america and wwii pacific theater 14.2 the early battles (appleby 494-496) 14.3 japanese american...

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  • Slide 1
  • America and WWII Pacific Theater 14.2 The Early Battles (Appleby 494-496) 14.3 Japanese American Relocation (Appleby 504) 14.4 Driving Japan Back (Appleby 513-515) 14.5 Japan is Defeated (Appleby 520-524)
  • Slide 2
  • Todays Agenda Total War Slide Show Homework Unit Test on WWII Tuesday next week
  • Slide 3
  • Slide 4
  • Describe the fall of the Philippines. Japan invaded 2 days after Pearl Harbor American troops held out for 3 months under Douglas MacArthur Soldiers suffered from hunger, disease, insects FDR ordered MacArthur to evacuate himself I shall return. 78 thousand Americans surrendered in April 1942
  • Slide 5
  • What was the Bataan Death March? 60 mile week-long forced march by Japanese soldiers on American and Filipino soldiers extreme crueltyCharacterized by extreme cruelty by Japanese soldiers Beheading, shooting, stabbing by bayonet, rape, disembowelment, rifle-butt beating, and deliberate starvation Falling down may mean a death sentence Nearly 25 thousand died during 60 mile march to prison camp
  • Slide 6
  • What was the Doolittle Raid? FDR wanted to raise US morale by hitting Japan back US navy placed long range bombers on the aircraft carrier, Hornet James Doolittle led raid Successfully bombed Japan Did little damage Changed psyche of the war Made Japanese feel vulnerable Click for Clip 2:30 -9
  • Slide 7
  • The Doolittle Raid
  • Slide 8
  • What was the Battle of Midway? Yamamoto planned to lure US fleet into battle & destroy it Invade New Guinea & cut off supply lines US code breakers had broken Japanese coded messages US carriers Lexington and Yorktown intercepted Japanese fleet & prevented invasion of New Guinea Admiral Nimitz ambushed Japanese at Midway Island US planes caught Japanese aircraft carriers with fuel, bombs on deck 4 carriers destroyed Turning point of Pacific War Click for Clip
  • Slide 9
  • Describe the attitude Americans had toward the Japanese after Pearl Harbor & Bataan. Viewed as A Fifth Column Disloyal group who clandestinely aids the enemy by infiltrating a group or nation Backstabbers A Jap's a Jap. The only good one is a dead one! Click for Bugs Bunny Cartoon
  • Slide 10
  • What was Executive Order 9066? Presidential order to remove & relocate any person considered dangerous from living near military bases 100 miles from W. coast Allowed them to relocated 120 thousand Japanese- Americans into Internment Camps
  • Slide 11
  • Describe the Internment Camps Army placed them in assembly centers or War Relocation Centers Usually in remote areas Manned by armed guards Sites lacked basic sanitation tar paper-covered barracks without plumbing or cooking facilities Some only allotted $.45 for food per person, per day
  • Slide 12
  • Describe the Korematsu v. US case. Frederick Korematsu Japanese-American was arrested & convicted for evading Executive Order 9066 Appealed decision to Supreme Court Supreme Court ruled 6-3 that the Executive Order was constitutional held that need to protect against espionage outweighed Korematsu's individual rights
  • Slide 13
  • Slide 14
  • What was island hopping? Technique of US navy to defeat Japan by taking one island at a time Secured island could be used as base to land bombing raids of Japans main islands Characterized by increasingly intense fighting as US drew closer to Japan See The Century 1941-45 minute 37- 39
  • Slide 15
  • Describe the Battle of Iwo Jima. B-29 Bombers had difficulty reaching Tokyo Iwo Jima Small volcanic island perfect for air base Rugged terrain, numerous caves 60 thousand marines invaded in Feb. 1945 Nearly 7 thousand marines died in brutal fighting but were victorious Now US could bomb Japan at will
  • Slide 16
  • Describe Japanese willingness to fight to the Death. Believed emperor was a god students taught to die for emperor propaganda claimed Americans killed babies, murdered civilians Civilians of Saipan committed suicide by hundreds Japanese soldiers would not surrender at Iwo Jima or Okinawa (over 80 thousand killed)Okinawa Play Century Civilians at War from 40-50
  • Slide 17
  • 2:14-2:20
  • Slide 18
  • Saipan
  • Slide 19
  • Describe the fire bombing of Tokyo (March 1945). General Curtis LeMay Armed B-29 with napalm Meant to start fires started huge firestorms Most of the buildings were made of wood, fire spread very quickly Killed 80,000 civilians, left over 100,000 homeless 66 other cities firebombed Still Japan showed no signs of surrender Tokyo after firebombing 10:30-14:00 "Everything combustible would be consumed, In some cases the heat would soften the asphalt in the streets, so that fire equipment mired down and was lost to the flames. Water sprayed on the fire would simply vaporize; glass panes would soften and drip from metal window frames. Here and there, incredibly, concrete melted. No living thing could survive in such an atmosphere."
  • Slide 20
  • Firebombing Tokyo Capture: Tokyo firebombing
  • Slide 21
  • Describe the invasion of Okinawa. US need base from which to launch invasion of main islands of Japan Okinawa just 350 miles awayOkinawa US invaded April 45 Japanese hid in rugged mountains 12 thousand Americans killed in invasion Kamikaze Planes, packed with explosives, intentionally crashed into battleships, carriers Few Japanese soldiers surrendered 58:25-1:04
  • Slide 22
  • By 1944, Japan was losing the war.
  • Slide 23
  • What is Total War? A war in which Governments make any sacrifice in order to achieve victory Direct all resources and economic activity towards war effort Place No distinction between soldiers and civilians specifically target civilians as a way to demoralize enemy Victims in the Dresden Bombing
  • Slide 24
  • What is the Manhattan Project? Secret government operation to develop 1 st nuclear weapon Initiated after letter from Einstein and Leo Szilard warned FDR of Nazi initiatives Meant to be used on Nazi Germany Headed by Robert Oppenheimer Involved over 130 thousand scientists, physicists, engineers, etc. Based in Los Alamos, NM Harry S. Truman Vice President had no knowledge until he became president in April 45 Trinity- first successful detonation "Now I am become death, the destroyer of worlds" (line from Hindu scripture quoted by Robert Oppenheimer when he observed the test.) Photos are of tower in New Mexico and experimental blast
  • Slide 25
  • Truman Becomes President
  • Slide 26
  • How does nuclear energy work? fission, or 'splitting' of an atom Split atom strikes other atoms and starts chain reaction Results in release of tremendous amounts of energy Also results in Fallout Radioactive particles lifted into atmosphere descend back to earth Trinitite. The bomb melted the sand into this greenish glass. It was named trinitite after Trinity.
  • Slide 27
  • Slide 28
  • Describe the bombing of Hiroshima. August 6, 1945 Enola Gay dropped atomic bomb on Hiroshima Heat reached 3 thousand degrees Fahrenheit Killed at least 75,000 people Over the years more died from radiation When no surrender came, Nagasaki bombed Aug. 9 killing 50 thousand more Japan formally surrendered Sept. 2 on USS Missouri Click pic for clip Begin at 1 minute 7-12
  • Slide 29
  • 2:21-
  • Slide 30
  • Hiroshima
  • Slide 31
  • The homes of many of us have been destroyed, and the lives of old and young have been taken. There's scarcely a household that hasn't been struck to the heart. Why, in all conscience, should these be the ones to suffer?.....Are these our soldiers? Are these our fighters? Why should they be sacrificed? I shall tell you why. Because this is not only a war of soldiers in uniform, it is a war of the people, and it must be fought not only on the battlefield but in the cities and in the villages, in the factories, and on the farms, in the home and in the heart of every man, woman, and child who loves freedom. This is a peoples war, it is our war, we are the fighters, fight it, then. Fight it with all that is in us. And may God defend the right. Closing sermon of Mrs. Miniver
  • Slide 32
  • Slide 33
  • Slide 34
  • Slide 35
  • Slide 36
  • Nagasaki
  • Slide 37
  • Slide 38
  • The explosion created a supersonic shock wave which was responsible for destroying most of the buildings in the blast zone. Fully half of the bomb's released energy was released in the form of this wind, which spread out at 440 meters per second (1600 km/hr or 1000 miles/hr; the speed of sound is 330 meters per second). It not only knocked things down, it also filled the air with debris. The section of concrete wall below has numerous glass shards embedded in it, even though it was 2200 meters (one and a half miles) from the hypocenter, and sheltered from the blast by a low hill.
  • Slide 39
  • Nagasaki before Attack
  • Slide 40
  • Nagasaki after
  • Slide 41
  • Hiroshima (Before and After Aug. 6, 1945)
  • Slide 42
  • Seizo Yamada's ground l

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