Advertising Psychology

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Andreea Dicu (slide design) Carmen Neghina Probably my best presentation so far. An insider's view into advertising.

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  • Advertising
  • 7/3/2009
    Advertising Psychology
    2
  • Agenda
    7/3/2009
    Advertising Psychology
    3
    Advertising revealed
    Advertising tactics
    Elaboration Likelihood Model
    Communication Model/Techniques
    1) Who say?
    2) What?
    3) By what means?
    4) To whom?
    Methods of measuring advertising effects
    Trends and future developments
  • Advertising Revealed
  • Innovative
    Fun
    Hard Work
    What do you think about advertising?
    Creative
    Deceptive
    Aggressive
  • Non-Personal
    Sponsor
    Mass Media
    What is advertising in theory?
    Large Audience
    Paid form of communication
    Persuasive
  • Definition of advertising
    Advertising is paid non-personal communication from an identified sponsor using mass media to persuade or influence an audience.
    (Wells, Burnett & Moriarty, 2003, p. 10)
    An advertising idea is a credible and provocative statement of substance about the brands main consumer benefit.
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    Advertising Psychology
  • Major objectives
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    Advertising Psychology
  • Effects of advertising
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    Advertising Psychology
    9
  • Unique Selling Proposition
    A motivating idea, uniquely associated with a particular brand, which is to be registered in the mind of the consumer
    The U.S.P.
    is about uniqueness
    must sell
    must make a proposition
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    10
    Advertising Psychology
  • Unique Selling Proposition
    In best cases our brand or product is unique in itself or is determined to be something unique for a special target group
    Can you give examples?
    Coca cola
    Porsche
    Rolex
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    Advertising Psychology
  • Unique Selling Proposition
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    Advertising Psychology
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    Unique
    Advertising that promises a unique benefit,
    or a benefit that is perceived as distinct and/or superior
    Proposition
    A clear, compelling
    consumer benefit that is
    delivered by the product
    Selling
    Significant and relevant
    to consumers - persuasive
    enough to incite action
  • Unique Selling Proposition
    7/3/2009
    Advertising Psychology
    13
    Unique
    taste, shape, color, different flavors
    Proposition
    The Becks experience
    Selling
    Bottles, cans & kegs
  • Brand Wheel
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    Advertising Psychology
    14
    What the brand is / what the brand looks like:
    Physical/functional characteristics of the brand
    Rational advantage for me. What the brand does: The results of using the brand.
    Psychological advantage of using the brand:
    How the brand makes me feel about myself / how others feel about me, using the brand
    If the brand were a person:
    How would it be?
    Brand Essence: The core of the brand.
    The sum of characteristics in the wheel.
    Attributes
    Benefits
    Values
    Personality
    Brand Essence
  • Brand Wheel
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    Advertising Psychology
    15
    German, Masculine, Luxury, Expensive,
    well-engineered. Quality, Performance,
    Roadholding, Heritage, Bssssssing!
    Sports performance in luxury comfort,
    Best of both worlds. Is what it does
    Wise heads on young shoulders
    A passionate driver
    Serious but not serious-minded,
    charismatic, outgoing, joie de vivre,
    half german, half human.
    The steel fist in a velvet glove
    Attributes
    Benefits
    Values
    Personality
    Brand Essence
    DRIVING EXCELLENCE
  • Advertising Tactics
  • A framework of psychological meaning
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    Advertising Psychology
    17
    Attribute Bundle
    Perceptual Mode
    Context
    Tangible Attributes
    e.g. size
    color
    brightness
    music
    Data driven
    e.g. sight
    touch
    sound
    Individual characteristics
    e.g. attitudes
    perceptual selectivity
    personality
    Psychological Meaning
    Stimulus
    e.g. TV ad
    Billboard
    Image ad
    Social characteristics
    e.g. gender
    social class
    marital status
    occupation
    Intangible Attributes
    e.g. modern
    fun
    exciting
    Concept Driven
    e.g. cognitive associations
    cognitive abstractions
    Situational characteristics
    e.g. time to make decision number of available choices
  • Elaboration Likelihood Model (Petty & Cacioppo, 1986)
    Implies two routes to persuasion:
    Consumers that are motivated and able to process the message will devote more thought to the message contained in advertisement
    • elaboration
    Attitude change depends on the quality of the arguments
    Consumers that are not motivated and/or unable to process the message will switch to a less involved and elaborate processing of information
    Attitude change depends on the peripheral cues
    Central route to persuasion
    Peripheral route to persuasion
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    Advertising Psychology
  • Examples of peripheral cues
    celebrity
    attractive source
    sources with high credibility
    expert sources
    humor
    erotic stimuli
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    Advertising Psychology
  • Elaboration Likelihood Model
    Motivationto process the message can be influenced by
    personal relevance of the product
    need for cognition (a tendency to engage in and enjoy effortful analytic activity)
    personal responsibility
    Ability to process the message can be influenced by
    distraction
    prior knowledge
    intelligence
    message comprehensibility
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    Advertising Psychology
  • Elaboration Likelihood Model
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    Advertising Psychology
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    Consequences of elaboration
    Central route to persuasion
    Peripheral route to persuasion
    • relatively enduring / shows a greater temporal persistence
    • more predictive of behavior
    • shows a greater resistance to counter-persuasion
    • less enduring / relatively temporary
    • unpredictive of behavior
    • shows a greater susceptibility to counter-persuasion
    Attitude change
  • Communication Model
    Who?
    Says what?
    By what means?
    To whom?
  • Communication Model
    Source characteristics
    1) Credibility
    Lowercredibility sources - when the receivers thoughts about the product are favorable
    Higher credibility sources when the receivers thoughts are negative
    Profession has a greater effect upon perceived credibility than the spokesperson
    2) Attractiveness
    3) Gender
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    Advertising Psychology
    23
    Who?
    Says what?
    By what means?
    To whom?
  • Communication Model
    Source characteristics
    1) Credibility
    2) Attractiveness
    For low involvement products coffee, perfume
    Attractive models do not enhance recall, but facilitate ad recognition
    3) Gender
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    Advertising Psychology
    24
    Who?
    Says what?
    By what means?
    To whom?
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    Advertising Psychology
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    Source
    Credibility
    Attractiveness
    Gender
  • 7/3/2009
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    Source
    Credibility
    Attractiveness
    Gender
  • Communication Model
    Source characteristics
    1) Credibility
    2) Attractiveness
    3) Gender
    Gender of models should match the image of the product held by users
    Any role depiction should be realistic and natural rather than stereotypical and false
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    Who?
    Says what?
    By what means?
    To whom?
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    Source
    Credibility
    Attractiveness
    Gender
  • Communication Model
    Who?
    Says what?
    By what means?
    To whom?
  • Communication Model
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    30
    Who?
    Says what?
    By what means?
    To whom?
    Message appeal - the overall style of the advertising
    Rational appeal?
    Emotional appeal?
    One- vs. two- sided and comparative appeals?
  • Communication Model
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    Who?
    Says what?
    By what means?
    To whom?
    The MAC Model
    Memory only most of the choices we make are determined by habit
    Memory plus affect most of the conscious choices that make us pause are determined by affect
    Memory plus affect plus cognition some ads make us think, as well as do some decision
    Ads
    Memory
    Affect
    Perceptual filters
    Competitors for attention
    Cognition
  • Communication Model
    The MAC Model
    Consider a major purchase choice you made in the past.
    Did you use some rational basis to create a consideration set, or did you just fall in love with it when you saw it?
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    32
    Who?
    Says what?
    By what means?
    To whom?
  • Communication Model
    The role of emotion
    Coca-Cola Have a Coke smile
    Pepsi-Cola Get that Pepsi feeling
    General Motors Get that great GM feeling
    AT&T Reach out and touch someone
    Saab One car you can buy where your emotions arent compromised by your intellect
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    Who?
    Says what?
    By what means?
    To whom?
  • Communication Model
    The role of emotion
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    Who?
    Says what?
    By what means?
    To whom?
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    Message appeal
    Pleasure
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    Message appeal
    Arousal
    Vitality
    Liveliness
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    Message appeal
    Dominance
  • Communication Model
    Fear appeals as arousal
    Optimal range of tension
    Point of inflection where increasing tension activates anxiety > negative feelings
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    Advertising Psychology
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    Who?
    Says what?
    By what means?
    To whom?
    Audio-Visual
    Print
    Anxiety & Energy
    generation
    Energy generation
    Threshold
    No picture
    Picture
    Tension
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    Message appeal
    Fear
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    Message appeal
    Fear
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    Message appeal
    Fear
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    Message appeal
    Fear
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    Message appeal
    Fear
  • Communication model
    Humor appeal
    "Trying to figure out why something is funny is like dissecting a frog. You'll come up with answers, but the frog always dies. Mark Twain
    One of the most common techniques, but hard to realize
    The belief that humor can increase advertising effectiveness has led to its unprecedented popularity
    However, it can work for you or it can work against you!
    Peripheral cue - drawing attention to the ad
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    Who?
    Says what?
    By what means?
    To whom?
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    Message appeal
    Humor
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    Message appeal
    Humor
  • Communication Model
    Subliminal Messages
    the use of hidden or otherwise imperceptible stimuli to manipulate viewers or listeners to behave in ways they otherwise would not.
    The Vicary Eat Popcorn/Drink Coke Study
    Below threshold
    Subjective threshold
    Objective threshold
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    Who?
    Says what?
    By what means?
    To whom?
  • Communication Model
    Who?
    Says what?
    By what means?
    To whom?
  • Communication Model
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    Who?
    Says what?
    By what means?
    To whom?
  • Communication Model
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    50
    Who?
    Says what?
    By what means?
    To whom?
    1) Copy theme
    Surface level
    Text
    Different ads using the same kinds of techniques (characters, jingles)
    Underlying level
    Text
    Signification system structured around connatative signified
  • Communication Model
    1) Copy theme
    Use of figurative language and rhetorical devices
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    Who?
    Says what?
    By what means?
    To whom?
  • Communication Model
    2) Visual representations
    What visual images express can only be approximated by words, but never fully captured by them. Words represent an artificially imposed intellectual system removed from primal feeling; images plunge us into the depth of experience itself. (Barry, 75)
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    Who?
    Says what?
    By what means?
    To whom?
  • Communication Model
    2) Visual representations
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    Who?
    Says what?
    By what means?
    To whom?
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    Attracting attention
    Violating reality
  • Communication Model
    2) Visual representations
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    Who?
    Says what?
    By what means?
    To whom?
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    Attracting attention
    Visual Metaphor
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    Attracting attention
    Visual Metaphor
  • Communication Model
    2) Visual representations
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    Who?
    Says what?
    By what means?
    To whom?
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    Attracting attention
    Visual parodies
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    Attracting attention
    Visual parodies
  • Communication Model
    2) Visual representations
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    Who?
    Says what?
    By what means?
    To whom?
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    Attracting attention
    Direct eye gaze
  • Communication Model
    2) Visual representations
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    Who?
    Says what?
    By what means?
    To whom?
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    Eliciting Emotion
    Vertical camera Angle, Power, and Status
  • Communication Model
    2) Visual representations
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    Who?
    Says what?
    By what means?
    To whom?
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    Eliciting Emotion
    Looking down, Nurturance, Subservience
  • Communication Model
    3) Music
    Attention gaining value
    Ability to engage a listeners attention through speed and loudness
    Role in advertising attract and hold attention
    However, can be act as a distractive factor
    Message congruence
    The extent to which purely instrumental music conveys meanings (feelings, images, thoughts) that are congruent with those evoked by ad messages
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    Who?
    Says what?
    By what means?
    To whom?
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  • Communication Model
    Who?
    Says what?
    By what means?
    To whom?
  • Targeting Cultures
    Language
    Communication Style
    Symbols
    Cultural Values
    Communication Model
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    Who?
    Says what?
    By what means?
    To whom?
    Linguistics
    Cultural Suitability
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    Targeting Cultures
    Linguistics
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    Targeting Cultures
    Cultural Suitability
  • Targeting Cultures
    Language
    Communication Style
    Symbols
    Cultural Values
    Communication Model
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    Who?
    Says what?
    By what means?
    To whom?
    Explicit
    Implicit
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    Targeting Cultures
    Explicit
  • Targeting Cultures
    Language
    Communication Style
    Symbols
    Cultural Values
    Communication Model
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    Who?
    Says what?
    By what means?
    To whom?
    Colors
    Numbers
  • Colors and cultures
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  • Targeting Cultures
    Language
    Communication Style
    Symbols
    Cultural Values
    Communication Model
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    Who?
    Says what?
    By what means?
    To whom?
    Religion
    Individualism
    Masculinity
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    Targeting Cultures
    Religion
  • Communication Model
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    Targeting Cultures
    US Melting Point
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  • Targeting Generations
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    US
    I
    ALL
    Respond to:
    Themselves reflected in images
    Fierce sarcasm/ Imagination, Creativity
    Stupid / Smart Messages
    Deconstructed Paradigms
    Style
    Luxury Goods and Mass Market
    Respond to:
    Cues of achievement / Status / Heroes
    Iconic Authority
    Heroes / Trailbrazers
    The things that are earned
    Comfort
    Ive earned it luxury
    Perks
    Anti-Aging
    Respond to:
    New Ideas
    Companies with a Philosophy
    Multi-Sensory Experiences
    Multi Generational Models
    Fun / Learning
    Parents as their Heroes
    Interesting People
    Senses of Community
    GEN-X
    (24-35)
    BABY BOOMERS
    (36-54)
    GEN-Y
    (6-23)
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    Targeting Generations
    Baby Boomers
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    Targeting Generations
    Gen X
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    Targeting Generations
    Gen Y
  • Communication Model
    The consumer is not an idiot, shes your wife.
    - David Ogilvy
    I heard another one: Shes not an idiot, shes your boss!
    - David Lubars, BBDO West
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    Targeting Genders
  • Communication Model
    What do women want?
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    Targeting Genders
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    Individuality
    Respect
    Connection
    What Do Women Want?
    Relationship
    Stress Relief
  • 7/3/2009
    Advertising Psychology

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