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Air navigation slides for better understanding of the so called tough subject!

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  • 1. AIR NAVIGATION

2. Periods 1&2 INTRODUCTION HOW IS AIR NAVIGATION DIFFERENT FROM NAVIGATION ON LAND AND WATER? FORM OF THE EARTH SHAPE, SIZE, AXIS OF ROTATION, GEOGRAPHIC POLES GREAT CIRCLES, SMALL CIRCLE GRATICULE, LATITUDE, PARELLELS OF LAT, D LAT MERIDIANS, PRIME MERIDIAN, ANTE MERIDIAN, LONGITUDE, D LONG , LAT/LONG POSITION , BEARING AND DIST, PLACE NAME, GRID, GEOREF SYSTEM 3. AIR NAVIGATION AIR NAVIGATION is the ART and SCIENCE of taking an Aircraft from Place A to Place B, Safely and in Shortest Possible TIME, ie Most Economically Most Important aspect of Aviation and involves not only the in depth knowledge of a wide variety of subjects but also their interdependence and co-relation and their impact on the flight operations 4. THE THREE WS OF NAVIGATION WHERE AM I ? WHY AM I HERE? WHAT DO I DO NEXT? 5. How is Air Navigation different from navigation on land and water? PILOTAGE NAVIGATION WITH REFERENCE TO VISIBLEFEATURES 6. EARTH FORM SHAPE SIZE AXIS OF ROTATION GEOGRAPHIC POLES GREAT CIRCLES SMALL CIRCLES EQUATOR, MERIDIANS & PARELLELS GRATICULE 7. SOLAR SYSTEM The Solar System consists of the Sun ,nine major planets , including the earth, and approximately 2000 minor planets and asteroids. Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto All the Planets orbit around the sun in elliptical orbits in accordance with Kepplers Laws of Planetary motion. Similarly the Earth orbits the Sun in an elliptical orbit at an average distance of 93 million statute miles from the Sun. 8. THE EARTHS ORBIT The Earth not only orbits the Sun but also spins on its own axis, presenting a continuously changing face to the Sun. This causes day and night. The Earths axis is inclined at an angle of approx 66.5 degrees to the Orbital Plane. This causes the seasons on the Earth as well as the changing time interval between Sunrise and Sunset throughout the year. 9. THE POLES The Poles are defined as the extremities of the axis about which the Earth spins. When viewed from above a Pole, if the Earth appears to rotate in an anti-clockwise direction then that Pole has been named as the North Pole. Similarly, if viewed from above a Pole , the Earth appears to rotate in a clockwise direction then that Pole has been named as the South Pole. 10. SHAPE OF THE EARTH OBLATE SPHEROID a solid generated by revolution of an ellipse about its minor axis Equatorial Diameter= Polar Diameter + 27 Statute Miles 6865 NM 6888 NM Compression or Flattening = Eq Dia Polar Dia Eq Dia 11. Topographical SurfaceTopographical surface Mountain Geoid Ellipsoid Ocean 12. GREAT CIRCLE IS A CIRCLE ON THE SURFACE OF A SPHERE (EARTH) WHOSE CENTER AND RADIUS ARE THE SAME AS THOSE OF THE SPHERE. IT IS THE LARGEST CIRCLE THAT CAN BE DRAWN ON THE SPHERE . IT CUTS THE SPHERE INTO TWO EQUAL HALVES. ONLY ONE GREAT CIRCLE CAN BE DRAWN THROUGH ANY TWO POINTS ON THE SURFACE OF THE EARTH WHICH ARE NOT DIAMETRICALLY OPPOSITE TO EACH OTHER. THE SHORTER ARC OF THE GREAT CIRCLE PASSING THROUGH TWO POINTS REPRESENTS THE SHORTEST DISTANCE BETWEEN THE POINTS 13. SMALL CIRCLE: ANY CIRCLE WHICH IS NOT A GREAT CIRCLE IS CALLED A SMALL CIRCLE. EQUATOR: EQUATOR IS A GREAT CIRCLE WHOSE PLANE IS AT RIGHT ANGLES TO THE AXIS OF ROTATION OF THE EARTH. IT CUTS THE EARTH INTO NORTHERN AND SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE. PARALELS OF LATITUDE: SMALL CIRCLES WHOSE PLANE IS PARALEL TO THE PLANE OF THE EQUATOR . MERIDIANS: ARE SEMI GREAT CIRCLES PASSING THROUGH THE NORTH AND THE SOUTH POLES.A MERIDIAN PASSING THROUGH A PLACE ALWAYS DEFINES THE NORTH SOUTH DIRECTION. PRIME MERIDIAN: THE MERIDIAN PASSING THROUGH GREENWICH (LONDON) IS CALLED THE PRIME MERIDIAN ANTI MERIDIAN: THE OTHER HALF OF THE GREAT CIRCLE COMPLETING THE MERIDIAN IS CALLED ITS ANTI MERIDIAN GRATICULE: NETWORK OF MERIDIANS AND PARALELS OF LATITUDE IS CALLED GRATICULE. 14. NP SP EQUATOR GREAT CIRCL SMALLCIRCLES 15. BASIC DIRECTIONS ON THE EARTH NEED FOR A DATUM THE DIRECTION IN WHICH THE EARTH IS SPINNING IS DEFINED AS EAST. THE DIRECTION OPPOSITE TO EAST IS NAMED WEST. FACING EAST, THE POLE ON THE LEFT IS NORTH POLE AND DIRECTION NORTH IS DEFINED AS THE DIRECTION TOWARDS THE NORTH POLE LIKEWISE THE POLE ON THE RIGHT IS THE SOUTH POLE AND THE DIRECTION SOUTH IS DEFINED AS THE DIRECTION TOWARDS THE SOUTH POLE. SOUTH IS ALSO THE DIRECTION OPPOSITE TO NORTH 16. NORTH EAST SOUTH WEST CARDINAL DIRECTIONS OR POINTS NORTH-EAST SOUTH-EAST SOUTH-WEST NORTH WEST QUADRANTAL DIRECTIONS OR POINTS N S EW NE SESW NW 17. SEXAGESIMAL SYSTEM / TRUE DIRECTION SEXAGESIMAL SYSTEM USES THE FACT THAT A CLOCKWISE ROTATION OF DIRECTION FROM NORTH THROUGH EAST, SOUTH AND WEST AND BACK TO NORTH IS A CIRCLE OF 360 DEGREES. NORTH IS THUS 000 Degrees, EAST BECOMES 090 Degrees, SOUTH 180 Degrees AND WEST 270 Degrees. NORTH CAN BE 360 OR 000 Degrees. WHEN THE NORTH DATUM IS WITH RESPECT TO THE GEOGRAPHIC NORTH POLE , THEN THE DIRECTIONS ARE TERMED AS TRUE DIRECTIONS AND SHOWN AS 000(T) , 090(T), 135(T) etc 090(M) WILL BE THE DIRECTION WITH RESPECT TO THE MAGNETIC NORTH AND 090(C) WILL BE THE DIRECTION WITH THE DATUM AS THE COMPASS NORTH 18. LATITUDE,PARELLELS OF LATITUDE DIFF OF LAT/DIFF OF LONG PRIME MERIDIAN/ ANTI MERIDIAN STANDARD MERIDIAN POSITIONS EXPRESSED IN TERMS OF LAT & LONG, BEARINGS AND DISTANCES 19. DEFINITIONS LATITUDE : LAT OF A POINT IS THE ARC OF THE MERIDIAN PASSING THROUGH THE POINT INTERCEPTED BETWEEN THE EQUATOR AND THE POINT. MEASURED IN DEG, MIN, AND SEC AND IS TERMED NORTH OR SOUTH DEPENDING ON WHETHER THE POINT IS NORTH OR SOUTH OF THE EQUATOR LONGITUDE : LONGITUDE OF A PLACE IS THE SHORTER ARC OF THE EQUATOR INTERCEPTED BETWEEN THE PRIME MERIDIAN AND THE MERIDIAN PASSING THROUGH THE PLACE . MEASURED IN DEG, MIN, AND SEC AND IS TERMED EAST OR WEST DEPENDING ON WHETHER THE POINT IS EAST OR WEST OF THE PRIME MERIDIAN. 20. Latitude 40 N Equator A Latitude 40 N E Q N S 40 21. . NP Greenwich B 0 Greenwich Meridian 180 Meridian 22. DEFINITIONS CHANGE OF LAT (Ch Lat/D Lat): BETWEEN TWO PLACES IS THE SMALLER ARC OF THE MERIDIAN INTRRCEPTED BETWEEN THE PARALLELS OF LATITUDE OF THE TWO PLACES AND IS NAMED NORTH OR SOUTH DEPENDING ON THE DIRECTION OF THE CHANGE. MEASURED IN DEG, MIN AND SEC. CHANGE OF LONG (Ch Long/D Long): BETWEEN TWO PLACES IS THE SMALLER ARC OF THE EQUATOR INTRRCEPTED BETWEEN THE MERIDIANS OF THE TWO PLACES AND IS NAMED EAST OR WEST DEPENDING ON THE DIRECTION OF THE CHANGE. MEASURED IN DEG, MIN AND SEC 23. Periods 3&4 DIRECTION MAGNETIC POLES, RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GEOGRAPHIC AND MAGNETIC POLES VARIATION, ISOGONALS, DEVIATION , HEADING (C),(M),(T) TRACK MAGNETIC AND TRUE CONVERSION AND C D M V T PRACTICE PROBLEMS 24. Aircraft HEADING True Magnetic Compass TN MN CN Variation (E) Deviation (W) Measurement of Direction 25. DIRECTION MAGNETIC POLES RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GEOG & MAGNETIC POLES VARIATION, ISOGONALS, AGONIC LINE DIP-ISOCLINALS, ACLINIC LINE TRACK MAGNETIC AND TRUE CONVERSION OF COMP DIR TO MAG AND TRUE AND VICE VERSA 26. Periods 5&6 UNITS OF MEASURE MENT NAUTICAL MILE , STATUTE MILE, KILOMETER RELATIONSHIP NAUTICAL MILE AND LAT METERS , FEET AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP TEMPERATURE, UNITS OF MEASUREMENT POUNDS AND KILOGRAMS US GALLONS, IMP GALLONS, LITERS AND THEIR CONVERSION 27. UNITS OF MEASUREMENT NAUTICAL MILE, STATUTE MILE, KM METERS AND FEET & THEIR RELSHIP 1M=3.3 ft TEMP; UNITS OF MEASUREMENT C F K ( Absolute Temp) XF=(X-32)x 5/9 C YC=(Y+273) K Z C = (Z x 9/5) + 32 F APPRECIATION OF VARIATION OF LENGTH OF NAUTICAL MILE WITH LAT POUNDS, KG 1 Kg = 2.2 lbs US GALLONS, IMP GALLONS,LITRES 1 Imp Gal = 1.2 US Gal = 4.55 Ltr 1 US Gal = 3.6 Ltr CONVERSION OF THE ABOVE 28. Periods 7&8 CONVERGENCY, CONVERGENCE OF MERIDIANS VARIATION OF CONVERGENCY WITH LAT ITS EFFECT ON G/C TRACKS RHUMB LINE, DEFINITION, ADV/ DISADV OF R/L TR VIS--VIS G/C TR CONVERSION ANGLE AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH CONVERGENCY APPLICATION OF THE SAME 29. CONVERGENCY CONVERGENCE OF MERIDIANS VARIATION OF CONVERGENCY WITH LAT EFFECT OF CONV ON GREAT CIRCLE TRACKS 30. x x x CONVERGENCY between Long A and Long B At Lat C A B Convergency = Ch Long X Sine Mean Lat CONVERGENCY IS DEFINED AS THE ANGLE OF INCLINATION BETWEEN TWO SELECTED MERIDIANS MEASURED AT A GIVEN LATITUDE C 31. RHUMB LINE DEFINITION : IT IS A REGULARLY CURVED LINE WHICH CUT ALL THE MERIDIANS AT THE SAME ANGLE ADVANTAGES : IT REPRESENTS THE CONSTANT DIRECTION FLIGHT. SO CONSTANT HEADING CAN BE MAINTAINED. IT OBVIATES THE NEED TO CONSTANTLY KEEP CHANGING THE HEADING AS IS THE CASE WITH G/C TRACKS DISADVANTAGES : IT DOES NOT REPRESENT THE SHORTEST DISTANCE. SO IT IS LESS ECONOMICAL IN COMPARISON WITH GREAT CIRCLE CONVERSION ANGLE : THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE G/C TRACK AND THE RHUMB LINE TRACK BETWEEN ANY TWO PLACES IS CALLED THE CONVERSION ANGLE. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CONV ANGLE AND CONVERGENCY: CONVERSION ANGLE IS EQUAL = CONVERGENCY THEREFORE CA = CH LONG X SINE MEAN LAT ITS APPLICATION; IT IS ESSENTIAL THAT THE C/A IS APPLIED AT THE POSITION WHERE THE G/C DIRECTION IS MEASURED 32. Convergency= 70 x Sin30 = 35 Deg C/A= 17 Deg E Q 60N 50W 20E A B NP SP R/L G/C C/A C/A 33. DEPARTURE DEPARTURE IS THE E W DISTANCE BETWEEN TWO MERIDIANS ALONG A SPECIFIED LATITUDE, USUALLY IN NAUTICAL MILES IT IS MAXIMUM AT THE EQUATOR AND ZERO AT THE POLES, WHERE ALL MERIDIANS CONVERGE THEREFORE, DEP VARIES AS Cos LAT Departure (nm) =Ch Long (Min)xCos Lat 34. A B C D 10 W 20 W 20 N 40 N POSN A 40 N 10 W B - 40 N 20 W C - 20N 10 W D - 20 N 20 W GIVE:THE R/L DIST FROM A B THE DEP FROM B TO C THE DEP FROM CTO B? 35. Q.1 GIVEN THAT THE VALUE OF EARTHS COMPRESSION IS 1/297 AND THAT THE SEMI-MAJOR AXIS OF THE EARTH, ( MEASURED AT THE EQUATOR) IS 6378.4 KM , WHAT IS THE SEMI-MINOR AXIS (MEASURED AT AXIS OF THE POLES)? a) 6399.9 km b) 6356.5 km c) 6378.4 km d) 6367.0 km Q.2 GIVE THE DIRECTION AND CHANGE OF LATITU

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