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  • Activated Sludge Bioselector Processes

    Source: 1987 Annual Report, Davenport Wastewater Treatment Facility, Davenport, Iowa. (Used with permission)

    History Benefits Arrangement Design Experiences Troubleshooting Research Needs

    Orris E. AlbertsonEnviro Enterprises, Inc.

    LaBarge, WY

    May 2005

  • TABLE OF CONTENTS

    LIST OF TABLES............................................................................................................. iLIST OF FIGURES .........................................................................................................iiiDEFINITIONS/ACRONYMS.......................................................................................... vEXECUTIVE SUMMARY .......................................................................................... E-1

    1.0 PROCESS DESCRIPTION ...............................................................................1-11.1 Definitions/Objectives ...........................................................................1-11.2 History of Bioselector Development .....................................................1-31.3 Theory of Bioselection.........................................................................1-121.4 Filamentous vs. Non-filamentous Bulking ..........................................1-151.5 Measurement of the Sludge Volume Index .........................................1-201.6 Dilute Sludge Volume Index Procedure ..............................................1-261.7 Conversion of uSVI to DSVI or SSVI.................................................1-28

    2.0 BENEFITS OF BIOSELECTION .....................................................................2-1

    3.0 GENERAL DESIGN ARRANGEMENT OF BIOSELECTORS .....................3-13.1 F/M Cascade Design ..............................................................................3-13.2 Contact Loading Analysis....................................................................3-113.3 Sludge Age...........................................................................................3-123.4 Design Features....................................................................................3-16

    4.0 TYPES OR DESIGNS OF BIOSELECTORS ..................................................4-14.1 Aerated, High DO Bioselectors (SXAH).................................................4-74.2 Aerated, Low DO Bioselectors (SXAL)................................................4-124.3 Anoxic Bioselectors (SXAXM).............................................................4-184.4 Anaerobic Bioselectors(SXANM).........................................................4-12

    5.0 PROCESS EXPERIENCES WITH BIOSELECTORS.....................................5-15.1 Davenport, IA Aerated, Low DO (SXAL) and Anoxic (SXAXM)........5-15.2 Columbus Southerly, OH Aerated, Low DO (SXAL)..........................5-35.3 Columbus Jackson Pike, OH Aerated, Low DO (SXAL) ....................5-95.4 Santa Fe, NM Aerated, Low DO (SXAL) ..........................................5-135.5 Gig Harbor, WA Aerated, Low DO (SXAL) .....................................5-165.6 Phoenix 23rd Ave, AZ Anoxic, Aerated, Low DO (SXAXAL)...........5-185.7 Phoenix 91st Ave, AZ Anoxic, Aerated, Low DO (SXAXAL) ...........5-245.8 Tri City, Clackamas County, OR Anaerobic (SXANM)

    and Anoxic (SXAXM and SXAXAL)......................................................5-285.9 Upper Occoquan Sewage Authority, VA

    Aerated, High DO (SXAH) ...................................................................5-335.10 Hamilton, OH Anoxic (SXAXAL and SXAXM) .................................5-365.11 Middletown, OH Anaerobic (SXANM) .............................................5-385.12 Star Valley Cheese Coop, Thayne, WY Anaerobic (SXANM)..........5-39

  • 5.13 Tree Top, Selah, WAAnaerobic (SXANM) andAerated, High DO (SXAH) ...................................................................5-39

    5.14 Fibra, America, Brazil Anaerobic (SXANM).....................................5-40

    6.0 TROUBLESHOOTING BIOSELECTORS ......................................................6-16.1 Low F/M in the ICZ...............................................................................6-26.2 High F/M in the ICZ ..............................................................................6-46.3 Air Rate to the Bioselectors ...................................................................6-56.4 Limited Oxygenation Capacity in the Oxic Zones ................................6-66.5 Secondary Bulking (Oxic Zone) ............................................................6-66.6 A Very Low SVI High Turbidity........................................................6-76.7 Toxic/Inhibitory Compounds.................................................................6-76.8 Limited Nitrogen and Phosphorus Supply/Availability.........................6-86.9 Soluble Organics Breakthrough.............................................................6-86.10 Summary Comments..............................................................................6-9

    7.0 RESEARCH NEEDS......................................................................................... 7.17.1 General Introductory Comments............................................................ 7.27.2 Research Target ..................................................................................... 7.47.3 Recommended Areas of Research ......................................................... 7.4

  • i

    List of Tables

    1.1 Activated Sludge Solids-Liquid Separation Problems............................................... 1-2

    1.2 Comparison of Elements of Early Anaerobic/Aerobic Bioselector Processes ........ 1-12

    1.3 Probable Causes of Hydrous Sludge Bulking and Filamentous Bulking ................ 1-16

    1.4 Major Occurrences of Viscous/Hydrous Bulking.................................................... 1-19

    2.1 Benefits of Bulking Control by Bioselection............................................................. 2-3

    2.2 Effectiveness of Bioselectors in Controlling Filamentous Organisms .................... 2-10

    3.1 General Design Guidelines for Bioselector Sizing

    (after Albertson 1987,1992, 1994)............................................................................. 3-6

    3.2 Prior Art Batch and Continuous Flow Experience with Bulking Sludge Control

    Concepts and the DO and BOD5 Mass Loading in the ICZ ...................................... 3-7

    3.3 Summary of the Design and Operation of Bioselectors

    by Daigger and Nicholson (1990).............................................................................. 3-8

    3.4 Summary of the Design and Operation of Bioselectors

    by Marten and Daigger (1997)................................................................................... 3-9

    3.5 Calculation of Baffle Wall Height ........................................................................... 3-19

    4.1 Characteristics of Initial Contact Zone of Bioselectors ............................................. 4-3

    4.2 Design FS/M Criteria for Anoxic (SXAXAL or SXAXM) Bioselectors

    to Account for Daily Peaking Factors........................................................................ 4-4

    4.3 Wastewater Characteristics Used in an Equation

    to Establish Criteria for the Bioselector Design ........................................................ 4-5

    4.4 Technical Parameters and Results of the Bioselector Activated Sludge Process

    in the Leopoldsdorf Sugar Mill Obtained During the Campaign in 1984 (Kroiss) ... 4-9

    4.5 Design Recommendations Aerated, High DO (SXAH) Bioselectors........................ 4-11

    4.6 Results of 1973a Chudoba Laboratory Staged Aeration Studies............................. 4-12

    4.7 Design Recommendations for Aerated SXAL and SXAXAL Bioselectors................. 4-18

    4.8 Design Recommendations for Mechanically Mixed Anoxic

    (SXAXM) Bioselectors.............................................................................................. 4-21

    4.9 Deer Island, Boston, MA, Pilot Study Results ........................................................ 4-24

    4.10 Phase 3 Secondary Treatment Performance at Deer Island WWTP........................ 4-26

  • ii

    4.11 Design Recommendations for Three-Stage Anaerobic (SXANM) Bioselectors....... 4-30

    5.1 Summary of the Columbus, OH Southerly Operating Results .................................. 5-8

    5.2 Summary of the Columbus, OH Jackson Pike Operating Results ........................... 5-12

    5.3 Summary of the Santa Fe, NM Operating Results................................................... 5-15

    5.4 Summary of the Gig Harbor, WA Operating Results .............................................. 5-19

    5.5 Prototype NdeN Performance Data, Monthly Average, Phoenix 91st Ave.............. 5-29

  • iii

    List of Figures

    1.1 Davidsons Anaerobic-Aerobic Bulking Sludge Control Process .....................1-5

    1.2 Relationship of SVI and sCOD in First Compartment of Reactors ...................1-6

    1.3 1974 Heide and Pasveer Flowsheet: Bulking Control and TN Removal...........1-8

    1.4 1975 The Five Stage Phoredox Process (Modified Bardenpho)........................1-9

    1.5 NdeN Process Flowsheets of Ludzak-Ettinger, Drews and Barnard ...............1-10

    1.6 Three and Five Stage UCT NdeN Processes ...................................................1-11

    1.7 General Response of Activated Sludge to ICZ Food/Mass Ratio....................1-18

    1.8 SVI vs Initial MLSS @ SSVI 80-85 mL/g ......................................................1-21

    1.9 Settling Tests for SVI Settlometer ................................................................1-24

    1.10 Settling Tests for SVI Graduated Cylinder...................................................1-25

    1.11 Calculated DSVI from SVI Employing Merkels (1971) SVI to DSVI

    Equation ...........................................................................................................1-30

    2.1 The Effect of Extended Filament Length on the MLSS SVI (Palm et al.)........2-2

    2.2 Secondary Clarifier Operation Diagram SSVI3.5 ...................................................................... 2-4

    2.3 Secondary Clarifier Operating Diagram DSVI...............................................2-6

    2.4 Secondary Clarifier Operating Diagram SVI (uSVI)......................................2-7

    2.5 Secondary Clarifier Operation Diagram DSVI...............................................2-8

    3.1 Semi-Aerobic Process for Bulking Control and Nutrient Removal...................3-2

    3.2 General Arrangement of Bioselectors in U.S. Facilities....................................3-4

    3.3 Guideline of the Design/Operable Contact Loading in ICZ ............................3-13

    3.4 Controlling the Contact Loading with Internal Recycle ..................................3-14

    3.4.1 Relationship between Biomass Retention Time, SRT, and Occurrence of

    Filamentous Microorganisms (after Wanner, 1994)........................................3-15

    3.5 Design of Submergence Depth and Baffle Wall Arrangement........................3-17

    3.6 Scum-Free Bioselector Zones with Submerged Baffle Walls .........................3-18

    4.1 Effect of ICZ F/M on SVI of MLSS (after Chudoba et al., 1973a 1973b)......4-14

    4.2 Relation between SVI and Theoretical Sludge Loading (MLSS = 3.5 g/l)

    in the First Aeration Compartment of Plants Included in the Survey

    (after Tomlinson, 1976) ...................................................................................4-16

  • iv

    4.3 Relationship between SVI and Phosphorus to Organic MLSS Ratio ..............4-29

    5.1 Davenport, IA Wastewater Treatment Facility Annual Report, 1987 ............5-2

    5.2 Davenport, IA Historical SVI Data.................................................................5-4

    5.3 Columbus, OH, Southerly General Process Concept/Semi-Aerobic ..............5-6

    5.4 Columbus, OH, Southerly Results ..................................................................5-7

    5.5 Columbus, OH Jackson Pike Modified Aeration Basins

    with SXAL Bioselectors ....................................................................................5-10

    5.6 Columbus, OH Jackson Pike Results............................................................5-11

    5.7 Santa Fe, NM Aerated Anoxic Bioselector Modifications (16.5 ft WD) .....5-14

    5.8 Gig Harbor, WA Bioselectors in a Contact-Stabilization Process................5-17

    5.9 Phoenix 23rd Ave. Modified Aeration Basin with Bioselection ...................5-21

    5.10 Phoenix 23rd Ave. Flow, SVI and MLSS......................................................5-22

    5.11 Phoenix 23rd Ave. Bi-weekly Range and Average DSVI .............................5-23

    5.12 Phoenix 91st Ave. Bioselector in the NdeN Aeration Basins........................5-26

    5.13 Phoenix 91st Ave. NdeN Demonstration Data ..............................................5-27

    5.14 Tri-City, OR Configuration of Anoxic Selector System

    (Daigger and Nicholson, 1990)........................................................................5-31

    5.15 Tri-City, OR Performance of an Anoxic Selector

    Daigger and Nicholson, 1990) .........................................................................5-32

    5.16 UOSA, VA Aeration Basin and Selector System

    (Daigger and Nicholson, 1990)........................................................................5-34

    5.17 UOSA, VA Effect of Selector Operation on SVI

    (Daigger and Nicholson, 1990)........................................................................5-35

    5.18 Hamilton, OH Monthly Average SVI...........................................................5-37

    5.19 Fibra, Brazil Sludge Volume Index Control .................................................5-42

    6.1 True Nature of Hydrous (Viscous) Bulking Organisms ....................................6-3

  • v

    Definitions of Acronyms

    alpha F - a characteristic of wastewater, ratio of oxygen transfer to wastewater vs.

    clean water

    AN - non-selector anaerobic zone for Bio-P removal

    AX - non-selector anoxic denitrification zone for nitrate removal

    AOTR - actual oxygen transfer rates, mg/Lhr, kg/hr

    Bio-P - biological removal of phosphorus by a specialized group of organisms.

    BOD5 - five-day biochemical oxygen demand, mg/L, kg/d

    C - Fteley and Stearns submerged weir coefficient, Table 3.2

    C-S - contact-stabilization activated sludge process

    CBOD5 - five-day inhibited biochemical oxygen demand, mg/L, kg/d

    CL - contact loading, mg sCOD/g TSS (RSS + IR MLSS)

    COD - chemical oxygen demand, mg/L, kg/d

    CMAS - complete mix activated sludge process

    DF - dilution factor for DSVI test procedure

    DO - dissolved oxygen, mg/L

    DSVI - see SVI

    ECP - exo-cellular protoplasm, sometimes improperly generalized as

    polysaccharides unless specifically identified as polysaccharides

    F/M - food (COD, BOD5)/mass, kg COD/kg MLSSd, kg BOD5/kg MLSSd

    F/M - food/ sum of the mass, kg/kgd

    FS/M - soluble food/mass, kg sCOD/kg MLSSd, kg sBOD5/kg MLSSd

    IR - internal recycle flow...

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