air pollution by gaurav jha

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  1. 1. What is Air Pollution? Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or damages the natural environment into the atmosphere. What is the atmosphere? The atmosphere is a complex dynamic natural gaseous system that is essential to support life on planet Earth. Stratospheric ozone depletion due to air pollution has long been recognized as a threat to human health as well as to the Earth's ecosystems.
  2. 2. Air pollution is the introduction into the atmosphere of chemicals, particulates, or biological material that cause discomfort, disease, or death to humans, damage other living organisms such as food crops, or damage the natural environment or built environment. The atmosphere is a complex dynamic natural gaseous system that is essential to support life on planet Earth. Stratospheric ozone depletion due to air pollution has long been recognized as a threat to human health as well as to the Earth's ecosystem. What are air pollutants?
  3. 3. Air pollution is a significant risk factor for multiple health conditions including respiratory infections, heart disease, and lung cancer, according to the WHO. The health effects caused by air pollution may include difficulty in breathing, wheezing, coughing, asthma and aggravation of existing respiratory and cardiac conditions. These effects can result in increased medication use, increased doctor or emergency room visits, more hospital admissions and premature death. The human health effects of poor air quality are far reaching, but principally affect the body's respiratory system and the cardiovascular system. Individual reactions to air pollutants depend on the type of pollutant a person is exposed to, the degree of exposure, the individual's health status and genetics.[
  4. 4. SOURCES OF AIR POLLUTION Anthropogenic sources (human activity) mostly related to burning different kinds of fuel. Stationary Sources Mobile Sources Chemicals Fumes Military
  5. 5. AQI: Air Quality Index Indicates whether pollutant levels in air may cause health concerns. Ranges from 0 (least concern) to 500 (greatest concern)
  6. 6. INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION Cement Industry The small scale cement plants re highly inefficient and do not have pollution control systems. However, recently Bhutans largest cement industry (Penden Cement Authority Ltd.) has modified its plant and installed pollution control devices such as electrostatic precipitators.
  7. 7. INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION Chemical Industry The chemical industry is a major source of air pollution. The main pollutants from the chemical industries are CO2, SO2, NO2, CO and particulate matter. Another problem with this industry is the lack of storage space for raw materials like limestone, coal and charcoal. The height of emission stacks is low , as a result of which emissions are not properly dispersed causing air pollution in the surrounding area.
  8. 8. Air Quality Air Quality Index Protect Your Health Good 0-50 No health impacts are expected when air quality is in this range. Moderate 51-100 Unusually sensitive people should consider limiting prolonged outdoor exertion. Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups 101-150 Active children and adults, and people with respiratory disease, such as asthma, should limit prolonged outdoor exertion. Unhealthy 151-200 Active children and adults, and people with respiratory disease, such as asthma, should limit prolonged outdoor exertion, everyone else, especially children should limit prolonged outdoor excertion. Very Unhealthy (Alert) 201-300 Active children and adults, and people with respiratory disease, such as asthma, should limit prolonged outdoor exertion everyone else, especially children, should limit outdoor exertion.
  9. 9. Carbon Monoxide colorless, odorless produced when carbon does not burn in fossil fuels present in car exhaust deprives body of O2 causing headaches, fatigue, and impaired vision
  10. 10. Sulfur Dioxide produced when coal and fuel oil are burned present in power plant exhaust narrows the airway, causing wheezing and shortness of breath, especially in those with asthma
  11. 11. Ground Level Ozone at upper level, ozone shields Earth from suns harmful UV rays at ground level, ozone is harmful pollutants formed from car, power and chemical plant exhaust irritate respiratory system and asthma; reduces lung function by inflaming and damaging lining of lungs
  12. 12. Particulate Matter particles of different sizes and structures that are released into the atmosphere present in many sources including fossil fuels, dust, smoke, fog, etc. can build up in respiratory system aggravates heart and lung disease; increases risk of respiratory infection
  13. 13. Nitrogen Dioxide reddish, brown gas produced when nitric oxide combines with oxygen in the atmosphere present in car exhaust and power plants affects lungs and causes wheezing; increases chance of respiratory infection
  14. 14. OZONE LAYER DEPLETION The ozone layer protects the Earth from the UVB wavelengths (270315 nm) of ultraviolet light (UV light) sent down by the sun. If the ozone layer is depleted by human action, the effects on the planet could be catastrophic. Air pollution due to CFCs is destroying the ozone layer depletion, which could lead to damage, including increases in skin cancer. Image of the largest Antarctic ozone hole ever recorded (September 2006).
  15. 15. GREEN HOUSE EFFECT The greenhouse effect is a process by which radiative energy leaving a planetary surface is absorbed by some atmospheric gases, called greenhouse gases. This transfers energy to the surface and lower atmosphere, so the temperature there is higher than normal.
  16. 16. ACID RAIN Acid rain is a rain has elevated levels of hydrogen ions (low pH). It can have harmful effects on plants, aquatic animals, and infrastructure through the process of wet deposition. Acid rain is caused by emissions of compounds of ammonium, carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur which react with the water molecules in the atmosphere to produce acids.
  17. 17. AIR POLLUTION IN INDIA Maharashtra and Gujarat, the brightest jewels in Indias industrial crown, are easily, the two most industrialized states of India. Drive down the Mumbai-Pune highway and you will witness the horrible truth of industrialization. Hundreds of industrial units dealing with chemicals and fertilizers dump their sludge along the roadside. Chimneys emit gases that make breathing difficult. Industrial units never stop polluting, and people cannot stop working for them. So, it is a treadmill that ends only with a painful death, says Rajesh Panicker, an industrial worker of Panvel in Maharashtra.
  18. 18. AIR POLLUTION IN INDIA Bangalore holds the title of being the asthma capital of the country. Studies estimate that 10 per cent of Bangalores 60 lakh population and over 50 per cent of its children below 18 years suffer from air pollution- related ailments. Bhopal gas tragedy was the greatest industrial disaster in the world that took place at a Union Carbide pesticide plant in the Indian city of Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh. At midnight on 3 December 1984, the plant accidentally released methyl isocyanine (MIC) gas, exposing more than 500,000 people to MIC and other chemicals. The first official immediate death toll was 2,259. The government of Madhya Pradesh has confirmed a total of 3,787 deaths related to the gas release Others estimate 8,000-10,000 died within 72 hours and 25,000 have since died from gas-related diseases, making it the deadliest man-made environmental disaster in history.
  19. 19. WAYS TO REDUCE AIR POLLUTION Drive-wise: Plan your trips. Save gasoline and reduce air pollution. Keep tires properly inflated and aligned. In the summertime, fill gas tank during cooler evening hours to cut down on evaporation. Avoid spilling gas and don't "top off" the tank. Replace gas tank cap tightly. Avoid waiting in long drive-thru lines, for example, at fast-food restaurants or banks. Park your car and go in. When possible, use public transportation, walk, or ride a bike. Use a fuel efficient car .Get regular engine tune ups and car maintenance checks (especially for the spark plugs). Use an energy-conserving (EC) grade motor oil. Join a carpool system. Use bicycles for short distance journey instead of power-driven vehicles
  20. 20. WAYS TO REDUCE AIR POLLUTION At Home: Conserve energy - turn off appliances and lights when you leave the room. Recycle, glass bottles, cardboard, and aluminum cans. (This conserves energy and reduces production) Buy green electricity-produced by low-or even zero- pollution facilities. Connect your outdoor lights to a timer or use solar lighting. Wash clothes with warm or cold water instead of hot. Lower the thermostat on your water heater to 120F. Reduce the use of air conditioners.
  21. 21. COUNTRY WISE CO2 EMISSION PER YEAR.