algal production for biofuel

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Department of biotechnologyBanasthali Vidyapith

Algal Production for BiofuelMeraj JafriLSMSM15052

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DATA COLLECTION Content

1.Introduction : Algae-- Types--Uses2. Algae fuel-- History: Biofuel-- Feasibility-- Oil Extraction Process-- Biological Process3. Algae Production: -- Closed loop system-- Open pond -- Algal turf scrubber--Hybrid System4. Yielding Species5. Current Researches6. Future Predictions7. Conclusion8. References

DATA COLLECTION IntroductionIntroduction

Algae is an informal term for a large, diverse group ofeukaryotes. It is - Simple plant - Most live in water - Photosynthetic- Capture light energy- Convert inorganic to organic matter -Nonvascular - Use lipids and oils to help float in water

Range fromunicellular genera (Chlorella,Diatoms) to multicellular forms, (giant kelp, a largebrown alga)

DATA COLLECTION TypesTypesRed AlgaeBenthicMacroGreen AlgaeChlorophyll a and bPlantsFreshwaterBrown AlgaeBenthicMacroKelpMarineDiatomsSingle celledSilica cell wallBlue Green AlgaeVertical migrationFix N2 from airFreshwaterDinoflagellatesToxic; suck out O2Cause red tidesOrganic matter

Physical and ChemicalUsesDATA COLLECTION UsesUsesAlgae is used for many purposes in different fields.1. Agar2.Alginates3. Fertilizer4. Nutrition5. Pollution control

6.Bioremediation7.Pigments

Physical and ChemicalUsesDATA COLLECTION UsesMost popular use of Algae is for the extraction of different biofuels. BiohydrogenBiodieselJet FuelFats and oilsButanol fuel and Ethanol Fuel

8. Biofuel

BackgroundDATA COLLECTION Algae fuelAlgae fueloralgal biofuelis anBiofuelalternative to liquid fossil fuelsthat usesalgaeas its source of energy-rich oils.

HistoryIn 1942 Harder and Von Witsch were the first to propose thatmicroalgae be grown as a source of lipids for food or fuel.

Microalgae-- Utilized waste CO2 from coal fired power plants.-- Production of biodiesel from high lipid-content algae grown in ponds.--The main focus of the program was known as the Aquatic Species Program (or ASP) From 1978 to 1996 the U.S. Department of Energy funded a program to develop renewable transportation fuels from algae

DATA COLLECTION Algae fuelFeasibilityWhy Algae?Algae can be used to make biofuel.-- High growth rate and easy to grow Once harvested, this oil can be converted intofuels for transportation, aviation or heating -- As Algae contain oil from 15% to 70% of its dry weight. Yield of Algae is quite high in comparison of other conventional crops grown for the same purpose. Produces large amounts oilAmong all the fastest growing plants about 50% of their weight is oil. Yield of Various Plant Oils(in liters per Hectare per Year) Contains no sulfur, no toxic, highly Biodegradable.

Source: oilgae.com, 2008 Data

Oil Extraction ProcessDATA COLLECTION Algae fuelBiofuel from Algae

Algal Production

After Initial growth algae is deprived of nutrients to produce a greater oil yield.

The ProcessExtraction

A press produces 70 to 75% of the oil from the plant

Purification

Solvents are used to purify the oil from sugar and other impurities, solvent use to evaporates thereafter.Utilization

This oil can be used as fuel directly in diesel engines or refined further for more sort hydrocarbons.

Biological ProcessDATA COLLECTION Algae fuelSource of Algae EnergyThere is no magic-bullet fuel crop that can solve our energy woes without harming the environment, says virtually every scientist studying the issue. But most say that algae comes closer than any other plant National Geographic October, 2007

From Macro to Micro

Microscopic Image Of Algae CellA closer look to algae sampleAlgae on a water bodyOverview of Photosynthesis

Light RxnDark RxnEthanol

Biological ProcessDATA COLLECTION Algae fuelSource: http://www.veggievan.org/downloads/articles/Biodiesel%20from%20Algae.pdf

Needs:-Sunlight-CO2-Nutrients Storage of Energy in:-Lipids and oils-CarbohydratesStoring the Suns Energy and Soaking CO2

DATA COLLECTION Algal ProductionHow does algae grow?

SunlightAlgae cultivation Nutrients Rich WaterCarbon Dioxide

Many methods of Algae cultivation have been developed by considering thesefactors.

MethodsDATA COLLECTION Algae cultivation Algal Production Algae grow much faster than food crops, and can produce hundreds of times more oil per unit area than conventional crops such as rapeseed, palms, soybeans, orjatropha. Algae have a harvesting cycle of 110 days. Their cultivation permits several harvests in a very short time-frame.2.Closed-loop system Algal Production or Algae Cultivation methods in practice . 1. Open pond3Algal Turf Scrubber4.Hybrid System

MethodsDATA COLLECTION Open Pond SystemAlgal Production

Algae is cultivated in ponds which are exposed to open air.

Mostly uses environmental carbon dioxide.

The ponds can be in planned or unplanned, natural or artificial.

Most efficient and low cost method where surface water bodies are available with plenty amount of water.

Open sewage-ponds also used for the cultivation.

Most popular method in open pond system is raceway pond.

MethodsDATA COLLECTION Open Pond SystemAlgal Production

Open Pond SystemRaceway pond.Araceway pondis a shallow artificial pond used in the cultivation ofalgae. The pond is divided into a rectangular grid. Each rectangle containing one channel in the shape of an oval, like an automotive raceway circuit. Each rectangle contains apaddle wheelto make the water flow continuously around the circuit.

MethodsDATA COLLECTION Open Pond SystemAlgal ProductionOpen Pond SystemRaceway pond.A Complex Raceway PondMass Production of Algae

MethodsDATA COLLECTION Open Pond SystemAlgal ProductionOpen Pond SystemProsCons- Low Costs- Easy to Operate and Maintain- High Contamination Risk- Lots of Water and Space

&- Hardy and grow slower- Soaks Environmental CO2

MethodsDATA COLLECTION Closed-loop systemAlgal Production Closed systems (not exposed to open air).

Avoid the problem of contamination by other organisms blown in by the air. Widespread mass-production of algae by using this method for biofuel production.Highly controlled production.Allows integration facility with other facilities like Combined Heat and Power(CHP) system. Most popular method in Closed-loop system is Photobioreactors.

MethodsDATA COLLECTION Closed-loop systemAlgal ProductionPhotobioreactors

Made up of Plastic or borosilicate glass tubes that are exposed to sunlight.Is abioreactorthat utilizes a light source to cultivatephototrophicmicro-organisms. Provides carefully controlled artificial environment and specific conditions to algae.Allows much higher growth rates and purity levels than anywhere in natural or habitats similar to nature. Biomass could be derived from nutrient-rich wastewater and flue gas carbon dioxide in a photobioreactor.

MethodsDATA COLLECTION Closed-loop systemAlgal ProductionPhotobioreactors Process of growing Algae in a Photobioreactors and algal Fuel Extraction.

MethodsDATA COLLECTION Closed-loop systemAlgal ProductionPhotobioreactors

Tubular photobioreactorsChristmas tree photobioreactorPlate photobioreactorHorizontal photobioreactorFoil photobioreactor

Types

MethodsDATA COLLECTION Closed-loop systemAlgal ProductionProsCons- High level of control and Productivity. - Needs less Water and Space- High Costs- Needs High maintenance and monitoring

&- Soaks CO2 from Environmental as well as from Exhausts.- No Contamination Risk- Extensive infrastructure

MethodsDATA COLLECTION Algal Turf Scrubber(ATS)Algal Production The algal turf scrubber (ATS) is a system designed primarily for cleaning nutrients and pollutants out of water using algal turfs.

Algal turf scrubber is imitation of algal turfs of a natural coral reef. For turf a rough plastic membrane coated surface or a screen is used, which allows naturally occurring algal spores to settle and colonize the surface.

Once the algae has been established, it can be harvested every 515 days. Instead of a single high species ,this method focuses on naturally occurring polycultures of algae.

MethodsDATA COLLECTION Algal Turf Scrubber(ATS)Algal Production It is different from prior two methods (Open pond, Closed loop System) because in this method a solid turf is used to grow algae.It is documented higher productivity over open pond systems.Elimination of contamination issues due to the reliance on naturally occurring algae species.Turf Scrubber can be:HorizontalVertical Slanted

Fig: Turf Scrubber Screen

MethodsDATA COLLECTION Algal Turf Scrubber(ATS)Algal Production

Needs:-Sunlight-Non corrosive Turf Sheet-Nutrients rich Water etc.Model of outdoor Algal Turf Scrubber

MethodsDATA COLLECTION Algal Turf Scrubber(ATS)Algal ProductionProsCons- Very low operating and fuel production costs- Low maintenance and monitoring - Needs Sufficient Water and Space but less in comparison of Open pond

&- Soaks CO2 from Environmental.- Less Contamination Risk- Needs considerable infrastructure- Higher productivity over open pond systems

MethodsDATA COLLECTION Hybrid SystemAlgal Production Hybrid Systems are the advanced cultivation systems. These are basically need dependent combination of previous algal production Technologies to overcome the demerits.Hybrid Systems reduce higher Capex and Opex involved with the Photo Bioreactors cultivation significantly improving economic viability.

Algae Bioreactor attached to smoke stack at power plant.These systems are capable of main

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