Air quality management

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<ul><li> 1. Air Quality Management</li></ul> <p> 2. Thought of the DayAir Quality Management 2 3. Global Leader in Energy UseAir Quality Management 3 4. Air Quality Management 4 5. Emissions &amp; EffectsAir Quality Management 5 6. Emission Events Included in a FuelCycle AssessmentAir Quality Management 6 7. Total Vehicle Well-to-Wheel Energy CycleAir Quality Management 7 8. National Average Emission Categories forCO, SOx, NOx, VOC &amp; PM-US EPA 2003Air Quality Management 8 9. Electricity generation by fuel in billionkilowatt hours, 1949-2020Air Quality Management 9 10. US Electricity Generation by SourceAir Quality Management 10 11. Air Quality Management 11 12. High Cancer Risk Counties for UrbanAir Toxics in 1996Air Quality Management 12 13. Potential Violations of PM2.5 and O3Source: US-EPA 2002Air Quality Management 13 14. World Vehicles per Capita According to the 2007-2008 World MotorVehicle Market Report,the worlds motorvehicle populationreached 789.8 millionunits in 2005Air Quality Management 14 15. Trends in Nationwide SO2 and NO2EmissionsAir Quality Management 15 16. Personal Exposure Meter to measure exposureto PM and Gases during daily activitiesExposure: Whether andhow a human or otherorganism comes intocontact with a chemical,usually by eating ordrinking it, inhaling it, ortouching it and having itpenetrate the skinAir Quality Management 16 17. Four Chamber Greenhouse-based exposure systemto study effects of elevated CO2 on plantsAir Quality Management 17 18. Air Quality Management 18 19. Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE)Air Quality Management 19 20. Emission-Inventory Development,Evaluation and ImprovementAir Quality Management 20 21. SO2 emissions from electric utilities inUnited States from 1980-2001Air Quality Management 21 22. Regional SO2 Emissions from ElectricUtilitiesAir Quality Management 22 23. Location of Surface O3 Monitoring SitesAir Quality Management 23 24. Photochemical Assessment MonitoringStations (PAMS)Site #1 - Upwind and backgroundcharacterization site.Site #2 - Maximum ozone precursoremissions impact site.Site #3 - Maximum ozone concentrationsite. These sites are intended to monitormaximum ozone concentrationsoccurring downwind from the area ofmaximum precursor emissions.Site #4 - Extreme downwind monitoringsite. These sites are established tocharacterize the extreme downwindtransported ozone and its precursorconcentrations exiting the area and willidentify those areas which are potentiallycontributing to overwhelming ozonetransport into other areas. Air Quality Management 24 25. Air Quality Models Air quality models use mathematicaland numerical techniques to simulatethe physical and chemical processesthat affect air pollutants as theydisperse and react in theatmosphere. inputs of meteorological data source information emission rates stack height models are designed to characterizeprimary pollutants secondary pollutants that are formedas a result of complex chemicalreactions within the atmosphereAir Quality Management 25 26. Surface Data Surface data are meteorological datathat are measured at the earthssurface (technically, somewherebetween the ground level and 10m). data contains physical parameters Temperature dew point wind direction wind speed cloud cover cloud layer(s) Visibility current weather precipitation amount Surface data are reported by theNational Weather Service for eachhourAir Quality Management 26 27. World Car Sales by Manufacturers1998-2005Air Quality Management 27 28. Well to Wheel EmissionsAir Quality Management 28 29. Fuel Cycle EmissionsFull fuel cycle emissions:1. Biodiesel2. Conventional (Petroleum) Fuels (Gasoline and Diesel)3. Electricity4. Ethanol (E-10 and E-85)5. Hydrogen6. Natural Gas (compressed natural gas [CNG], and liquefiednatural gas [LNG])7. Propane8. Renewable Diesel9. Synthetic Fuels (Dimethyl Ether and Methanol)10. XTLs (Biomass-to-Liquid, Coal-to-Liquid, Gas-to-Liquid)Air Quality Management 29 30. Air Quality Management 30 31. Fuel PathwaysAir Quality Management 31 32. Study in TaiwanAir Quality Management 32 33. Global WarmingAir Quality Management 33 34. 00.20.40.60.8US (90 Cities)Europe (21 Cities)Asia (4 Cities)0.460.620.49PercentIncreaseHealth Effects InstituteAsian Risk Estimates Similar to WestPercent Increase in Mortality per 10 g increase in PM10Health Effects Institute, 2008 Air Quality Management 34 35. Implement a Project-IIDue Date: Wednesday, 15th May, 2013A PENNY SAVED IS A PENNY EARNED have to save money or earn money up to Rs 10,000 within one month Solid Waste Management Air Quality Management Energy Audit Material Recovery from Solid Waste Biofuels Energy Conservation Selling Drinking WaterOr Any smart idea related to Public HealthEngineeringNote: Provide complete data related to the activitiesin terms of RupeesAir Quality Management 35 36. Air Quality ManagementinPakistan 37. The World Bank Assessment Report (Pakistan) Mean annual cost of Environmentaland Natural Resource Damage isabout Rs. 365 billion or 6% of GDP Air pollution contributes 1/3 to thetotal damage Rs. 67 billion for Indoor airpollution Rs. 65 billion for Urban airpollution Annually urban air pollution causes 22,000 deaths among adults 700 deaths among youngchildrenIndoorairpollution19%Urban airpollution18%Others(Water,Wastewater,Solidwaste )63%Environmental and NaturalResource Damage(Rs. 365 billion)Air Quality Management 37 38. Annual Cost of Urban Air PollutionHealth Impacts (Billion Rs)Air Quality Management 38 39. National Environmental Quality Standards NEQS for Ambient AirPollutants Time-weighted averageConcentration in Ambient AirEffective from 1st January,2009Sulfur DioxideAnnual Average24 hour80 g/m3120 g/m3Oxides of Nitrogen as NOAnnual Average24 hour40 g/m340 g/m3Oxides of Nitrogen as NO2Annual Average24 hour40 g/m380 g/m3Ozone 1 hour 180 g/m3Suspended Particulate MatterSPMAnnual Average24 hour400 g/m3550 g/m3Particulate Matter PM10Annual Average24 hour200 g/m3250 g/m3Particulate Matter PM2.5Annual Average24 hour1 hour25 g/m340 g/m325 g/m3Lead (Pb)Annual Average24 hour1.5 g/m32.0 g/m3Carbon Monoxide (CO)8 hour1 hour5 mg/m310 mg/m3Air Quality Management 39 40. Number of Vehicles in PakistanAir Quality Management 40 41. Power Shortfall in PakistanOverall power shortfall current and projected inPakistan as: 6577 MW in 2010 18320 MW in 2015 36462 MW by 2020Air Quality Management 41Primary Energy Supplies by source in Pakistan 42. Ambient Air Quality Daily Mean ValueAir Quality Management 42 43. Summary of EquipmentAir Quality Management 43 44. Mobile Automatic Air QualityMonitoring StationAir Quality Management 44 45. SOx &amp; NOxAir Quality Management 45 46. CO, CH4 &amp; O3Air Quality Management 46 47. Low Volume Air SamplerAir Quality Management 47 48. Particulate Matter SamplingSample MeasurementDrying and Conditioning(200C, 50%R.H), 48 hrsWeighingCalculate concentration/Preserve sampleSamplingFilter setting to sampler Sampling (12+12 hrs) Collecting sampled filterFilter PreparationNumberingDrying and Conditioning(200C, 50%R.H), 24 hrsWeighing 49. The concentration of Total Suspended Particulate was calculated using thefollowing formula (40 CFR Appendix B, Part 50, USEPA)(g/m3)where,TSP is mass concentration of total suspended particulate matter (g/m3)Wi is initial weight of clean filter (g)Wf is final weight of exposed filter (g)V is the sampled air volume (m3)106 is for conversion of g to gCalculation of Suspended Particulate Matter6f iW W 10TSP =V 50. High Volume Air SamplerMeasuring PM10Air Quality Management 50 51. Weighing after 24 HoursAir Quality Management 51 52. Sample CuttingSample pieceBeaker (100 mL)HCl (1+1) 30mL, H2O2 (30%) 5mLHeat on Hot Plate 1200C, 1HrFiltration Filter Paper/FunnelSample Preparation For AAS 53. Filtered SolutionConc. on Hot Plate Add HNO3(2+98)soon before dry-upConstant Vol (25mL) HNO3(2+98)Sample Transfer Polyethylene BottleAAS AnalysisSample Preparation For AAS 54. GlasswareAir Quality Management 54 55. Cutting Exposed Filter PaperAir Quality Management 55 56. Acid ExtractionAir Quality Management 56 57. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS)Air Quality Management 57 58. Proton Induced X-ray Emissions (PIXE)Air Quality Management 58 59. Stack Gas Emission MonitoringAir Quality Management 59 60. Stack Gas Emission MonitoringAir Quality Management 60 61. Stack Gas Emission MonitoringAir Quality Management 61 62. Transboundary EffectsFires in Northwest India (MODIS)Moderate Resolution Imaging SpectroradiometerAir Quality Management 62 63. US-AID ProjectEnergy Auditing SerenaAir Quality Management 63 64. UN-Habitat ProjectGreen RoofsAir Quality Management 64 65. UN-Habitat ProjectGreen RoofsAir Quality Management 65 66. Crescent Mills, FaisalabadAir Quality Management 66 67. CNG Driven Vehicles in PakistanAir Quality Management 67Traffic Police Officials penalizing smokeemitting vehicle operators 68. Thank YouAir Quality Management 68</p>

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