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  • by André Duarte B. L. Ferreira

    July 2015

    Adopting Multifunctional Material Systems

  • André Duarte B. L. Ferreira Adopting Multifunctional Material Systems

    1. Introduction 2. State-of-the-art 3. Challenges 4. Methods 5. Future Work 6. Conclusions

    2

    3 min. 5 min. 1 min. 7 min. 0,5 min. 1 min. Total: 17,5min. Introduction

  • André Duarte B. L. Ferreira Adopting Multifunctional Material Systems

    Motivation 1. Introduction 2. State-of-the-art 3. Challenges 4. Methods 5. Future Work 6. Conclusions

    3

    [1] [2] [3] [4]

    [5] [6] [7]

  • André Duarte B. L. Ferreira Adopting Multifunctional Material Systems

    An Exponential Growth of Interest

    4

    1. Introduction 2. State-of-the-art 3. Challenges 4. Methods 5. Future Work 6. Conclusions

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    Year of Publication

    In March 2015, data from EngineeringVillage.com

  • André Duarte B. L. Ferreira Adopting Multifunctional Material Systems

    Definitions

    5

    a)

    b)

    1. Introduction 2. State-of-the-art 3. Challenges 4. Methods 5. Future Work 6. Conclusions

    *[8-11]

    * = adapted

  • André Duarte B. L. Ferreira Adopting Multifunctional Material Systems

    Definitions

    6

    1. Introduction 2. State-of-the-art 3. Challenges 4. Methods 5. Future Work 6. Conclusions Material System

    Material +

    Structure

    Each of these

    five can be

    multifunctional

    Multifunctional Material System

    StructureMaterial Composite

    Composite

    + Structure

  • André Duarte B. L. Ferreira Adopting Multifunctional Material Systems

    Definitions

    7

    Multiscale Composite

    (CF+CNT)/Epoxy

    Different fillers at different scale sizes

    Composite

    CF/Epoxy, (CF+GF)/Epoxy,

    reinforced concrete

    One or more fillers

    Molecular Composite /

    Hybrid Material

    Organic-inorganic

    hybrids, FGMs

    Different constituents at a

    molecular level

    Hierarchical Composite

    Many biological materials (bone,

    nacre, wood,…)

    Fillers at different scale sizes hierarchically

    organized

    1. Introduction 2. State-of-the-art 3. Challenges 4. Methods 5. Future Work 6. Conclusions

    System Sensor Actuator Control Processor

    Power

    generation and

    Storage

    Passive l

    Sensory l l

    Active l l

    Adaptive l l l

    Intelligent l l l l

    Autonomous l l l l l

  • André Duarte B. L. Ferreira Adopting Multifunctional Material Systems

    Functions

    8

    1. Introduction 2. State-of-the-art 3. Challenges 4. Methods 5. Future Work 6. Conclusions

    1. Autonomy o Self-healing/repairing; o Self-powered; o Self-monitoring/diagnostic/sensing; o Self-assembling;

    2. Highly tailorable properties; 3. Structural; 4. Active sound/vibration damping; 5. Actuation and ability to engage in shape-changing; 6. Electrical/Thermal Isolation/Conductivity; 7. Heating and cooling; 8. Electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding; 9. Radiation protection, including lightning strike; 10. Light emission;

    11. Energy storage; 12. Environmental: environmental remediation ability,

    recyclability and biodegradability; 13. Bio/human-related: bio-compatibility, non-toxic,

    able to change sensations related to the physical senses of human and other animals;

    14. Chemical reaction functions: as catalyst, selective permeation;

    15. Flame retardancy; 16. Information storage/processing capabilities; 17. Being able to be selectively functional: e.g. of

    energy absorbing plastics; 18. Levitation and movement inducing; 19. Intelligence.

    Functions/characteristics that future multifunctional composites ought to have:

  • André Duarte B. L. Ferreira Adopting Multifunctional Material Systems

    State-of-the-art

    9

    1. Introduction 2. State-of-the-art 3. Challenges 4. Methods 5. Future Work 6. Conclusions

    3min

  • André Duarte B. L. Ferreira Adopting Multifunctional Material Systems

    Carbon Nanomaterials

    10

    1. Introduction 2. State-of-the-art 3. Challenges 4. Methods 5. Future Work 6. Conclusions

    a) b) c) d)

    Main applications: sensing, actuation, improving several composites’ properties

    Graphene SWCNT MWCNT CNF

    *[12]

  • André Duarte B. L. Ferreira Adopting Multifunctional Material Systems

    Carbon Nanomaterials

    11

    1. Introduction 2. State-of-the-art 3. Challenges 4. Methods 5. Future Work 6. Conclusions

    ~ Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene

    Created with Granta CES Edupack v. 2015, data from [13,14]

  • André Duarte B. L. Ferreira Adopting Multifunctional Material Systems

    Carbon Nanomaterials

    12

    1. Introduction 2. State-of-the-art 3. Challenges 4. Methods 5. Future Work 6. Conclusions

    Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene

    Created with Granta CES Edupack v. 2015, data from [13,14]

  • André Duarte B. L. Ferreira Adopting Multifunctional Material Systems

    Carbon Nanomaterials

    13

    1. Introduction 2. State-of-the-art 3. Challenges 4. Methods 5. Future Work 6. Conclusions

    [15] adapted [16]

    *[17] *[18]

  • André Duarte B. L. Ferreira Adopting Multifunctional Material Systems

    Carbon Nanomaterials

    14

    1. Introduction 2. State-of-the-art 3. Challenges 4. Methods 5. Future Work 6. Conclusions

    [19] [20]

    *[21] *[22]

  • André Duarte B. L. Ferreira Adopting Multifunctional Material Systems

    Carbon Nanomaterials

    15

    1. Introduction 2. State-of-the-art 3. Challenges 4. Methods 5. Future Work 6. Conclusions

    [23]

    [24]

  • André Duarte B. L. Ferreira Adopting Multifunctional Material Systems

    Functionally Graded Materials

    16

    1. Introduction 2. State-of-the-art 3. Challenges 4. Methods 5. Future Work 6. Conclusions

    a) b)

    Main applications: Properties gradation, ?

    [25,26]

  • André Duarte B. L. Ferreira Adopting Multifunctional Material Systems

    Functionally Graded Materials

    17

    1. Introduction 2. State-of-the-art 3. Challenges 4. Methods 5. Future Work 6. Conclusions

    a) b1)

    b2)

    b3)

    b4)

    A BProperties

    FGM

    Traditional Composite

    Continuous/

    smooth

    grading

    Discrete

    grading

    No

    grading

    b1)-b4): [26]

  • André Duarte B. L. Ferreira Adopting Multifunctional Material Systems

    Piezoelectric Materials

    18

    1. Introduction 2. State-of-the-art 3. Challenges 4. Methods 5. Future Work 6. Conclusions

    Monolithic

    Thin films

    Wafers

    (Nano)fibers/wires

    Materials Structures

    Polycrystalline ceramic (PZT, PbTiO3, BaTiO3)

    Single crystals (SiO2, LiNbO3 , LiTaO)

    Polymeric (PVDF, co-polymer)

    Solid/hollow macro and active

    fiber composites

    (MFCs and AFCs) Main applications: sensing, actuation and

    energy harvesting

  • André Duarte B. L. Ferreira Adopting Multifunctional Material Systems

    Piezoelectric Materials

    19

    1. Introduction 2. State-of-the-art 3. Challenges 4. Methods 5. Future Work 6. Conclusions Adapted [28] [29]

    [30] *[31]

    *[32] [33] *[34]

  • André Duarte B. L. Ferreira Adopting Multifunctional Material Systems

    Shape Memory Materials

    20

    1. Introduction 2. State-of-the-art 3. Challenges 4. Methods 5. Future Work 6. Conclusions

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    SMP

    SMA

    SMC

    Main applications: •Actuation – a direct effect from the SME; •Magnetic sensitivity – by using ferromagnetic fillers; •Radiation sensitivity/opacity, namely RF, IR and UV – arise from the UV absorption properties of CNTs; •Electrical sensitivity/conductivity – by using electrically conducting fillers such as CNTs and carbon black; •Ability to change optical properties namely color and transparency; •Ability to change its water sensitivity/permeability – by changing the microstructure of the polymer; •High thermal conductivity – by using thermally conducting fillers as CNTs; •Self-healing; •With magnetic interference shielding – allowed by reinforcement with MWCNTs.

    In March 2015, data from EngineeringVillage.com

  • André Duarte B. L. Ferreira Adopting Multifunctional Material Systems

    Shape Memo

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