alternative economic policies in developing countries

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  • Fringer |

    http://www.fringer.org/

    :

    29 2551

    ( )

    Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial Share Alike (by-

    nc-sa)

  • 2

    :

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    GDP

    : Deutsche Bank Research, 2007

  • 5

    : Carol King, Will we always be more capable in the future?;

    Worldchanging.com - http://www.worldchanging.com/archives/007962.html

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    (Sustainable Development)

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    ()

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  • :

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    (happiness)

    (subjective)

    (utility)

    (objective) ( )

    (wellbeing)

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    (Human Development Index)

    3

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    Human Development Index

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    (Happy Planet Index)

    New Economics Foundation

    HPI (ecological

    efficiency)

    HPI = x

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    (Happy Planet Index) 2006

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    Rank Country Life Sat. Life Exp. Eco. Footprint HPI

    1 Vanuatu 7.4 68.6 1.1 68.2

    2 Colombia 7.2 72.4 1.3 67.2

    3 Costa Rica 7.5 78.2 2.1 66.0

    4 Dominica 7.3 75.6 1.8 64.6

    5 Panama 7.2 74.8 1.8 63.5

    6 Cuba 6.3 77.3 1.4 61.9

    7 Honduras 7.2 67.8 1.4 61.8

    8 Guatemala 7.0 67.3 1.2 61.7

    9 El Salvador 6.6 70.9 1.2 61.7

    10 Saint Vincent & Grenadines 7.2 71.1 1.7 61.4

    11 Saint Lucia 7.0 72.4 1.6 61.3

    12 Vietnam 6.1 70.5 0.8 61.2

    13 Bhutan 7.6 62.9 1.3 61.1

    14 Samoa (Western) 6.9 70.2 1.4 61.0

    15 Sri Lanka 6.1 74.0 1.1 60.3

    16 Antigua and Barbuda 7.4 73.9 2.3 59.2

    17 Philippines 6.4 70.4 1.2 59.2

    18 Nicaragua 6.3 69.7 1.1 59.1

    19 Kyrgyzstan 6.6 66.8 1.1 59.0

    20 Solomon Islands 6.9 62.3 1.0 58.9

    (Happy Planet Index) 2006 ()

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    Gross National Happiness

    (sustainable economic

    development)

    (conservation of the environment)

    (promotion of national culture)

    (good governance)

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    GNH

    60

    25

    :

    (driglam namzha), (Dzongka),

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    ( - 88 )

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    GDP 8 (, , , ,

    , , , ) , 1820-2006

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    :

    (

    ) ()

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    (normative economics)

    1970

    19

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    (Marcus Noland, 2006)

    (cross-

    national) (subnational)

    ()

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    :

    ( 9-14)

    1960

    1980

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    (Islamic financial system)

    ()

    (level playing field)

    (Hanafi) (Maliki) (Shafei) (Hanbali)

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    (cost-plus-sale)

    (purchase finance) (Murabaha)

    (Ijara)

    (Mudaraba)

    (venture capital)

    (Musharika)

    ( )

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    (cost-efficiency)

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    (Utilitarianism) (Jeremy Bentham)

    (Reactionary)

    (Establishment)

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    /

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    (reactionary policies)

    ( )

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    :

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    -

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    (Keynes)

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    (Bolivarian Alternative for the Americas, ALBA)

    (Petro Caribe) , (Petro Sur)

    , (Tele Sur)

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