africa. early african general geography general geography plateau: africa shaped like an upside down...
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Early AfricanGeneral GeographyPlateau: Africa shaped like an upside down bowlRivers: Nile, Congo, Niger all blocked by rapids and hard to travel upstream (isolation and lack of trade)DesertsSahara Desert: Covers one-fourth of Africa (North)Kalahari and Namib Deserts (South) Savannas: Dry grasslands south of the Sahara desert and north of Kalahari and Namib DesertsTropical Rainforest: Center of Africa (equator)Mountains: Mount Kilimanjaro and Mount Kenya
Early AfricaLanguageBantu: Early African Language.appeared to have spread over a lot of Sub Saharan AfricaTradeEarly peoples appear to have had some interactions with AsiaSocietyMatrilineal: Ancestors and property traced back through their mothers instead of fathersReligionSimilar to other areasgods and spirits based on nature
Ancient EgyptEgyptian GeographyNile River: Where the first Civilizations began..predictable flooding was a positive for development of EgyptSahara Desert: Made invasion impossibleEgyptian DevelopmentHieroglyphics: WritingPapyrus: Plant that was made into early paper
Ancient EgyptLeaders/RulersPharaoh: Absolute powerboth religious and politicalKingdomsOld (2680 BC-2180 BC): Built Pyramids/SphinxMiddle (2050-1780 BC): Invaded by foreigners New (1570 BC-1080 BC): Strongest EmpireFamous Pharaohs Hatshepsut: 1st Female PharaohThutmose III: King Tutone of few tombs found intactRamses II: Last great Pharaoh..eventually Egyptians lost their freedoms when invaded by Persians in 300 BC
Ancient EgyptReligionGods based of natureMummification: Process to prepare the body for life after death. Tomb of Pharaohs would be filled with valuables to take with them to afterlifeTradeCaravans: groups of people traveling together and trading together (safety)
East Africa TradeTradeThere were no real large kingdoms in the lands located along the Indian Ocean.More small villages that were centered on trade. Traded gold, ivory, hides and fellow African slaves.A lot of interactions with Muslims from Arabia and PersiaSwahiliAfrican culture that developed in Eastern AfricaLanguage that combine Bantu with Persian and ArabicBecame popular up and down the east coast of AfricaBig on trade. Tippu Tip-famous trader and lead Europeans into Africa
West AfricaTradeSalt for gold trade was important along South SaharaEmpires began to grow around this areaGhanaEarliest empire of West Africa (300 AD)Tunka Manin: Ghanaian ruler at the peak of power (1067 AD). Huge Army: 200,000 warriors, bows/arrows/spearsDestroyed when the Berbers invaded across the area in 1100 AD. Berbers carried Islam across North Africa
West AfricaMaliNeighbors of Ghana; gained control of area in 1235 ADMansa Musa: Leader of Mali during its peak of powerTimbuktu: Became the leading city of Mali; educational and trade center. SonghaiSonni Ali captured Timbuktu after Musas death, created a new empire called the Songhai. Gao and Timbuktu became main trading centers for people from Europe, India, and China.Eventually defeated by an army from Morocco that had a new weaponguns.
European InvolvementSlave TradePortugal began with a positive relationship with African tribesthen they became greedy and wanted gold and slaves.Dutch, English and French would all get involved by the 1600s.Middle Passage: Trip the slaves made from Africa to Americasawful. Part of Triangular Trade. Slaves would be sold in return for New World goods headed to Europe and Africa.Over 10 million slaves survived the journey to the Americas. West Africa Slave TradeStrong states began to emerge in West Africa as partners in the slave trade. Slavery of other people was a popular practice in Africa (although freedom was often times granted and not considered property)Problem: Over time, the loss of so many people had awful effects on the development of the area.
1880-1914 New ImperialismNew Imperialism: competition among European nations to grow their empire around the world as much as possible. This led to conflict among the European nations as well as conflict with the natives.The Scramble for AfricaColonization of nearly all of Africa by the European nations Before 1880 only 10% of Africa was controlled by European powers. Mainly along the coast of W. Africa for the slave trade.By 1900 only Ethiopia and Liberia remained free from European control
How and why did it happen?1) Attraction of Imperialism: Glory of the Conquest2) White Mans Burden to rescue the rest of the world from themselves and civilize the native people of Africa and Asia. Leopold and BelgiansLeopold II becomes King of Belgium and begins Imperialist rant, pushing for glories and exploration.He sent H.M. Stanley up the Congo River to establish trading posts and began colonization and competition for Africa
1884-1885 Berlin ConferenceThe Berlin Conference (1885) was a series of meetings between the major powers of Europe. They laid down the rules for dividing up Africa. They established the principle of effective occupation to claim territory. They agree to recognized any areas that are already developed by other European nations. Then the powers rushed to establish the areas unoccupied by other European powers.
Which European countries were fighting for a position in Africa?Is the cartoon accurate? Does it really show what was going on?How did the Berlin Conference lead to the situation shown?
After the Berlin ConferenceFrance conquers much of Western Africa (some of Central)British greatly expand their holding by pushing into the south interior and continued interest in Egypt.Germany enters the fray with colonies in West Africa, SW Africa, and German E. AfricaItaly gets into the act in Libya and SomaliaSpain establishes colonies in coastal W. AfricaUnited States InvolvementDefended Liberia; a county for freed American slaves to return to.Only independent country in the area.
1800s: Effects of European ImperialismBad EffectsEuropeans controlled all aspects of governmentThey did not create borders that aligned with the tribes of the area. Often put rival tribes within the same borders which led to conflict. Paternalism: Belief that Africans were not able to effectively rule themselves. Alliances: Some Africans tried to form alliances with European countriesusually this worked out bad for the African countries (Ethiopia and Italy)Most Africans never accepted European rule and culture. Europeans wanted them to assimilate. Did not happen.Good EffectsNew things: crops, ways of farming, roads, and railroads all helped improve communications.
Independence TimePost WWIAfter WWI a lot of British colonies began demanding self-rule.IssuesAfricans had helped GB/France during WWInow they wanted freedom.Soldiers returning from war had new ideas on nationalism, independence, racism, etc
More Calls for IndependenceAfrican OrganizationsBy the 1930s most Africans were calling for independence rather than reform.This made European countries and tribal chiefs upsetLeadersNnamdi Azikiwe (Nigeria), Jomo Kenyatta (Kenya) and Leopold Senghor (Senegal). This leaders followed the non-violent teachings of Gandhi to gain support for independence
African during WWIIItaly/EthiopiaEthiopia: one of the few independent countries in Africa during the 1930s.Mussolini: Leader of Italy, invaded a defeated Ethiopia in 1935. Ethiopia had asked for help, no one helped them. Fought them off and remained independent.Fighting in AfricaGermany, led by commander Erwin Rommel had taken control of Libya. Tank warfareEventually Axis forces were defeated by Americans/British forces in 1942forced to retreat back to Tunisia.Eventually Dwight Eisenhower (SA) and Bernard Montgomery (GB) were able to trap Rommels troops in Tunisia. Allies gained complete control of Northern Africa and Suez Canal
Back to more independenceIndependence MovementGrew tremendously after WWII. Most Africans no longer accepted being under the control of European CountriesPan Africanism: Cultural unity of people of African heritage in their struggle for freedom. Europes ResponseNot all European countries were so eager to give up their lands in Africa
British Colonies in AfricaGhanaKwame Nkrumah (en-KROO-muh) was the leader and began to organize political change. Boycotts turned into riotseventually stopped by GBConvention Peoples Party (CPP): Founded by Nkrumah and was determined to get immediate self-governmentIn 1957, the Gold Coast was given its freedom from Great Britain.renamed Ghana to celebrate African heritageKenyaCountries with more white settlers (like Kenya) were more against giving Africans any sort of self rule.Arguments over who would control the wealthy land that coffee was grown on (whites had control of it).This led to a bloody conflict between the Kikuyu (Kenyas largest ethnic group) and the whites/Africans that were loyal to GB.Jomo Kenyatta: Leader of the Mau Mau (secret Kikuyu group) was imprisoned..eventually freed in 1961. Kenyatta easily won election in 1964Kenya was free
Post Independence AfricaGhana and Political ViolenceKwame Nkrumah: Leader of Ghanatook control of cocoa (very profitable, made a ton of money and power)Turned Ghana into a one-party state and had absolute power. Cocoa prices fell, Ghana lost money and Nkrumah turned violent towards his own people. Military Coup (takeover) forced Nkrumah out of powerJerry Rawlings: brought back civilian rule to GhanaTransition was not an easy thing for people of Ghana but today Ghana is a stable democracy in West Africa
British Colonies in AfricaCentral AfricaSouth Rhodesia: Large white population; granted self government during the 1920s. North Rhodesia and Nyasaland: Mostly