Advanced Digital Black White Photography

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-Q ADVANCED BEARDSWORTH ADVANCED>>> PHOTOGRAPHY This book brings black-and-white photography into the digital age.Digitalcamerasmaycapturecolorimages,butmany photographersstill love the richtradition and unique graphic qualitiesofblack andwhite,andsensetheremustbemore to digitalmonochrome than simplythrowingawaythe color inPhotoshop.Whilemanybookscaterforbothambitious newcomersandadvanceddarkroomenthusiasts,blackand whiteistoooftentreated asanafterthought.It'srelegated to a few pages of outmoded techniques, never explaining the specialcharacteroftheblack-and-whiteimageandhowit canbe maximized and manipulated digitally. TakingfulladvantageofthelatestfeaturesinAdobe Photoshop (53, Advanced Digital Black &White Photography worksatthefrontierofblack-and-whitephotographyand digitalimaging. Youwilldiscoverthemostcreativewaysto convertyour picture to black and white, how to fine-tune the monochromeimage,andhowtoemphasizeyoursubject's qualities.Withbothquicksolutionstocommonproblems andflexible,non-destructivemethodsforfinercontrol,this bookwillenableyou toproducethefinest, mostexpressive black-and-white interpretations of yourpictures. ADVANCED AdvancedDigitalBlack&WhitePhotography LibraryofCongressCataloging-in-PublicationData Beardsworth,JohnDavid. Advanced digitalblack& whitephotography/JohnDavid Beardsworth.--1st ed. p.em. Includesindex. ISBN-13:978-1-60059-210-2(pb-withflaps'alk.paper) ISBN-lO:1-60059-210-4(pb-withflapsalk.paper) 1Photography-Digitaltechniques.2.Black-and-white photography.I Title.II.Title:Advanceddigitalblackandwhitephotography. TR267. B4352007 778.3-dc22 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1FirstEdition 2007015986 Published byLarkBooks,ADiviSion of SterlingPublishingCo ..Inc 387ParkAvenue South, New York, NY10016 TheIlexPresslimited2007 Thisbookwasconceived,designed,and producedby: ILEX,Lewes,England DistributedinCanadabySterlingPublishing, c/oCanadianManda Group,165DuffennStreet Toronto,Ontario,CanadaM6K 3H6 Thewritteninstructions,photographs,designs,patterns,and projectsinthis volumeareintendedforthepersonaluse ofthe readerand maybereproducedforthatpurposeonly.Anyother use,especiallycommercialuse,isforbiddenunderlawwithout writtenpermissionofthe publisher.Theworksrepresentedare the originalcreations ofthecontributingartists.Allartists retain copyrightson their individualworks,exceptasnoted. Everyefforthasbeenmadetoensurethatall theinformationin thisbookisaccurate.However,duetodifferingconditions,tools, and Individualskills,the publishercannotberesponsibleforany injuries,losses,andotherdamagesthatmayresultfromtheuse oftheinformationinthisbook.Becausespecificationsmaybe changedbythemanufacturerwithoutnotice,thecontentsofthis bookmaynotnecessarilyagreewithsoftwareandequipment changesmadeafterpublication. If you havequestionsorcomments aboutthisbook,please contact: LarkBooks 67Broadway Asheville,NC 28801 (828)253-0467 ManufacturedIn China Allrightsreserved ISBN 13:978-1-60059-210-2 ISBN10:1-60059-210-4 Todownloadexamplefilesfrom Advanced DigitalBlack &White Photography, goto: www.web-linked.com/adbwus Forinformationaboutcustomeditions,specialsales,premium andcorporatepurchases,pleasecontactSterlingSpecialSales Departmentat800-805-5489 or specialsales@sterlingpub.com. CONTENTS 6Introduction CameraWork: CapturingtheBlack-and-WhiteImage 12Black-and-whitemodes 14ShootRAWandincolor 16Whatworksinblackandwhite 18Toneandcontrast 20Digital black-and-whiteexposure 22Exposingtotheright 24Theshadows 26Drawntothebrightlights 28Increasingdynamicrange 30Coloredfilters:not forgotten 32Filtersfordigitalblackandwhite 34Digitalinfraredcapture TheDigitalDarkroom1: ConvertingtoBlackandWhite 40Destructivetechniques 44Calculations 46Thetoolsofthetrade 48TheChannelMixer 50"Filmandfilter" 52CS3BlackandWhite 54Paintingblackandwhite 56Black-and-whitepresets 58CameraRawandSmartObjects 62Convertingselectedimageareas 66Creativeconversion:People 70Creative conversion:Landscapes 72Tonalseparation .a&m74TheDigitalDarkroom2:132Solarization andtheSabattiereffect Fine-tuningthePhotograph 134Simulatinglith 76Settingthe blackandwhitepoints138Grainandnoise 78Overallbrightnessandcontrast140Simulatingfilmtypes 80FinecontrastcontrolI142Simulatingpinholecameraimages 82Addingcontrast selectively144Photorealisticlinedrawings 84Local contrast150Softfocus 86Creativeclipping .I 88Shadowsandhighlights Presentationandoutput 90Contactstrips 156Borders 92Dodgingandburning:Thetools I I 158Decorativeborders 94Adjustmentlayers I160Filmrebates 96Dodgingandburning:Landscapes 162Edgeburning 98Dodgingandburning:Portraits 164Flippingthe image 100Dodgingandburning:Reportage 166Printoroutputsharpening 102Generalsharpening 168Printers 104HighPass andSmartSharpening 170Neutralblackandwhite 106SelectiveSharpening I 172CMYKoutput 108Edgesharpening I 176Blackandwhiteinbulk .110CreativeEffects:182Outputfortheweb DigitalImageWorkflows 112Toning 114Split toning 116Duotones 118Ameasuredtone 120Classictones 122Calotypesandsalted paper prints186GlossaryandFurtherReading 124Handcoloring188Index 128Infraredeffects192Acknowledgments ma~------ -------- --INTRODUCTION Whenmy fatherheardI wasabouttobegin a second bookonblack-and-white photography, hethoughtbackafewyearstohissurpriseatseeingthefirstone.Afterall,hehadasked, doesn'teveryonewantcolornowadays? Justasthemovingpicture,evenwiththeadditionofsound,neversucceededin killingoffstillphotography,decadesofcolorhaven'tprovedfataltoblackandwhite.If anything,theymadeitseemmoredistinctiveasanartform,cruciallyseparatedfromthe worldofcolor.Artformsarenotnecessarilysweptawaybytechnologicalprogress,but accumulateandhappilycoexist.Infact,thearrivalofdigitalimagingseemstohavegiven yetanotherburstoflifeto black-and-white photography. Butthingsdomoveon,thoughts develop,needschange.Overa periodof justafewyears,digital captureofimageshasbecomeless the exceptionandmorethenorm, andtheneedisnolongerforhelp in makingone'swayfromthewet to thedigital darkroom.Wearein aperiodof reflection,andof maturingand establishing our digital photography skills. Thisbook'spurpose istooffer anup-to-date approachtoblackand-white digitalphotography whilestayingfirmlywithinitsrich tradition.Itisaimedatthe serious photographer,whetheryou're earningalivingfromyourwork orarean enthusiast whothinks carefullyaboutyourresults.All you'llneedisabasicfamiliarity withPhotos hopandthedesire tomoveforward. Thebook'sfirst sectionisabout thepicture-takingprocessand emphasizesshootingincolor,not usingyourcamera'sbuilt-inblackand-whitesettings.Aswellas keepingopentheoptiontoproduce bothcolorandmonoversionsof thesamescene,thebeststarting pointforatop-qualitydigitalblack-and-whitepictureisthewellcomposed,well-exposedRAW imagefile,withallitscolor informationintact.To paraphrase AnselAdams,thedigitalcolorfileis thescore,andtheblack-and-white imageisits performance. Thesecondpartlooksat convertingthosecolorfilesto black andwhite.Therearetoomany alternative techniquesto listhere, andsomearementionedmoreso youmayrecognizethemasold andobsolete when yousee them advocatedinwebforums,in recycledmagazinearticles,orby thecamera-clubbore.Placingthose methodsintheirhistoricalcontext meansyoucanthenappreciatethe 6ADVANCEDDIGITALBLACKANDWHITEPHOTOGRAPHY advantageof newertechniques thatfullyexploitthecolorimage's datatoproducethebestpossible black-and-white rendition. Thesection'skeyobjectiveis toshowwhereyoucanexercise creativecontrolduringtheblackand-white conversion.Onceyou start exploiting the colorimage's channeldata,thespecific choice ofconversionmethodbecomesa secondarymatter.Thisstepisless about overallimage contrast,which canberesolvedlater,andmuch moreabouthowacertain combinationofchannelvalues changesthepicture'sgrayscale tones-and whatthattellsthe vieweraboutitssubject. INTRODUCTION Theconversionstepisallabout tonalseparation,distributionof grayscaletones,andimage balance.Contrastisaseparate step,andisdiscussedinthethird section.Aswellascontrolling overallimagecontrast,youmay wantto lightenordarken,or "dodgeandburn"selectedareas, andapplysharpening.But,asatthe conversionstage,itisallverywell toknowthemodern,versatile equivalents ofthewetdarkroom's dodgingandburning.Onceyou knowwhatisachievable,thenitis mucheasiertounderstandwhy youmightdeploythosetechniques. The fourthpartofthebookshows anumberofmore creative effects. Nowadaysitishardtodrawany lineondigital manipulation,but herethelimitisbroadlythe canonoftraditionaldarkroom work.Toningliesfirmlywithin thatscope,asdoessimulating lithprints,solarization,orpinhole cameraeffects.Butoneor twoother techniques arealso included,suchas simulating infraredfilmphotographyand line art-nothing tooweirdor offbeat,however. Thefinalpartofthebookis aboutpresentationandoutput. Ablack-and-white imagecanbe damagedbyhighlightslyingclose the picture's edge,so thissection covers borders and techniques such asedge burning.Sharpening,for printorweb,iscovered,asare specializedblack-and-whiteinksand CMYKconversion.Thesectionalso addressessolutionsforoutputting entireshootsasblackandwhite-ApertureandLightroomarenow viablealternativestoPhotoshop for high-volumework. Some photographers onlywork inblackandwhite,othersonly withcolor,butdigitalphotography allowstherestofus tohave the bestofbothworlds.Ifthisbook achievesevenits smallest objective,itwillconvinceyou there'salotoflifeinblackand white.Why limit yourselftocolor? To downloadexampleversions of theimages in this book as layeredPSD files,check the URLonpage 4. BLACK AND WHITE MODES There'saveryobviouswaytomakeblack-and-whitepictureswithyourdigitalcamera: chooseitsblack-and-whitemode.Notalldigitalcamerashavesuchafeaturebutthe numberisincreasingallthetime,andit'snowunusualtoseeanewcameramodelthat shipswithoutmonochromesettings.Moresophisticatedoptions,likefilterandtoning presets,arealsobeingaddedandtheseprovidethephotographerwithanotherlevelof creativecontrol. Whilesuchoptionsareniceto have,theyshouldn'tbethe decisivefactorinyour choice ofanewcameraifyouwant toconcentrateonblackand white.Moreimportantarecore picture-taking featureslikethe ability tooverrideautomatic exposure settings,therangeof ISOsensitivity,andevenasmall, on-cameraflash.Theyare however useful if you needto deliver blackand-whiteversionsquickly,and theresultscan bevery good. THESACRIFICEOFCONVENIENCE Youcanmanageperfectlywell withoutthese built-inblack-andwhitemodes,andtherearesome prettygoodreasonswhy,atleast mostof thetime,youmight choosetoavoidthem. Onerelatesto fileformat.If youset your cameratoa blackand-white modeandsaveyour picturesinJPEG format,youare losingforeveralotof valuable imageinformation.Most enthusiastandallprofessionallevelcamerascansavepictures tothememorycardaseither RAW formatfilesoras JPEGs. RAW isthecamera manufacturer's proprietar file formatandcontains everybit of rawdatacapturedby thesensor,whileJPEGisa "lossy"formatthatisdesignedto minimizefilesize.Whileitcanbe readwith nospecialsoftware,and isready to print straightfromthe memory card,JPEG'ssmallfile sizecomes atthepriceof losing "unnecessary" imagedata. Sowhenyouchoosethe JPEG-onlyoptionand seta monochromemode,yourcamera processestherawdataand outputsablack-and-whiteJPEG, discarding allthemegabytesof color information.You cannever makeacolor printfromablackand-whiteJPEG.Whilesomemay bewilling toaccept thislossof versatility,thatdiscardedcolor informationisactuallyevenmore valuablethanyoumightatfirst think.Withit,youwouldalmost certainlyhavebeenableto produceabetterblack-and-white image later onyour computer.For the black-and-whitephotographer, that'saheavypriceindeed. 12CAMERAWORK-CAPTURINGTHEBLACKANDWHITEIMAGE Above:Settingyour camerato shootin blackandwhiteisgreatwhenyouare need tosend JPEGs toclients orfriends quickly. Buteventhoughthe JPEG+RAWoption doublesthenumber of filesyouhaveto manage,retainingtheRAWfile'colordata meansyouwillalwavsbeabletoproduce colorandblack-and-whiteversions. ModeOptions JPEGRecordsastandard8-bitimagefromvourcamera,defaulton man V compacts BlackandWhite JPEGProcessestheimageinthecameratoBlackandwhite, discardingallcolorinformation.Itislikelvtobe asimple conversion. RAW Raw+JPE Savesa16-bitcolorimagewithallpossibleimageinformation and additionalcamerasettingdetails Savesbothaprocessed JPEGforspeedandaRawfilewith allthedatadescribedabove. BlackandWhiteRawSavesallthe data ofan ordinaryRawincludingcolor,but displavs a simpleblackandwhiteconversionasapreviewItisstill allowsallthefinetuningpossiblefromastandardRaw. BLACKANDWHITEMODES13 SHOOT RW ANDIN COLOR Foralltheconvenienceofdigitalcameras'black-and-whitemodes,thebestchoicefor today'sblack-and-whiteenthusiastistoshootincolor.Theprincipleissimple:color images-andespeciallyRAWfiles-containthemaximumamountofinformation,sowhy limit yourselftoanyless?Neverthrow awayin camerawhatyoumightneedlater. Evenifyourarelymakecolorprints, there'sanobviousadvantageto keepingyouroptionsopensoyou canmakecolorormonoversions whenyou please.Ifyousetyour cameratoa black-and-white JPEGonlymode,that chanceisgone foreverbecauseno colorinformation issaved.The camera willprocess theimagevirtuallyinstantlyandsave only a grayscale imagetothecard. THEBENEFITSOFRAW Ifyou likeyourcamera'sblack-andwhitemode,try settingit totheRAW option. ARAW file contains all theraw data capturedby the sensor andis consequently much larger than a JPEG.You willstillseeablack-andwhiteimageon yourcamera'sscreen orwhenyou transfer the pictures to yourcomputer,butthisisonlya preview thumbnail that thecamera adds totheRAW file,alongwithone ormorelarger previews.All theraw dataremains inthefilesoyoucan process inmonoorcolor. 14CAMERAWORK- CAPTURINGTHEBLACKANDWHITEIMAGE Qualityiseverybitasimportant as flexibility,and thewaytoproduce thehighest qualityblack-and-white printis toshootincolor,usingRAW mode,andthenconvertthe picturein thedigitaldarroom. Wearenot talkingPhotoshopor computerwizardryhere.Itis vital to keepemphasizingthatthereisso Caption:Using the RAW option in your camera's black-and-white mode gives you a standard grayscalepreview image,concealing the color information. muchmoretotheartofblackand white thanturningdownthecolor saturationandmakingagrayscale image. Thesamecolorphotograph canhavemanyblack-and-white interpretations,allresultingfrom creative choicesmadewhenyou seethepictureonyourcomputer screenandexercisecontrolover howitisconvertedfromcolorto mono.Youmightdecide toapply cerain conversion settings because youlikehowtheyheightenthe contrast,ormoderate it;orhow they darkenthesky,lightenaskintone, orchange where the shadows and lightermidtonesaresituatedinthe frame.Somechoicesare deliberate, whileothersmaybeaccidental-at first-andhappento workoutwell. Notsurprisingly,alargepartofthis bookisdevotedtoshowingexactly howthatcanbedone. Byshooting incolor,orsavingin RAWformat,itisyouandnotthe camera'sdesignerwhocancontrol exactlyhowyourcolorimages look whenconvertedtoblackandwhite. Below:UsingRAW means biggerfiles andmorepostprocessingwork,buta singleadjustmentlayerinPhotoshop canalmostalwaysproducea better monochrome result than your camer...

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