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AFRICIAN BS PROVER

TONGA PROVERBS FROM MALAWIDavid K. MphandeCopyright 2001 by David K. Mphande The author grants permission to download and/or print this book, in whole or in part, for any non-commercial use as long as the copyright notice is included and the text is unchanged.

PROVERBS FOR PREACHING AND TEACHING SERIESSeries Editor, Joshua N. Kudadjie Vol. 1: Ga Proverbs from Ghana, Joshua N. Kudadjie Vol. 2: Bassa Proverbs from Liberia, Abba Karnga Vol. 3: Tonga Proverbs from Malawi, David K. MphandeThe series was begun as part of the African Proverbs Project, 1993-1997, with assistance from The Pew Charitable Trusts, Philadelphia, USA The Tonga Proverbs book was published in the local Tonga language by __________ and may be ordered from _________________[SN1].

Table of Contents

Foreword.......................................................................................................................3 Acknowledgements.......................................................................................................5 Series Introduction........................................................................................................6 A. General Features of African Proverbs.................................................................6 B. Source and Authority..........................................................................................6 C. Scope and Content.............................................................................................7 D. Context and Use.................................................................................................8 E. African Proverbs and the Mission of the Church.................................................9 Part I: A Christian Framework for Using Tonga Proverbs (Nthanthi/Vituwu)..............10 1. The Lakeside Tonga People and Their Language.................................................10 A. Their Origin and Connections...........................................................................10 B. Their Habitat.....................................................................................................11 C. Venues for Moral Instruction.............................................................................12 D. Forms and Nature of Tonga Literature.............................................................12 E. Emphases of Tonga Proverbs...........................................................................121. The Defenceless People Who Need Protection.................................................................................................................13 2. On Unity and Cooperation................................................................................................................................................13 3. On Conflict in Families or Community............................................................................................................................13 4. On the Concept of Wrong and Retribution.......................................................................................................................13 5. On Gods Providence and Care.........................................................................................................................................13

F. Conclusion........................................................................................................14 2. Emphases of Biblical Proverbs.............................................................................15 A. Introduction......................................................................................................15 B. The Sources of Biblical Proverbs.......................................................................15 C. The Form, Structure and Style of Biblical Proverbs..........................................16 D. Purpose of the Proverbs...................................................................................16 E. The Most Emphasized Themes.........................................................................171. God....................................................................................................................................................................................17 2. The Fool............................................................................................................................................................................17 3. Various Warnings.............................................................................................................................................................18 4. Wisdom.............................................................................................................................................................................19 5. Friends and Good Neighbours..........................................................................................................................................19 6. Words................................................................................................................................................................................19 7. The Family........................................................................................................................................................................20 8. Life and Death...................................................................................................................................................................20 9. The Kingdom of God........................................................................................................................................................21

A. Towards the Use of Tonga Proverbs for Inculturation of the Gospel.................231. Division and Conflicts......................................................................................................................................................23 2. Generosity/Kindness.........................................................................................................................................................23 3. Justice and Friendship.......................................................................................................................................................23 4. Good and Evil...................................................................................................................................................................24 5. The Providence of God.....................................................................................................................................................24

B. What the Gospel Corrects or Replaces.............................................................24 C. Conclusion........................................................................................................24 4. Suggestions for Further Study and Reflection.....................................................25 A. Revaluing Our Tonga Heritage.........................................................................25 B. Possible Objections To Using African Proverbs in the Church...........................26 C. Responses to the Objections............................................................................26 D. Advantages in Using Proverbs..........................................................................27 E. Suggestions for Further Study and Follow-Up..................................................27 Part II: The Proverbs....................................................................................................29 5. 200 Annotated Tonga Proverbs for Preaching and Teaching..............................29 Bibliography..............................................................................................................104

Index A: By Scripture Reference..............................................................................105 Index B: By Occasion or Purpose of Use..................................................................109 Index C: By Theological Topic...................................................................................110 Appendix A: 116 Other Tonga Proverbs for Study and Application...........................111 Appendix B: Note on the African Proverbs Project....................................................121

ForewordThe Proverbs for Preaching and Teaching Series is one facet of the many-sided African Proverbs Project (see Appendix B), an international, interdisciplinary effort to promote the collection, study and publication of proverbs. Proverbs are an endangered heritage of African peoples, under increasing threat from Western influences including Western education. The Project was organized to find and encourage the people who already working to preserve and promote African proverbs as well as to recruit additional people to blaze some new trails in proverb study and use. The Proverbs for Preaching and Teaching Series is one of these new trails, perhaps the most promising one. Rev. Joshua Kudadjie of Ghana, Rev. Abba Karnga of Liberia and Rev. David Mphande, all with long experience in preaching and religious education, were recruited to pioneer the way by producing annotated proverb collections in their own languages. Many other African proverb collections have been written and a few of these, such as William Lanes 50 Proverbs: Traditional and Christian Wisdom, used a somewhat similar design that showed how the heritage of traditional proverbs can be adapted for Christian use. However, as far as we know these are the first proverb books specifically designed both as textbooks for pastoral training centers and as resource books for pastors and other church educators. Though the grant-funded period of our Project ended in 1997, the ripple effects of these books may spread out in many ways in years