Air Pollution Prevention - Manual on Emission Monitoring

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<p>TEXTEENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH OF THE FEDERAL MINISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT, NATURE CONSERVATION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY Research Report 297 44 849 UBA-FB xxx105/e</p> <p>79 01ISSN 0722-186X</p> <p>Texte</p> <p>Air Pollution Prevention:</p> <p>Manual on Emission Monitoring</p> <p>by UMEG Zentrum fr Umweltmessungen, Umwelterhebungen und Gertesicherheit Baden-Wrttemberg, Karlsruhe</p> <p>On behalf of the Federal Environmental Agency</p> <p>UMWELTBUNDESAMT</p> <p>Publications by the Federal Environmental Agency in the TEXTE series are available subject to advance payment of DM 20,-- (10,26 Euro) by bank transfer, crossed cheque (10,26 or paying-in form to Account number 4327 65 - 104 at the Postbank Berlin (Sorting Code 10010010) Fa. Werbung und Vertrieb Ahornstrae 1-2 10787 Berlin</p> <p>At the same time please direct your written order to the Firma Werbung und Vertrieb naming the volume number from the TEXTE series, and the name and address of the orderer.</p> <p>The publisher does not accept responsibility for the correctness, accuracy or completeness of the information, or for the observance of the private rights of third parties. The contents of this publication do not necessarily reflect the official opinions.</p> <p>Publisher:</p> <p>Federal Environmental Agency (Umweltbundesamt) Postfach 33 00 22 14191 Berlin Tel.: +49/30/8903-0 Telex: 183 756 Telefax: +49/30/8903 2285 Internet: http://www.umweltbundesamt.de Section II 6.3 Dr. Hans-Joachim Hummel Berlin, Dezember 2001</p> <p>Edited by:</p> <p>REPORT COVER SHEET</p> <p>1. 4.</p> <p>Report No.</p> <p>2.</p> <p>3.</p> <p>UBA-FB 000Report Title</p> <p>Air Pollution Prevention Manual on Emission Monitoring5. 6. Author(s), Family Name(s), First Name(s) Performing Organisation (Name, Address) 8. 9. Report Date Publication Date</p> <p>UMEG Zentrum fr Umweltmessungen, Umwelterhebungen und Gertesicherheit Baden-Wrttemberg Grooberfeld 3, D-76135 Karlsruhe7. Sponsoring Agency (Name, Address)</p> <p>10. UFOPLAN Ref. No.</p> <p>297 44 84911. No. of Pages</p> <p>29012. No. of References</p> <p>Umweltbundesamt, Bismarckplatz 1, 14193 Berlin</p> <p>8613. No. of Tables</p> <p>914. No. of Figures</p> <p>3115. Supplementary Notes</p> <p>16. Abstract</p> <p>The Manual on Emission Monitoring covers the need for information about the national practice in the field of emission control at plants, requiring official approval. The legal bases for discontinuous and continuous measurements for emission control at plants, requiring official approval, are treated. Thereby also the European environmental legislation is considered. The publication procedure for testing institutes, which execute such measurements, is described. The execution of discontinuous emission measurements (course of the measurement and measurement requests) and for continuous emission measurement (suitability test, installation, maintenance, functional test and calibration of the measuring device) including the evaluation and documentation of the measured values is described. The procedure of remote emission monitoring is explained. The most important measuring procedures are reported. The guide contains a current list of suitability tested measuring devices. Such measuring devices are presented by the manufacturers. The presentations include specifications about the mode of operation and the device characteristics (e.g. parameters from the suitability test).17. Keywords</p> <p>emission, emission monitoring, remote emission monitoring, emission measurement, suitability test, measuring institute, measuring laboratory, emission measuring system, emission measuring device, maintenance, calibration, functional test, measuring procedure18. Price 19. 20.</p> <p>-1-</p> <p>Table of contents1 GENERAL ............................................................................................................................................................... 5 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 2 PURPOSE OF EMISSION MONITORING .......................................................................................................... 5 NATIONAL LEGAL BASIS AND MEASUREMENT INSTRUCTIONS, COMPARISON WITH EU LAW ................... 5 STANDARDISATION OF MEASUREMENT METHODS ..................................................................................... 7 ACCREDITATION PROCEDURES FOR TESTING LABORATORIES..................................................................... 9</p> <p>DISCONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING ......................................................................................... 11 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 2.3.4 2.3.5 2.4 2.5 LEGAL BASIS (REASONS FOR DISCONTINUOUS MEASUREMENTS) ............................................................. 11 MEASUREMENT PLANNING....................................................................................................................... 12 REALIZATION OF MEASUREMENTS ............................................................................................................ 13 Selecting the measurement section and the measurement cross section ........................................ 13 Grid measurements................................................................................................................................ 14 Extractive isokinetic sampling.............................................................................................................. 15 Extractive sampling for gas measurements ........................................................................................ 16 Determination of general waste gas conditions ................................................................................. 17 SPECIAL MEASUREMENT REQUIREMENTS FOR INDIVIDUAL MEASUREMENTS ........................................... 17 EVALUATION / REPORTING / DOCUMENTATION .................................................................................... 19</p> <p>3</p> <p>CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING................................................................................................. 20 3.1 3.1.1 3.1.2 LEGAL BASES ............................................................................................................................................. 20 Installations subject to licensing ........................................................................................................... 20 Installations not subject to licensing .................................................................................................... 23</p> <p>3.2 QUALITY ASSURANCE FOR CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING ........................................................... 24 3.2.1 Suitability tests........................................................................................................................................ 24 3.2.2 Installation, operation and quality control of suitability-tested measurement devices................ 27 3.2.2.1 Selection of the measurement cross section ................................................................................... 27 3.2.2.2 Installation of measuring devices .................................................................................................... 27 3.2.2.3 Maintenance of measurement devices for continuous emission measurement ........................ 28 3.2.2.4 Checking the functionality of measurement devices for continuous emission measurement 29 3.2.2.5 Calibration of measurement devices for continuous emission measurement ........................... 30 3.2.2.6 Special requirements for the functional test / calibration............................................................ 32 3.2.2.6.1 Dust content measurement devices................................................................................................. 33 3.2.2.6.2 Smoke density meters ....................................................................................................................... 33 3.2.2.6.3 Measurement devices for sulphur dioxide..................................................................................... 33 3.2.2.6.4 Measurement devices for nitrogen oxide ....................................................................................... 33 3.2.2.6.5 Measurement devices for carbon monoxide .................................................................................. 34 3.2.2.6.6 Measurement devices for organic compounds .............................................................................. 34 3.2.2.6.7 Measurement devices for inorganic gaseous fluorine compounds............................................. 34 3.2.2.6.8 Measurement devices for inorganic gaseous chlorine compounds ............................................ 34 3.2.2.6.9 Measurement devices for hydrogen sulphide ............................................................................... 34 3.2.2.6.10 Measurement devices for ammonia ................................................................................................ 35 3.2.2.6.11 Measurement devices for mercury.................................................................................................. 35 3.2.2.6.12 Measurement devices for reference values (volume flow, humidity, oxygen, temperature) ....................................................................................................................................... 35 3.3 EVALUATION AND DOCUMENTATION OF MEASURED VALUES, SUBMISSION TO THE AUTHORITIES / REMOTE EMISSION MONITORING............................................................................................................... 36</p> <p>-24 MEASUREMENT METHODS .......................................................................................................................... 40 4.1 CONTINUOUS MEASUREMENT OF NON-ATMOSPHERIC SUBSTANCES (STATIONARY / MOBILE) .............. 40 4.1.1 Measurement of particulate emissions................................................................................................ 40 4.1.1.1 Photometric in situ dust measurement (measurement of optical transmission)....................... 40 4.1.1.2 Scattered light measurement............................................................................................................ 42 4.1.1.3 Measurement with beta ray absorption.......................................................................................... 44 4.1.1.4 Dust measurement using tribo-electric sensors ............................................................................. 44 4.1.2 Measurement of gaseous substances ................................................................................................... 45 4.1.2.1 Photometry with extractive sampling............................................................................................. 45 4.1.2.2 In situ photometry ............................................................................................................................. 48 4.1.2.3 FTIR spectroscopy.............................................................................................................................. 49 4.1.2.4 Chemiluminescence methods........................................................................................................... 50 4.1.2.5 Flame ionisation measurement ........................................................................................................ 51 4.1.2.6 Less common measurement methods ............................................................................................. 52 4.2 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.3 4.3.1 4.3.2 4.3.3 4.3.4 4.3.5 4.4 5 6 7 DISCONTINUOUS MEASUREMENTS............................................................................................................ 53 Manual measurement of dust load and determination of substances contained in dust (semimetals and metals) ........................................................................................................................ 53 Determination of the mass concentration of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofuranes (PCDD/PCDF)............................................................................... 56 Manual procedures to measure inorganic compounds..................................................................... 57 Determination of individual organic components............................................................................. 59 Olfactometric determination of odour emissions .............................................................................. 60 MEASUREMENT OF REFERENCE VALUES ................................................................................................... 61 Oxygen measurement (paramagnetic effect)...................................................................................... 61 Oxygen measurement (zirconium dioxide probe)............................................................................. 62 Determination of waste gas humidity ................................................................................................. 63 Flow speed / waste gas volumetric flow ............................................................................................ 64 Temperature measurement................................................................................................................... 66 LONG-TERM SAMPLING FOR PCDD/F..................................................................................................... 67</p> <p>GLOSSARY........................................................................................................................................................... 69 REFERENCES....................................................................................................................................................... 71 ANNEX 1: LEGISLATIVE AND ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS / EXCERPTS FROM QUOTED SOURCES........................................................................................................ 79 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 EXCERPT OF THE FEDERAL IMMISSION CONTROL ACT ............................................................................ 79 EXCERPT OF THE TA LUFT ........................................................................................................................ 83 EXCERPT OF THE LARGE FURNACES ORDER (13 BIMSCHV).................................................................. 95TH</p> <p>EXCERPT OF THE ORDER ON WASTE INCINERATION PLANTS (17 BIMSCHV)....................................... 99TH</p> <p>EXCERPT OF THE ORDER ON TITANIUM DIOXIDE (25 BIMSCHV)........................................................ 104TH</p> <p>EXCERPT OF THE ORDER ON CREMATORIA (27 BIMSCHV) ................................................................. 105TH</p> <p>UNIFORM PRACTICE IN MONITORING EMISSIONS IN THE FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY PART 1..................................................................................................................................................... 107 UNIFORM PRACTICE IN MONITORING EMISSIONS IN THE FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY PART 2..........</p>

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