American Psychological Association (APA) References Style.

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  • American Psychological Association (APA) References Style

  • Welcome!Learning ObjectivesUpon completion of this Learning Object you will be able to:Correctly site references according to the APA style.Identify the different types of electronic references.Identify the different types of non-electronic references.

    Prerequisite KnowledgeYou are expected to have had:Exposure to writing formal papers.Familiarity with the written English language.

    Estimated TimeThis lesson will take approximately 30 minutes to complete.

  • Topics In this Learning Object you will be introduced to proper citation according to the APA method regarding:

    Proper formatting of references pageElectronic References/Internet ResourcesNon-electonic References

  • Before we get startedIf at any time you would like to review what you have learned, click on the arrows to move back or go forward to the next screen.

  • Lets begin...Proper formatting of references page

    Electronic References/Internet Resources

    Non-electronic References

    APA Quick Quiz

  • Introduction The American Psychological Association (APA) has established a style that it uses in all of the books and journals that it publishes.

    Many other journals in the social and behavioral sciences have adopted this style as their standard as well, both in the U.S.A. and elsewhere.main menu

  • Proper FormattingFormattingTitle: Type the word References at the top of a new page, centered.Spacing: All entries should be double-spaced, unless your assignment instructs you otherwise.Indention: The typeset version will have hanging indents (first line flush left, following lines five spaces indent). Capitalization: Capitalize only the first word of titles of books and articles and the first word after a colon.

  • Proper Formatting cont.FormattingPunctuationUse a comma to separate surnames from initials a journal title from volume number a volume number from page numbers an issue number from page numbers (Ed.) from book title city of publication from state

  • Any questions so far?

  • Electronic References/ Internet ResourcesWeb Sites or web pagesReference worksElectronic texts (books, journals, poems, etc.)News articlesNewsgroups and listservsWeb- or e-mail-based discussion groupsWeb- or e-mail-based newslettersmain menu

  • Electronic References/ Internet ResourcesDirect readers as closely as possible to the information being cited; whenever possible, reference specific documents rather than home or menu pages.

    Provide Uniform Resource Locator (URLs) addresses that work.

  • Electronic References/ Internet ResourcesAt a minimum, a reference of an Internet source should provide a document title or description, a date (either the date of publication or update or the date of retrieval), and an address (in Internet terms, a uniform resource locator, or URL). Whenever possible, identify the authors of a document as well.

  • Electronic References/ Internet Resources FormatOnline periodical: Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (2000). Title of article. Title of Periodical, xx, xxxxxx. Retrieved month day, year, from source.

    Online document: Author, A. A. (2000). Title of work. Retrieved month day, year, from source.

  • Electronic References (Example)Internet articles based on a print source VandenBos, G., Knapp, S., & Doe, J. (2001). Role of reference elements in the selection of resources by psychology undergraduates [Electronic version]. Journal of Bibliographic Research, 5, 117-123.

  • Electronic References (Example)Article in an Internet-only journal Fredrickson, B. L. (2000, March 7). Cultivating positive emotions to optimize health and well-being. Prevention & Treatment, 3, Article 0001a. Retrieved November 20, 2000, from http://journals.apa.org/prevention/ volume3/pre0030001a.html

  • Any questions so far?

  • Non-electonic References General reference worksBooksMagazines and newspapersArticles in journalsmain menu

  • Non-electonic References FormatProper Format: Author, A. A., (year). Title of Book. City of publication: name of publisher.

  • Sample Reference ListBooksBook with one authorBaxter, C. (1997). Race equality in health care and education. Philadelphia: Balliere Tindall.

    Book with more than one author Hamer, D., & Copeland, P. (1998). Living with our genes: Why they matter more than you think. New York: Doubleday.

  • Sample Reference ListMagazinesMagazine articleGreenberg, G. (2001, August 13). As good as dead: Is there really such a thing as brain death? New Yorker, 36-41.

    [Note: Use vol. no. if available.]

  • Sample Reference ListNewspaper ArticleDiscontinuous pagesReichenbach, M. (1988, May 10). Mind and body of a child. Christian Science Monitor, pp. 4, 16.

    No authorUnderstanding early years as a prerequisite to development. (1986, May 4). The Wall Street Journal, p. 8.

  • Sample Reference ListJournal ArticlesOne authorRoy, A. (1982). Suicide in chronic schizophrenia. British Journal of Child and Family Studies, 141, 171-177.

    Continuous pagination (by volume; two authors)Adkins, A., & Singh, N. N. (2001). Reading level and readability of patient education materials in mental health. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 10, 1-8.

  • Are you ready to take the APA quick quiz? What should be capitalized? What is the rule for spacing on the references page?What does URL stand for?What does APA stand for?What is the basic format for a book?

  • Basic FormatCapitalization:Capitalize only the first word of titles of books and articles and the first word after a colon.quiz menu

  • Basic FormatSpacing: All entries should be double-spaced, unless your assignment instructs you otherwise.quiz menu

  • Electronic ReferencesURL = Uniform Resource Locatorquiz menu

  • Electronic ReferencesAPA = American Psychological Associationquiz menu

  • Non-electonic ReferencesProper Format: Author, A. A., (year). Title of Book. City of publication: name of publisher.

  • Congratulations, You did it!

  • In summary You have successfully completed the APA references learning object. You are now able to:

    Correctly site references according to the APA style.Correctly identify the different types of electronic references.Correctly identify the different types of non-electronic references.

  • American Psychological Association (APA) References Style

    Resourceshttp://www.apastyle.org/

    CreditsSangkhom Ratsavong

    This learning object was created for course ADLDSP 767: Program Planning & Implementation. University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Instructor: Simone Conceicao Copyright @ 2005

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