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    Stratified sample: randomly selectedsubsamples of different groups arerepresented in the total sample provideefficient, representative

    Cluster sample : researchers select asample of subgroups from which they drawrespondents

    Non-probability sample: sample that involvespersonal judgments somewhere in the selection

    Types of nonprobability samples: Convenience sample : selected from

    among readily available respondents Quota sample : sample that divided to

    maintain the proportion of certaincharacteristics among different segments orgroups as is seen in the population as awhole

    o Primary Research method Observation Method

    Researchers view the overt actions of the subjectsstudied, trying to understand how consumers

    behave in certain situations Example: traffic counts, Nielson television ratings

    Interpretative research Ethnographic Studies observational method developed by social

    anthropologists to explain behavior that operatesbelow conscious thought.

    It provides insights into consumer behaviour andthe ways in which consumers interact withbrands.

    Its conducted by observing customers in theirnatural setting, then interpreting their behaviourbased on social and cultural characteristics of thatsetting

    used domestically to look at consumerbehavior in a foreign country, where

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    language, ideals, values, and expectationsare subject to different influences.

    Focuses on understanding the meaning of aproduct or the consumption experience in a

    consumers life. Survey and Interview Method

    o Telephone interviews: quick and inexpensive method forobtaining a small quantity of relatively impersonalinformation.

    o Personal interviews: the interviewer can establish rapportand explain confusing or vague questions time-consumingand expensive.

    o Focus groups: brings together individuals in one location todiscuss a subject for an hour or two with a moderator tostimulate conversation and encourage interaction.

    o Mail surveys: a cost-effective alternative, providinganonymity that may encourage respondents to give candidanswers

    o Online surveys and other Internet-basedmethods

    Experimental Method o Controlled experiment: scientific investigation in which a

    researcher manipulates a test group and compares the resultswith those of a control group that did not receive theexperimental manipulation

    o Test marketing follow periods of information gathering or focus groups,

    so it would be the first stage at which a productperforms in a real-life environment.

    Disadvantages: expensive and labour-intensive operation. Some products arent suited to test marketing Competitors quickly learn about the new product

    and can develop competitive strategies. Conducting International Marketing Research

    o Follow same basic steps as for domestic marketing research

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    o Researchers must be aware of cultural and legalenvironments.

    o May have to adapt research methods to local conditionso Challenges of conducting international marketing research:

    Language issues Cultural issues Business environment

    Computer Technology in Marketing Research o Marketing Information System (MIS)

    A planned, computer-based system designed to providedecision makers with a continuous flow of informationrelevant to their areas of responsibility

    Marketers are able to store the data for later use,classify and analyze that data, and retrieve it easilywhen needed

    o Marketing Decision Support System (MDSS) Marketing information system component that links a

    decision maker with relevant databases and analysistools

    helps users quickly obtain and applyinformation as a foundation for decision making.

    Allows managers to connect such diverse changes. Major characteristics: it is interactive, investigative,

    flexible, and accessible. While the MIS provides raw data, the MDSS develops that data

    into useful information.o Data Mining

    Process of searching through customer databases todetect pattern that guide marketing decision making

    Focuses on identifying relationships that are not obviousto marketers

    Create customer profiles, pinpoint reasons forcustomer loyalty (or lack of loyalty), analyze thepotential returns on price and promotion changes,and forecast sales.

    Business Intelligence

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    Process of gathering information and analyzing itto improve business strategy, tactics, and dailyoperations.

    Competitive Intelligence

    Focuses on finding information about competitorsusing published sources, interviews, observationsby salespeople and suppliers in the industry, andother sources

    Marketers use the results to make betterdecisions that strengthen their own competitiveadvantage.

    Sales Forecasting o An estimate of a firms revenue for a specified future period o Forecasts play major roles in new-product development,

    production scheduling, financial planning, inventory planningand procurement, distribution, and human resource planning.

    o Types of sales forecasting methods Qualitative Forecasts: techniques that rely on

    subjective data rather than exact historical data Jury of executive opinion: assets the sales

    expectations of various executives

    Delphi technique: solicits opinions from severalpeople, but also gathers thoughts from expertsoutside the firm, such as academic researchers.

    Sales force composite: develops forecastsbased on the belief that organization membersclosest to the marketplace offer the best insightsconcerning short-term future sales.

    Survey of buyer intentions: gathers input fromvarious sources to determine the purchasingintentions of a representative group of presentand potential customers .

    Quantitative Forecasting Techniques: techniquesthat rely on statistical computations.

    Test markets

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    Trend analysis: develops sales forecasts byanalyzing the historical relationship between salesand time

    Exponential smoothing: sophisticated version

    of trend analysis, weighing each years sales dataand giving greater weight to results from mostrecent years.

    Each method has benefits and limitations; mostfirms rely on a combination of the two.