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  • 1. AMERICAN HEROES

2. LITERARY THEORY: ARCHETYPAL 3. What is Literary Theory? Literary theory asks you to examine literature from a different viewpoint, usually quite different than your own. To do this, you have to be open- minded and objective, willing to step outside of your comfort zone. In other words, different literary theories ask you to put on different pairs of glasses through which to see what you read, and in general, the world around you. 4. Archetypal Literary Theory An archetype is a recurring pattern of images, situations, or symbols found in the mythology, folklore, fantasies, reli gion, art, literature, and dreams of cultures around the world. Carl Jung (pronounced yoong), a psychologist and student of Sigmund Freud, first applied the term archetype to literature. 5. Archetypal Literary Theory Recognizing archetypes in literature brings these patterns that we all unconsciously respond to in similar ways to a conscious level. For example, the hero archetype is present in a vast array of mythologies and cultures from past to present time. We all know what a hero is, and we can all connect to that idea. 6. Brainstorming Session Please spot a far partner across the room from you and go sit by that person. You will need something to write with. 7. Character Archetypes (10 minutes) This chart asks you to come up with examples from movies, TV, literature, comics, etc . of various character archetypes. Be ready to share! 8. Hero Archetypes (10 minutes) 1. Hero as Warrior 2. Hero as Lover 3. Hero as Scapegoat 4. Transcendent Hero 5. Romantic/Gothic Hero 6. Proto-Feminist Hero 7. Apocalyptic Hero 8. Anti-Hero 9. Defiant Anti-Hero 10. The Unbalanced Hero 11. The Denied Hero 12. The Superheroic 9. ERNEST HEMINGWAY Icebergs, Heroes, and Nada 10. from Fight Club Narrator: If you could fight any celebrity, who would you fight? Tyler: Alive or dead? Narrator: Doesn't matter, who'd be tough? Tyler: Hemingway. You? Narrator: Shatner. I'd fight William Shatner. 11. POSTMODERNISM 1940s - TODAY Puritanism 1472 - 1750 Rationalism 1750 - 1800 Romanticism 1820 - 1860 Transcendentalism 1830 - 1860 Realism Naturalism Regionalism 1860 - 1920 Imagism 1912 - 1927 The Harlem Renaissance 1920 - 1935 The Lost Generation 1920 - 1930 MODERNISM 1900-1940s American Literary Movements 12. Ernest Hemingway (1899-1961) Hemingway was born in Oak Park, Illinois. He was a journalist (1917), then a volunteer ambulance driver and active duty soldier (1918) during WWI. In 1921, he married the first of his four wives and left the U.S. to join the growing band of artists and writers who were gathering in Paris. 13. Ernest Hemingway 14. The Lost Generation This name was given to a group of authors and artists who came of age during WWI. The phrase was coined by writer Gertrude Stein. She told Ernest Hemingway, That is what you are. That is what you all are. You are a lost generation. This group included The Great Gatsby author F. Scott Fitzgerald and T.S. Eliot, the author of The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock. 15. Indian Camp Characters: Nick Adams Uncle George Nicks father/the doctor Indian Man Indian Woman 16. Hemingways Code Hero Hemingway defined the Code Hero as "a man who lives correctly, following the ideals of honor, courage and endurance in a world that is sometimes chaotic, often stressful, and always painful." 17. Code Hero Attributes 1. He is disciplined. He chooses to live a very structured life amidst a chaotic world. 2. He acts without emotion. He is a doer, not a talker. He doesnt brag about his accomplishments. 3. He desires women and alcohol. These indulges especially occur at night to counteract the fear of the dark. 18. Code Hero Attributes 4. He is often afraid of the dark. The dark reminds him of death. 5. He faces death valiantly. He faces death with dignity because that is the only guarantee a hero can hope for. 6. He does not believe in an afterlife. He believes in Nada, the Spanish word for nothing. 19. Apprentice Heroes In Hemingway stories, code heroes are those characters who have recognized and accepted the reality of nada and who live in compliance with the code. Apprentice heroes are those characters who are either struggling with the 20. Literary Term: Style Style is the literary element that describes the ways that the author uses words. 21. Hemingways Style Hemingways style consists of: 1. simplicity His sentences and vocabulary are short and sparse, even though they deal with important issues. 2. reporting He presents sensory details to the reader as facts, just as a newspaper reports the facts in a story. 3. understating He employs the iceberg principle by revealing only 1/8 of the story and leaving readers to uncover whats underwater. 22. Hemingway vs. Fitzgerald Style Cage Match With a partner, take a look at the excerpts on Being at a Party. THINK-PAIR-SHARE: 1. Read each excerpt. 2. Whose artistic style do you like better? 3. Why? Try to put your thoughts into words. 23. A Clean, Well-Lighted Place This story was published in 1933. Characters: old, deaf man who is drinking at the caf young waiter who hates working late, waiting for the old, deaf man to leave 24. A Clean, Well-Lighted Place Your task: 1. Read this short story independently. 2. While you read, annotate (mark and label) your story for the following items: a) The 6 Attributes of Hemingways Code Hero b) The 4 Attributes of Hemingways Writing Style 3. Turn in your packet of stories when you are finished with your name on it. 25. Quote Incorporation In academic writing, you will often use another persons writing as evidence/support in your own writing. This helps to prove your topic sentence to be true or right. 26. Quote Incorporation Formula Use the sandwich method! Sentence 1: Introduce the quote with sufficient context. Who is speaking? To whom? What is the situation in which Mr. X is speaking? Sentence 2: Insert the quote word for word, then use an internal citation. Sentence 3: Explain how the quote helps support your topic sentence. 27. Paragraph Prompt Which element of Hemingways code hero is most apparent in A Clean Well-Lighted Place? 28. My Topic Sentence Ernest Hemingway uses his short story, A Clean Well-Lighted Place to illustrate his code heros fear of the dark. 29. Your Turn 1. Write your topic sentence. 2. Find a direct quote from the story that provides support for your topic sentence. Underline it, so you can easily find it. 30. My Quote Sandwich Ernest Hemingway uses his short story, A Clean Well-Lighted Place to illustrate his code heros fear of the dark. The old waiter wants to keep the caf open late into the night. He explains, Each night I am reluctant to close up because there may be some one who needs the caf (Hemingway 290). This statement proves that the older waiter understands the need for some men to have a well- 31. Your Turn 3. After the topic sentence, write a sentence that effective introduces your quote with sufficient context. 4. Copy down the quote with an internal citation. 5. After the direct quote, write a sentence that explains how the quote proves your topic 32. Quote Incorporation Proficiency Scale 4 Along with 3, in response to the given topic, the student uses precise internal documentation for his/her direct quote. 3 In response to the given topic, independently, the student is able to seamlessly incorporate a direct quote that effectively supports/explains his/her topic sentence. 2 In response to the given topic, the student is able to incorporate a direct quote but without a smooth introduction and/or a proper connection to the topic sentence. 1 In response to the given topic, with help, the student is unable to incorporate a direct quote. 0 Even with help, no understanding of quote incorporation is demonstrated. 33. Hemingway vs. Twain Style Cage Match Now, lets take a look at the excerpts on Being on a Body of Water. THINK-PAIR-SHARE: 1. Read each excerpt. 2. Whose artistic style do you like better? 3. Why? Try to put your thoughts into words. 34. The Iceberg Principle I always try to write on the principle of the iceberg. There is seven-eighths of it under water for every part that shows. Anything you know you can 35. This Is Just To Say by William Carlos Williams I have eaten the plums that were in the icebox and which you were probably saving for breakfast Forgive me they were delicious 36. Hills Like White Elephants The story takes place at a train station in the Ebro River valley of Spain. The two main characters are a man (only referred to as the American and his female companion (referred to as Jig.) 37. Allusion: White Elephant An allusion is a brief reference to another piece of literature, historical event, etc. The author assumes that the reader will get the reference. A white elephant is an idiom for a valuable but burdensome possession of which its owner cannot dispose and whose cost (particularly cost of upkeep) is out of proportion to its usefulness or worth. 38. The Iceberg Principle What does Hemingway keep underwater in this story? 39. Symbolism of the Setting 40. SONG OF SOLOMON BY TONI MORRISON 41. The fathers may soar And the children may know their names 42. Literary Term: Epigraph An epigraph is a suitable quotation at the beginning of the book, chapter, etc. Epigraphs are like little appetizers to the great entre of a story. They illuminate important aspects of the story, and they get us headed in 43. Unit Goal Students will be able to identify multiple themes in a text and summarize their development throughout the progression of the book. 44. Literary Term: Folktale A folktale is a tale or legend traditional among a people (or folk), one that becomes part of the oral tradition of those people. 45. The People Could Fly Song of Sol

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