguish them from each other

and

the river

the; ;

Nzadi.

By

the natives of the estuary

it is

by the Bakongo folk it is known as Nzadi by the Bateke it is spoken of as Njali only another way of saying Nzadi by the Bobangi just above Staidey Pool it is and the tribes from there to Stanley Falls know called Ebali it as Loi, and all these various names mean nothing more than It is possible that beyond the Falls its various titles in river. the different dialects may still point to it as the river parcalled

Mwanza

;

excellence, in native talk.

TheRiver.

writer has a thirty years' acquaintance with the

Congoseen it

He

has watched

its

many and varying moods,;

smiling in the tropical sunshine with the kindly breezes rufflingits

laughing face into pleasant ripplesin its

and he has seenit

it

frowning

anger with the

fierce

tornados lashing

into

furious rage.

He

has had an early breakfast and, entering a

rowing-boat, has glided with exhilarating swiftness down midsteam, and reached Banana, a hundred miles away, long beforesunset;

but

it

has taken

five long,

hard days with

sail

and oar

to stem the current up-river to his home.

There, by the jutting

bank, abreast of Diamond Rock, with twelve strong Bangalasat the oars, his boat againbaffled

and again has been driven back, and beaten, when another few yards would have put it"Fall back,rest

in

the quiet up-current just round the point.

massa; when we done

we

fit

for try

once more," the

I

^

././.. Foy/citt

Brid(;i';Inthis

across a

Swampi

many

rough fashion.

of the valleys the water collects forming large swamps. _These are sometimes IjridgeH in '1 he sticks are bound together by vine ropes. This swamp is on the road to San :

"HELL'S CAULDRON"ating the fact that tofail

299

perspiring Bangalas have said, well knowing and fully appreci-

now meant many extra hours

in

rowing across river and working up the other side. So we have " fallen back " and rested more than once, only to acknowledge ourselves defeated later, and then, like Avhipped beasts, we have slunk across the river and were carried by the rushing current two or three miles down-stream before we could touch the other bank. Sometimes we conquered, and directly we had made sure of our victory we have shouted, laughed, and shaken hands with each other in very exuberance of feelings.There, off

Tunduwa

Point,

is

what

is

now

called " Hell's

Cauldron," perhaps a more appropriate name than the Portuguese one of " Bocco de Inferno," where the water is constantlyseething and

bubbling with whirlpools like a boiling pot. There are several currents running at cross purposes in that " Cauldron " and steamers of the largest tonnage must go This has cannily or they will be twirled about like toy boats. happened more than once, and who can be surprised at it ? for there in that narrow half-a-mile channel off Tunduwa Point more than 10,000 miles of rivers are pushing their hurried way to the sea with a ten-knot current, which striking too full the bows of the unwary steamer, turn it round with;

irresistibl