AERONAUTICS. Classifications  Lighter-Than-Air  Free Balloons  Airships  Specialized  Kite-Balloons  Kites  Parachutes ???  Heavier-Than-Air 

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> AERONAUTICS </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> Classifications Lighter-Than-Air Free Balloons Airships Specialized Kite-Balloons Kites Parachutes ??? Heavier-Than-Air Ornithopters Helicopters Gliders Aeroplanes Ballistic Rockets </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> Outline Early Origins First Balloon Ascents Kite Balloons, Kites &amp; Parachutes Epoch Of The Airship Ornithopters Fixed Wing Flight - Gliders Powered Aeroplane Jet Power Rockets Helicopters </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> Early Origins Daedalus &amp; His Son, Icarus Escaped Imprisonment From Crete With Wings Made From Feathers &amp; Wax. Flew Too Close To Sun. Archytas Of Tarentum (4th Century BC) Made Wooden Pigeon Which Flew Roger Bacon &amp; Albert The Great (1200s) Albert Of Saxony (1300s) Leonardo da Vinci (1400s) Parachutes, Helicopters, Ornithopters (Bird Flight) Robert Hooke (Late 1600s) Experiments With Flying Machines - Records Lost </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> First Balloon Ascents Bartholomeu Lourenco de Gusmao (1709) Hot-Air Model - No Passengers Demonstrated Before King Of Portugal Joseph &amp; Etienne Montgolfiere Man-Carrying Hot-Air Model (1782) J.F. Pilatre de Rozier &amp; Marquis dArlandes First Free-Flight By Man (1783) Montgolfiere Balloon 7.5 Miles, 26 Minutes 3000 ft 78000 ft 3 </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> First Balloon Ascents J.A.C. Charles (1746-1823) Hydrogen Would Be More Efficient Than Hot Air Isolated By Henry Cavendish (1766) Charliere Made First Flight 10 Days After de Rozier &amp; dArlandes 27 Miles, 2 Hours 9000 ft </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> First Balloon Ascents CharliereMontgolfiere </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> Kite Balloons Military Development Of Free Balloon Used For Observation - WW I First Practical Kite Balloon - German Drachen Elongated Gas-Filled Balloon (1896) Led To Zeppelin Development </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> Kites Chinese (1000 BC) Man-Lifting Purposes ? Europe - Romans (1400s) Single Monoplane Lifting Surfaces Box-Kite (1893) Hargrave More Efficient Tandem Biplane Lifting Surfaces Man-Lifting ! </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> Parachutes Known To Ancient Chinese Leonardo da Vinci (1400s-1500s) Early Experimenters Blanchard (1777) - dropped Animals Montgolfiere (1779) A.J. Garnerin (1797) - First Human Jump A. Berry (1912) - First Aeroplane Jump E.M. Maitland (1913) - First Airship Jump 1920s - First Free-Fall Packed Parachutes </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> Balloons - Problems Navigation - Paddles, Oars, Propellers Elongated Workable Dirigible Balloon Helped Navigation Light &amp; Powerful Means Of Propulsion Charles (1784) Elongated A Hydrogen Balloon Air-Filled Ballonet Contained Within Main Envelope T. Monck Mason (1843) - 6 mph Le Berrier (1844) - Steam Powered Epoch Of The Airship </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> H. Giffard (1852) - Shown First Man-Carrying Airship 17 Miles At 5 mph 3 hp Steam Engine 3 Bladed Propeller First Pratical Model Renard &amp; Krebs 1884 9 hp Electric Motor 5 Miles At 14 mph </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> Epoch Of The Airship Rigid Airship - Hydrogen D. Schwarz (1897) - Unsuccessful Count F. von Zeppelin (1900) </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> Royal Naval Air Service Coastal Class WW I (1914-1918) Non-Rigid Hydrogen Two 112 kW Engines British Airship R101 1929 Passenger Service Water Ballast Epoch Of The Airship </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> Ornithopters Flapping-Wing Flying-Machines Leonardo da Vinci - Shown Marey (1892) - Flight Of Pigeons Recorded Current Aerodynamic &amp; Physics Theory Possible ????? </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> Fixed Wing Flight - Gliders Hooke (1655) - Thought About Fixed-Wing Flight Sir George Caylay Father Of Aerial Navigation Aerodynamic Lift &amp; Drag Forces (1799) Experimental Gliders (1804) Full Size Man Carrying Glider (1852/53) No Complete Records Survive </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> Otto Lilienthal Applied Principles Of Caylay Contol &amp; Stability Flew Gliders Over 1000 Fights Died In Crash (1896) Worked On Power P.S. Pilcher Followed Lilienthal Died In Crash (1899) Both Would Have Beaten Wright Bros. Fixed Wing Flight - Gliders </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> Octave Chanute Gliding Experiments Used Hargraves Box Kites To Develop Gliders Encouraged Wright Bros. Passed On Trussed Biplane Design Passes Information Between America &amp; Europe Voisin Bros. Two Box Kite Gliders With Pontoons (1905) Towed By Boat Wright Bros. Experimented Extensively With Gliders 3 Versions - 1900, 1901, 1902 Fixed Wing Flight - Gliders </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> Powered Aeroplane Aerodynamic Theory Caylay (1799) Trial &amp; Error Lanchester (1907 &amp; 1908) From Hydrodynamic Theory (Bernoulli, Euler, Etc.) Powered Model Aeroplanes First - de la Croix (1857) Steam Powered - S. P. Langley (1896) 0.75 Miles With 16 Wing Span </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> Powered Aeroplane W.S. Hensen - Patent (1842) Large Transport Aeroplane - Steam Engine Never Flew 150 Wing Span Aerial Transit Company </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> Wright Bros. Orville (Bicycle Manufacturer) &amp; Wilbur First Powered, Sustained, &amp; Controlled Flight Flyer - Tailless Pusher Biplane (Dec 17, 1903) 12 secs, 40 yds Long, 3ft High, 30 mph 12 hp Petrol Engine Kitty Hawk, NC </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> Wright Bros. Am. Press Ignored Their Success For Several Years Third Flyer - 24 Miles In 38 min Govt Contract - One Biplane (1908) 1908 Wright Biplane (Kitty Hawk Museum) Control By Front Elevators, Wing Warping, Double Rudder </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> Santos-Dumont 14 bis Alberto Santos-Dumont Independently In Europe Powered, Sustained, Controlled Tail First Pusher Biplane - Hargrave Style Octobe 23, 1906 - 65 yards 50 hp Antoinette Petrol Engine Wright Bros. Were Quickly Out-Paced </li> </ul>