ACE Personal Trainer Manual 5 th Edition Chapter 8: Physiological Assessments Lesson 8.3

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  • Slide 1
  • ACE Personal Trainer Manual 5 th Edition Chapter 8: Physiological Assessments Lesson 8.3
  • Slide 2
  • 2014 ACE After completing this session, you will be able to: Discuss, demonstrate, and evaluate the results of each muscular- endurance assessment: push-up test, curl-up test, and body- weight squat test Discuss, demonstrate, and evaluate the results of the various assessments for muscular strength, and the appropriateness of each: 1-RM bench-press test, 1-RM leg-press test, and 1-RM squat test Discuss the special considerations for 1-RM testing as well as the appropriate strength ratios for various muscle groups Discuss and demonstrate the various sport-skill assessments, and the appropriateness of each: standing long jump, vertical jump test, pro agility test, and the 40-yard dash Identify the various causes that contribute to the inaccuracy of fitness testing LEARNING OBJECTIVES
  • Slide 3
  • 2014 ACE Muscular fitness encompasses both muscular endurance and muscular strength Health-related benefits of muscular fitness: Enhances the ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL) Increases self-esteem and a sense of independence Provides for musculoskeletal integrity Reduces common injuries Enhances or maintains fat-free mass and positively impacts resting metabolic rate (RMR) Guards against osteoporosis Enhances glucose tolerance Protects against type 2 diabetes Reduces the cardiovascular response to resistance-type activities MUSCULAR-FITNESS TESTING
  • Slide 4
  • 2014 ACE Assesses the ability of a specific muscle group, or groups, to perform repeated or sustained contractions to sufficiently invoke muscular fatigue: Simple to administer Little or no equipment Does not require advanced training Consider the following for muscle-endurance testing: Ensure proper form and posture is maintained with each repetition Ensure no low-back pain or other orthopedic issues Any pain merits immediate termination of the test and referral to a more qualified professional MUSCULAR-ENDURANCE TESTING
  • Slide 5
  • 2014 ACE Measures upper-body endurance: The client completes as many repetitions as possible before reaching fatigue. Women should perform the modified push-up due to variations in strength between genders. PUSH-UP TEST
  • Slide 6
  • 2014 ACE Measures abdominal strength and endurance: The client completes as many repetitions as possible before reaching fatigue. Easy and inexpensive Most clients will be able to perform a curl-up. CURL-UP TEST
  • Slide 7
  • 2014 ACE Assesses muscular endurance of the lower extremity when performing repetitions of a squat Also used to gauge improvements in lower- extremity muscular endurance Only suitable for those who demonstrate proper squat form BODY-WEIGHT SQUAT TEST
  • Slide 8
  • 2014 ACE Determines muscular fitness Identifies areas of weakness or imbalances Monitors rehabilitation progress Assess training effectiveness Absolute strength the greatest amount of weight that can be lifted one time Known as a one-repetition maximum (1- RM) Relative strength the maximum force a person can exert in relation to his or her body weight Relative strength = Absolute strength/Body weight MUSCULAR-STRENGTH TESTING
  • Slide 9
  • 2014 ACE Proper form and control is critical: Novice exercisers may not have the skill to handle heavier free weights Breathe properly: Avoid the Valsalva maneuver or holding the breath Avoid 1-RM testing if individuals have: Hypertension A history of vascular disease Beginning exercisers are often unsure of their abilities and tend to quit before their true maximum. CONSIDERATIONS FOR 1-RM TESTING
  • Slide 10
  • 2014 ACE Assesses fundamental upper-extremity strength Only suitable for individuals who: Can demonstrate proper bench press form Do not have a history of shoulder problems 1-RM BENCH-PRESS TEST
  • Slide 11
  • 2014 ACE Assesses lower-extremity strength Stable and supported movement Only suitable for individuals who: Can demonstrate proper leg press form Do not have low-back or knee pain 1-RM LEG-PRESS TEST
  • Slide 12
  • 2014 ACE Assesses lower-extremity strength Unsupported and functional movement Only suitable for individuals who: Can demonstrate proper form when performing a squat Do not have low-back or knee pain 1-RM SQUAT TEST
  • Slide 13
  • 2014 ACE Assessments can also determine: Left-to-right muscle balance Appropriate ratios of agonist to antagonist muscle strength Muscle imbalances occur from: Improper training Overuse of one side of the body (e.g., tennis serves or golf swings) Structural imbalances caused by injury, poor posture, or body mechanics Muscle balance is essential to prevent injury, enhance sports performance, and avoid chronic conditions later in life. STRENGTH TESTING
  • Slide 14
  • 2014 ACE APPROPRIATE STRENGTH RATIOS
  • Slide 15
  • 2014 ACE Dynamic or even ballistic movements Rapid phases of acceleration and deceleration Balance Power (anaerobic power and capacity) Speed Agility Reactivity Coordination Appropriateness of the assessments must be determined in advance due to the significant stress throughout the kinetic chain. SPORT-SKILL ASSESSMENTS
  • Slide 16
  • 2014 ACE Field tests that assess power measure how fast the body can move in a short time period: Anaerobic power a single repetition or event; represents the maximal amount of power the body can generate Power is also sport- or activity-specific POWER TESTING: FIELD TESTS
  • Slide 17
  • 2014 ACE Assesses explosive leg power: Simple to administer Does not require much time or equipment STANDING LONG JUMP TEST
  • Slide 18
  • 2014 ACE Assesses the vertical jump height: Very simple Quick to administer Appropriate for athletes whose sport requires skill and power in jumping VERTICAL JUMP TEST
  • Slide 19
  • 2014 ACE Speed and agility tests: Require maximal effort while assessing speed and quickness Are useful in predicting athletic potential Require swift limb movement and proper technique SPEED, AGILITY, AND QUICKNESS TESTING
  • Slide 20
  • 2014 ACE Measures the ability to accelerate, decelerate, change direction, and then accelerate again: Quick and simple to administer Sometimes called the 20-yard agility test or 5-10-5 shuttle run PRO AGILITY TEST
  • Slide 21
  • 2014 ACE Determines acceleration and speed: Simple to administer Does not require much time or equipment 40-YARD DASH
  • Slide 22
  • 2014 ACE FITNESS TEST INACCURACY
  • Slide 23
  • 2014 ACE Assessment information is important for goal setting, determining health risks, and even in helping to establish rapport with the client. When conducted properly, assessments for muscular endurance and strength, and power, speed, agility, and quickness can provide valuable fitness and performance information for the trainer to use in exercise program planning and implementation. Not all tests are suitable for all populations. It is up to the trainer to decide the timing and most appropriate battery of tests for each individual client. Additionally, various causes may contribute to the inaccuracy of a fitness test, including the client, the technician, the equipment, or the environment. Periodic reassessments are also important to gauge progress and continue to foster the clienttrainer relationship. SUMMARY