Activity 3 - Axial Skeleton

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<p>Activity #: Activity Title</p> <p>Activity 3:Axial SkeletonChapter 7 McKinley et al., Human Anatomy, 4e.Objectives:Observe and dissect a fresh long bone from a cowIdentify the cranial and facial bones and important bone markings on eachIdentify the vertebrae and other features of the vertebral column, and important bone markings on eachIdentify ribs and sternum, and important bone markings on each1Compilation: Kathryn Watson &amp; Claudia GonzalesLast Revision: Mohammad Tomaraei</p> <p>1</p> <p>Axial Skeleton (green) vs Appendicular Skeleton (yellow)2</p> <p>2</p> <p>Axial Skeleton vs Appendicular Skeleton (next activity)3Axial Skeleton forms the long axis of bodySkullVertebral columnThoracic cageAppendicular Skeleton appendages and what they attach toUpper limbs (arms)Pectoral girdle (shoulder)Lower limbs (legs)Pelvic girdle</p> <p>3</p> <p>Axial Skeleton (green)4</p> <p>4</p> <p>Axial Skeleton5</p> <p>5</p> <p>Sutures6Largest 4 skull sutures where cranial bones articulate with each otherCoronal sutureSagittal sutureSquamous sutureLambdoid suture</p> <p>6</p> <p>Sutures7</p> <p>7</p> <p>Sutures8</p> <p>8</p> <p>Paranasal Sinuses9Air-filled chambers named after the bone in which they are housedParanasal because they cluster around and connect to the nasal cavity</p> <p>9</p> <p>Fontanelles10Unossified remnants of membranesPresent at birthAnterior fontanelle is the largestCalled soft spotsOssify by 1 - 2 yearsContinue to ossify into adulthoodThe sutures can become fused inold age</p> <p>10</p> <p>Cranial and Facial Bones11Frontal boneSupraorbital foramen: supraorbital artery and nerve go through this foramenFrontal sinus: moistens airParietal bonesNasal bones</p> <p>11</p> <p>Cranial and Facial Bones12Frontal boneSupraorbital foramen: supraorbital artery and nerve go through this foramenFrontal sinus: moistens airParietal bonesNasal bones</p> <p>12</p> <p>Cranial and Facial Bones13</p> <p>13</p> <p>Cranial and Facial Bones14</p> <p>For labeled photographs of the human skeleton go to this website:</p> <p>http://homepage.smc.edu/wissmann_paul/bones/EBbonestutorial.html</p> <p>14</p> <p>Cranial and Facial Bones15Sphenoid bone:Greater wingLesser wingSella turcica: houses the pituitary glandOptic foramen / canal: contains the optic nerve (CN II)Foramen ovale: contains the mandibular branch of the trigeminal nerve (CN V)Foramen rotundum: contains the maxillary branch of the trigeminal nerve (CN V)Foramen spinosum: contains the middle meningeal vesselsForamen lacerum</p> <p>15</p> <p>Cranial and Facial Bones16Sphenoid bone:Superior orbital fissure: contains CN III, the ophthalmic branch of CN V, and CN VIInferior orbital fissure: contains the maxillary branch of CN VSphenoidal sinus: moistens airLateral and medial platesPterygoid plates</p> <p>16</p> <p>Sphenoid Bone17</p> <p>17</p> <p>Cranial and Facial Bones18Ethmoid bone:Perpendicular plate: superior part of the nasal septumSuperior and middle nasal concha(e): increase surface area for warming and filtering airCribriform plate and foramina: passageway for olfactory nervesCrista galli: attachment site for dura mater to skull</p> <p>18</p> <p>Ethmoid Bone19</p> <p>19</p> <p>Cranial and Facial Bones20Inferior nasal conchae bonesLacrimal bone:Lacrimal grooveZygomatic bone:Temporal process of zygomatic bone: forms anterior portion of the zygomatic arch (cheekbone)Maxilla:Infraorbital foramen: passageway to infraorbital artery and maxillary branch of CN VAlveolar processes: contain upper teethPalatine processes: form anterior portion of hard plateIncisive foramen (fossa): passageway to branches of nasopalatine nerve from CN V</p> <p>20</p> <p>Cranial and Facial Bones21</p> <p>21</p> <p>Maxilla22</p> <p>22</p> <p>Cranial and Facial Bones23Mandible:BodyRamusAlveolar processes: contain lower teethAngleMental foramen: passageway for the mandibular branch of CN V and blood vesselsCoroNOID process: insertion point of the temporalis muscleMandibular condyle or condylar process: forms a joint with the mandibular fossa of the temporal boneMandibular notch</p> <p>23</p> <p>Mandible24</p> <p>24</p> <p>Cranial and Facial Bones25Temporal bone:Zygomatic process of temporal bone: forms the posterior portion of the zygomatic arch (cheekbone)Squamous region: squamous means flat flat part of the boneStyloid process: attachment for hyoid and tongue musclesMastoid process: insertion for sternocleidomastoid muscleExternal auditory / acoustic meatus: opening of auditory canalPetrous part: petrous means rockInternal auditory / acoustic meatus: passageway for CN VII and CN VIII nerves, and blood vessels to inner earJugular foramen: passageway for internal jugular vein, CN IX, CN X, and CN XI nervesCarotid canal: passageway for internal carotid arteryMandibular fossa: forms a joint with mandibular condyle of mandible</p> <p>25</p> <p>Temporal Bone26</p> <p>26</p> <p>Cranial and Facial Bones27Occipital bone:Foramen magnum: passageway for spinal cord, vertebral arteries, and CN XI nerveHypoglossal canal: passageway for CN XII (hypoglossal) nerveExternal occipital protuberance and crest: attachment site for neck / back musclesOccipital condyles: articulate with C1 (atlas)</p> <p>27</p> <p>Cranial and Facial Bones28</p> <p>28</p> <p>Cranial and Facial Bones29</p> <p>29</p> <p>Cranial and Facial Bones30</p> <p>30</p> <p>Cranial and Facial Bones31</p> <p>31</p> <p>Cranial and Facial Bones32Palatine bone:Horizontal plates: form posterior portion of the hard palateVomer: forms the inferior part of the nasal septum</p> <p>32</p> <p>Cranial and Facial Bones33</p> <p>33</p> <p>Cranial and Facial Bones34</p> <p>34</p> <p>Cranial and Facial Bones35</p> <p>35</p> <p>Skull = Cranial Bones + Facial Bones36Cranial bones Frontal boneParietal bones (paired)Sphenoid boneEthmoid boneTemporal bones (paired)Occipital boneFacial bonesNasal (paired)Inferior nasal conchae (paired)Lacrimal (paired)Zygomatics (paired)Maxillae (paired)MandiblePalatines (paired)Vomer</p> <p>36</p> <p>Cranial Bones37</p> <p>parietalparietalfrontaltemporalparietal</p> <p>occipital_________sphenoid_______ ethmoidoccipital</p> <p>37</p> <p>Vertebrae38Typical vertebrae (32):Lamina: connects transverse process to spinous processPedicle: connects body to transverse processTransverse process: process directed laterallySpinous process: process directed posteriorlySuperior and inferior articular processes: form joints between adjacent vertebraeVertebral foramen: contains spinal cordBody: largest part of the vertebraIntervertebral foramen: formed when 2 vertebrae come together; contains spinal nervesIntervertebral disc (not a bone): fibrocartilage found between adjacent vertebral bodies</p> <p>38</p> <p>Vertebrae39</p> <p>39</p> <p>Vertebrae40Cervical vertebrae (7) have bifurcated spinous processesTransverse foramen: cervical vertebrae have transverse foramen which contains the vertebral arteriesAtlas (C1):Arch: contains articulation point for dens of C2 (axis)Body: C1 has no body it has become the dens of axisAxis (C2):Body: has odontoid process (dens)Odontoid process (dens): fused body of C1 (atlas); articulates with atlasVertebra prominens (C7):Spinous process: very large and easily felt under the skin</p> <p>40</p> <p>Cervical Vertebrae41</p> <p>41</p> <p>C1, C2, and C742</p> <p>42</p> <p>Vertebrae43Thoracic vertebrae (12):Transverse process: on thoracic vertebrae, transverse processes contain costal facets for articulation with angle of a ribLumbar vertebrae (5)Sacrum (5 bones fused):Anterior sacral foramina: contain ventral rami of the sacral spinal nervesPosterior sacral foramina: contain dorsal rami of the sacral spinal nervesMedian sacral crest: represents fused spinous processes of sacral vertebraeAuricular surfaces: ear-like processes, articulate with the iliac bonesSuperior articular processes: articulate with inferior articular processes of L5Coccyx (2-3 bones fused):Cornu or horns: small horns that point superiorly</p> <p>43</p> <p>Thoracic Vertebrae44</p> <p>44</p> <p>Lumbar Vertebrae45</p> <p>45</p> <p>Sacrum and Coccyx46</p> <p>46</p> <p>Sternum and Ribs47Sternum:Manubrium (top):Sternal or jugular notchSternal angle: division between manubrium and bodyClavicular notch: articulates with claviclesCostal notch: articulates with ribsBodyCostal notches: articulates with ribsXiphoid process (bottom): xiphoid means shaped like a sword</p> <p>47</p> <p>Sternum48</p> <p>48</p> <p>Sternum and Ribs49Ribs:True ribs (1-7):Head (capitulum)NeckTubercleAngleCostal grooveShaft (body)False ribs (8-12)Floating ribs (11-12)</p> <p>49</p> <p>Ribs50</p> <p>50</p>