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World Trade Organisation

What is comparative Politics analysis about?by Ahmad Rashid JamalinComparative Politics ofDr. Jale Tosun

Structure1. Characteristics and patterns of public policies2. Problem Definition3. Agenda Setting4. Decision Making5. Implementation6. Conclusion7. Discussion

1. Characteristics and patterns of public policies

1.1 What is policy analysis?Policy analysis is finding out what governments do, why they do it and what difference it makes.

I.2 What is public policy?An attempt by the government to address a public issue which should change the behaviour of the target groups.

I.3 The three major analytical dimensions of political science

Polities: Institutional arrangements which characterise a political systemPolitics: Patterns of the decision making processPolicies: Concret output of a political system

1.4 The three dimensions of public policiesPolicy Output: Formalised contents of a public policy as defined by legal acts Policy Outcome: Effects of a public policy in terms of the changes in the behaviour of the target groups Policy Impact: Effects of a public policy in terms of problem resolution

1.4 Lowis policy typology Type of policyDefinitionExamplesDistributive policiesPolicies distributing new (state) resourcesFarm subsidies; local infrastructure such as highways and schoolsRedistributive policiesPolicies modifying the distribution of existing resourcesWelfare; land reform; progressive taxation Regulatory policiesPolicies specifying conditions and constraints for individual and collective behaviourEnvironmental protection; migration policy; consumer protectionConstituent policiesPolicies creating or modifying the states institutionsChanges of procedural rules of parliaments; creation of new agencies

Source: Knill, Tosun (2012), p. 11

1.5 Policy classification by governance principles (by Hood)Governance principleNodalityAuthorityTreasureOrganisationBasic resourceInformationLawMoneyStructures and CapacityGovernance logicIndirect stimulation of behavioural change through information.Direct prescription of behavioural rules. Indirect stimulation of behavioural change through financial incentives. Provision of public good or service by the state or public enterpriseTypical instrumentsInformation campaignsResearch inquiriesProhibitionsBansTaxesGrantsTax deductionsProvision of goods and services

Source: Knill, Tosun (2012), p.18

The Policy CycleSource: Own illustration based on Knill and Tosun (2012).

2. Problem Definition Problem definition sets the stage for the other components of the decision process,. It is a key aspect of decision making.The way in which a problem is first defined is consequential for all subsequent policy stages.A problem is a problem only if something can be done about it. Public attention can be increased or decreased by framing, which can refer to the causality, severity, proximity, crises, incidence, novelty, and problem populations for any particular policy problem.

3. Agenda SettingIt is a selection process, because not every political problem can make it on the agenda.Four different agenda types:Systemic agenda: All societal problems that demand public attention where a precise definition is still missing.Institutional agenda: A set of problems that are up for the serious consideration of decision makers.Drafting agenda: Is a list of subjects that are getting attention within government.Decision agenda: Is based on those issues for which the government has agreed on a draft proposal.

Actors in the agenda setting process

Elected public officials and judges

Bureaucracy

Mass Media

Interest Groups

International Organisations

4. Decision Making

Decision makingDrafting of a piece of legislationFormal adoptionBoth of these phases are characterized by:

1.Procedural Restrictions: Emerge from countries respective polities2.Substantial Restrictions: Refer to the policy problems that need to resolved

Decision making/ Policy formulationPolicy formulationCentral to policy formulationExecutive ActorsMinisterial Bureaucracy1.External expertise2. International Organization3. Interest groups4.Partisan Ideology1. Involvement of IOs in policy drafting can be also a coercive character. When governments turn to IOs Such as IMF and WB for financial help these organizations make very specific recommendations

Policy Formulation

Interest groups are able to supply valuable information concerning the effects of a policy.Interest groups engage in a two-way information mediation process, which means that they also supply information to their members. They can frame policy proposal in a way to achieve either more or less acceptance.Political preferences stemming from partisan ideology

Determinants of policy formulationIn Both system of governmentsIn parliamentary system by Executive

2. In presidential system by Legislative Committees1.Expertise: Is the most important criteria of policy proposal for ministerial bureaucracy, like professional trainings.

2. Information: Bureaucrats cannot provide themselves with all the relevant information about certain social problem, like what are the long-term effects of genetically manipulated crops on public health and the environment?

Determinants of policy formulation3. Experts and Ideas:

They can give advice about likely results of different courses of actionsThey might help decision makers to grasp complex interlinkages between issuesThey can be helpful for developing profound policy principles such as workfareThey might provide support to choose among policy alternatives through framing them in accordance with certain norms.

Institutional and procedural Dimensions of decision makingHow policy preferences are transformed into actual polices?Institutional and procedural arrangements (Veto Points)Veto points refer to the fact that policy decisions need the agreement of several, constitutionally generated, institutional points in a chain of decision.The more veto points in a given political system, the more difficult it is to gain approval for policy adoptionVeto players are defined as individual or collective actors whose agreement is necessary for a change of status quo and they are two types: 1. Institutional players 2. Partisan veto players.

5. Policy ImplementationIs the stage in the policy making process where a policy is put into effect by the responsible bureaucracies or it is a connection between policy makers on the one side and policy addresses on the other side, mediated by implementers.Implementation is the missing link between policy making and evaluation.Actors B. Different concepts and analytical perspectives C. Implementation Effectiveness

Who is involved in policy implementation?A policy is carried out by different levels of bureaucracy. 1. Various National Ministries and autonomous agencies 2. Public entities in local level 3. Local Employment agencies 4. Policies that are implemented by multiple organizations or collaborative efforts

Analytical perspectives in Policy ImplementationThe very basic level in implementation is about conversion of new public policy.Implementation is complex as it encompasses various action by public and private actors. 1. Traditional approach (Top-down): Concentrates on policy outputs and investigates the extent to which, the intended objectives were achieved over time and why. 2. Bottom-up models usually stress the strong interlinkages between the stages of policy formulation, implementation and re-formulation. 3. More recently, Hybrid Models of policy implementation have been advanced, which seeks to overcome the divide between the other two models by incorporating elements of top-down and bottom-up.

Criteria of Implementation SuccessThe Criteria that are applied to measure successful or perfect implementation based on the logic of top-down models, we suggest distinguishing between:Formal Transposition: Focuses on entirety of concrete provisions of a given public policy and incorporation into existing legal and administrative system.Practical Application: This dimension gives a better understanding of the more substantive aspects of public policy that go beyond what is written in law book.Determinants of Implementation SuccessCharacteristics of Policy 2. Institutional FactorsChoice of policy instrument, control structure, Institutional design and social acceptance.

6. Conclusion The relationship between the executive and the legislature is central to understanding decision making. Yet, this relationship changes substantially from one country to another.Ministerial bureaucracies are heavily involved in policy drafting; depending on the political system in which they act.For effectively assessing implementation success, both Formal Transposition and Practical application can be employed.Implementation is a complex and it encompasses various action by Public and Private actors.

7. Discussion

1. Group discussion on recent decision of some of the UK parliament member regarding joining of UK to EU.Do mass media act as a policy taker or as a policy maker?Why are the chances of a specific policy proposal being adopted are higher than for another one?Why policy implementation is multi-faceted and demanding both empirical and theoretical research?

References

Knill, C. and J. Tosun (2012). Public Policy: A New Introduction. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan (chapters 2, 5, 6 and 7).